Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh (English: /ˌɑːndrə prəˈdɛʃ/,[11] Telugu: [ãːndʱrɐ prɐdeːʃ] (listen) abbr. AP) is a state in the southern coastal region of India.[12] It is the seventh-largest state by area covering an area of 162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi) [2] and tenth-most-populous state, with 49,577,103 [1] inhabitants.[13][14] It is bordered by Telangana to the north-west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Odisha to the north-east, Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east.[15] It has the second longest coastline in India after Gujarat, of about 974 km (605 mi).[16] Andhra State was the first state to be formed on a linguistic basis in India on 1 October 1953.[17] On 1 November 1956, Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking areas (ten districts) of Hyderabad State to form United Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, these merged areas of Hyderabad State were bifurcated from United Andhra Pradesh to form the new state Telangana.[18] The present form of Andhra is same as Andhra state, except Bhadrachalam town and few nearby villages continue in Telangana. Amaravati serves as the capital of the state with the largest city being Visakhapatnam.[19]

Andhra Pradesh
Talakona forest, Tirupati.jpg
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Etymology: State of Andhras
"Kohinoor of India"
Satyameva Jayate (Truth alone triumphs)
Anthem: Maa Telugu Thalliki (To Our Mother Telugu)
The map of India showing Andhra Pradesh
Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Coordinates: 14°54′11″N 79°05′24″E / 14.903°N 79.090°E / 14.903; 79.090
Country India
RegionSouth India
Before wasUnited Andhra Pradesh
Bifurcation2 June 2014
(as a state)
1 November 1956[3][4]
Largest cityVisakhapatnam
Largest metroAndhra Pradesh Capital Region
 • BodyGovernment of Andhra Pradesh
 • GovernorS. Abdul Nazeer[5]
 • Chief ministerY. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy (YSRCP)
State LegislatureBicameral
 • CouncilAndhra Pradesh Legislative Council (58 seats)
 • AssemblyAndhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly (175 seats)
National ParliamentParliament of India
 • Rajya Sabha11 seats
 • Lok Sabha25 seats
High CourtAndhra Pradesh High Court
 • Total162,975 km2 (62,925 sq mi)
 • Rank7th
269 m (883 ft)
Highest elevation1,680 m (5,510 ft)
Lowest elevation−1 m (−3 ft)
 • TotalNeutral increase 49,577,103 [1][2]
 • Rank10th
 • Density304/km2 (790/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
Demonym(s)Andhrulu, Teluguvaaru
 • OfficialTelugu
 • Additional officialUrdu[6][7]
 • Official scriptTelugu script, Abjad
 • Total (2020-2021)Increase8.84 trillion (US$110 billion) (NSDP)
 • Rank8th
 • Per capitaIncrease170,215 (US$2,100) (16th)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-AP
Vehicle registrationAP
HDI (2018)Neutral increase 0.649 Medium (27th)
Literacy (2011)Increase 67.02% (31st)
Sex ratio (2011)993/1000 (20th)
Symbols of Andhra Pradesh
Emblem of Andhra Pradesh.svg
SongMaa Telugu Thalliki (To Our Mother Telugu)
Foundation dayAndhra Pradesh Day
BirdRose-ringed parakeet[10]
State highway mark
SH IN-AP.png
State highway of Andhra Pradesh
AP SH1 - AP SH240
List of Indian state symbols

Andhra Pradesh was once a major Buddhist pilgrimage site in the country and a Buddhist learning center which can be seen in many sites in the state in the form of monastery ruins, chaityas, and stupas.[20][21] It is also known for being the land of Koh-i-Noor and other globally known diamonds from Kollur Mine.[22] It is also a major producer of rice for which it is known as the "Rice bowl of India".[23] Its official language is Telugu. It is one of the classical languages of India, the fourth most spoken language in India, and the 13th-most spoken language in the world.[24][25] Urdu is another official language of the state.[26]

Early inhabitants were known as the Andhras, tracing their history back to the Vedic period, as per the 8th century BCE Rigvedic text Aitareya Brahmana. According to the Aitareya Brahmana, the Andhras left North India from the banks of the Yamuna river and migrated to South India.[27][28] The Assaka Mahajanapada (700–300 BCE) was an ancient kingdom located between the Godavari and Krishna rivers in southeastern India. Accounts that people in the region are descendants of the sage Viswamitra are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas.[29] The region also derives its name from the Satavahanas, who are also known as Andhras, the earliest kings of Andhra Pradesh and India.[30]

In the 3rd century BCE, Andhra was a vassal kingdom of Ashoka of Mauryan Empire. After his death, Andhra became powerful and extended its empire to the whole of Maratha country and beyond under the rule of Satavahana dynasty.[31] After that, the major rulers include Andhra Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Cholas, Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Gajapati Empire, Mughal Empire, Deccan sultanates, Qutb Shahi dynasty, Asaf Jahis and British Raj.

Andhra Pradesh comprises three major regions namely Rayalaseema in the south-west, Coastal Andhra bordering the Bay of Bengal in the east and Uttarandhra at north-east.[32] The state has a total of 26 districts with 8 in Rayalaseema, 12 in Coastal Andhra and 6 in Uttarandhra. The state also has an enclave of Puducherry called Yanam which lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the 8th largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of 8.84 trillion (US$110 billion) and has the country's 16th-highest GSDP per capita of 170,215 (US$2,100) based on year 2020-21 data.[8][9] Andhra Pradesh ranks 27th among Indian states in Human Development Index(HDI) based on 2018 report.[33] It has a jurisdiction over almost 15,000 square kilometres (5,800 sq mi) of territorial waters.[34][35]

Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.[36] The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple near Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year.[37] The region is also home to a variety of other pilgrimage centres, such as the Pancharama Kshetras, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga and Kodanda Rama Temple. The state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, and the deltas of Konaseema in the Godavari river, and Diviseema in the Krishna river.



A group of people named Andhras was mentioned in Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana (800–500 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhras left north India from banks of River Yamuna and settled in south India.[38][39][40] The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature.[41][42] They did not refer to themselves as Andhra in any of their coins or inscriptions; it is possible that they were termed as Andhras because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.[43][44][45]

Early and medieval history

Telugu Thalli statue in Tirupati

The Assaka Mahajanapada, one of the sixteen Vedic Mahajanapadas, included Andhra, Maharashtra and Telangana.[46] Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati, Dharanikota, and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire. Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region.[47]

The Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BCE to the 3rd century CE.[48] The later Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.[49] The Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century.[50] Pallavas, who were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century CE and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE.[51] After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, and held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana. They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru, Amaravathi and Puranisangam.[52]

Buddhism spread to Andhra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna river valley was "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years."[53] The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."[54]

The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi (modern Pedavegi) from 300 to 440 CE.[55] The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 CE, eventually merged with the Chola dynasty. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola dynasty until 1189 CE when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas.[56] The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE.[57][58]

Kayastha chiefs descended from North Indian Kayasthas ruled over vast swathes of land in Andhra country, and they are recorded in Andhra history dating back to the 13th century CE.[59] Kakatiyas ruled Andhra Pradesh state for nearly two hundred years and constructed several forts. They were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. Musunuri Nayaks led a confederation of Nayakas to overthrow the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in Telugu lands.[60]

The Reddi kingdom (1325–1448 CE) was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate. They constructed Kondaveedu Fort[citation needed], which they ruled between 1328 and 1428, before it was taken over by the Gajpathis of Orissa, and later ravaged by the Muslim rulers of the Bahmani kingdom in 1458. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya captured it in 1516. The Golconda Sultans fought for the fort in 1531, 1536 and 1579, and Sultan Quli Qutb Shah captured it in 1579, renaming it Murtuzanagar. It was reconquered by Vijayanagara who overthrew sultanate rule across the entirety of modern-day Andhra Pradesh (excluding Telangana). After this rebellion, the Bahmani sultans launched no further military campaigns outside their kingdoms, because the Maratha empire soon emerged as the strongest power in India.[61][62][63] Efforts are in progress to classify Kondaveedu Fort as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[64]

Rajmahal of Chandragiri Fort

The Vijayanagara Empire originated in the Deccan Plateau region in the early 14th century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Sangama Dynasty.[65][66] The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form.[67] During the Vijayanagara Empire, the Pemmasani Nayaks controlled parts of Andhra Pradesh and had large mercenary armies that were the vanguard of the Vijayanagara Empire in the sixteenth century.[68] The Lepakshi group of monuments are culturally and archaeologically significant as it is the location of shrines dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, and Veerabhadra which were built during the Vijayanagara Kings' period (1336–1646). The temples are the location of mural paintings of the Vijayanagara kings, Dravidian art, and inscriptions. Near the temple complex is a large granite Nandi bull. On a hillock known as Kurma Saila ('tortoise-shaped hill') are other temples to Papanatheswara, Raghunatha, Srirama, and Durga.[69][70]

The Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken the initiative for including the "Lepakshi Group of Monuments" among the UNESCO World Heritage sites in India.[71][72]

Modern history

Gandikota fort view

Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, founded the Vijayanagara Empire.[73] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country after the dissolution of Vijayanagar empire by joint action of Mughals, Bijapur and Golconda sultanates.[74]

In the early nineteenth century, Northern Circars was ceded to the British East India Company and became part of the Madras Presidency. Eventually, this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British that eventually became the Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.[75] Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954. In 1947, Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu princely state in Andhra Pradesh.

In 1839 just before the British Raj, a cyclone struck Coringa, East Godavari district and toppled buildings, as a result 20,000 ships were destroyed and over 300,000 people were killed.[76][77][78]

India became independent from the British Raj in 1947. The 7th Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was integrated into the Indian Union with Operation Polo in 1948.[79]


In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated: "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras [now Chennai]". After Potti Sreeramulu's death, the Telugu-speaking area of Andhra State was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city.[80] On the basis of the gentlemen's agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed combined Andhra Pradesh by merging the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State.[81] Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

After 58 years as united state, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of the Telangana state comprising ten districts, despite opposition by the state legislature. The bill included the provision to retain Hyderabad as capital for up to ten years and also included the provision to ensure access to the educational institutions for the same period.[18] The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India.[82] Number of petitions questioning the validity of Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 are long pending before the Supreme Court constitutional bench since April 2014.[83]

In 2017, Government of Andhra Pradesh began operating from its new capital Amaravati.[84][85]


The state has varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats which includes Nallamala Hills to the shores of Bay of Bengal that support varied ecosystems with the rich diversity of flora and fauna. Krishna and Godavari are the main rivers that flow through the state. The coastline of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam district to Tirupati district with a length of 974 km (606 mi).[2] The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern Coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part, are delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penna rivers. The Eastern ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Kadapa Basin[86][87][better source needed] formed by two arching branches of the Eastern ghats is a mineral-rich area. The ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions.

Natural vegetation and conservation

Mangrove forest near Kakinada

The Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation covers an area of 22,862 square kilometres (8,827 sq mi).[88] The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces.[89] They are:

  1. Deccan Plateau
  2. Central Plateau
  3. Eastern Highland
  4. East Coastal Plains

Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous types with a mixture of teak, Terminalia, Dalbergia, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, etc.

The state has many sanctuaries, national parks and zoological parks, such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park and Indira Gandhi Zoological Park. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary, Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary, Telineelapuram and Telukunchi Bird Sanctuaries and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attract many migratory birds.[90] The state possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum, etc.[89] The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of the Godavari and Krishna rivers support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.[89]

Mineral resources

Andhra Pradesh is one of the storehouses of mineral resources in India. Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich and variety of industrial minerals and building stones.[91]

Andhra Pradesh is listed at the top in the deposit and production of mica in India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of oil and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, iron ore, ball clay, fire clay, gold diamonds, graphite, dolomite, quartz, tungsten, steatitic, feldspar, silica sand. It has about one-third of India's limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of barytes and galaxy granite in the international market.[91]


The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 and 41 °C (68 and 106 °F). July to September is the season for tropical rains. About one-third of the total rainfall is brought by the northeast monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state.

November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 to 30 °C (54 to 86 °F). Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam district is also nicknamed as the "Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh" due to its relatively cool climate as compared to others and the temperature ranges from 0 to 10 °C (32 to 50 °F).[92][93]


Based on the 2011 Census of India,[needs update] population of Andhra Pradesh, after considering the addition of 7 mandals from Telangana in the year 2014, is 4,95,77,103, with a density of 304/km2 (790/sq mi). The total population consists of 70.53% of rural population and 29.47% of urban population.[2]

Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 52,22,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population. Among them 26,86,453 are boys and 25,35,931 are girls. The state has 17.1% Scheduled Caste and 5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.[34] Adults in the age group of 18-23 account for 58,15,865 (29,21,284 males, 28,94,581 females).[94]

The state has sex ratio of 997 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The literacy rate of the state stands at 67.35%. Erstwhile West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.32% and erstwhile Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.89%.[2] Andhra Pradesh ranks 27th of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores for the year 2018.[33] The total number of voters in Andhra Pradesh as of 1 January 2023 is 3,99,84,868 (1,97,59,489 male, 2,02,21,455 female and 3,924 third gender). Kurnool district has the highest voters at 19,42,233, while ASR district has the lowest at 7,29,085.[95]


Languages of Andhra Pradesh[a] (2011)[96]

  Telugu (89.21%)
  Urdu (6.55%)
  Tamil (1.04%)
  Others (3.20%)

Telugu is the official language of Andhra Pradesh, which is also the mother tongue of nearly 90% of the population. Rajahmundry is the cultural capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telugu language has roots originated from this region.[96][97][98] Urdu is the largest minority language and also the second official language of Andhra Pradesh.[26][96]

Tamil, Kannada and Odia are also spoken in the border-areas. Lambadi, Koya, Savara, Konda, Gadaba and a number of other languages are spoken by the Scheduled Tribes of the state.[99]

19% of the adults have the ability to read and understand English as per IRS Q4, 2019 survey.[100]


Religion in Andhra Pradesh (2011)[101]

  Hinduism (90.89%)
  Islam (7.30%)
  Christianity (1.38%)
  Jainism (0.05%)
  Sikhism (0.02%)
  Buddhism (0.01%)
  Other (0.01%)
  Not Stated (0.34%)

According to the 2011 census, the major religious groups in the state are Hindus (90.89%), Muslims (7.30%) and Christians (1.38%).[b].[101]


Venkateswara Temple at Tirupati is the world's second-richest temple and is visited by millions of devotees throughout the year. Andhra Pradesh is home to Shankaracharya of Pushpagiri Peetham. Other Hindu saints include Bhaktha Kannappa and Pothuluru Veerabrahmendra.[102]


Rottela Panduga is celebrated at Bara Shaheed Dargah in Nellore.[103]

Administrative divisions


Andhra Pradesh comprises three geographic regions: Uttaraandhra, Kostaandhra and Rayalaseema.


Andhra Pradesh political map

The state is further divided into 26 districts, with Uttarandhra comprising 6 districts, Kostaandhra comprising 12 districts and Rayalaseema comprising 8 districts.[104]

Uttaraandhra region :

Kostaandhra region :

Rayalaseema region :

Revenue divisions

These 26 districts are further divided into 76 revenue divisions.[105]


The 76 revenue divisions are in turn divided into 679 mandals.[105]

Cities and towns

Visakhapatnam is the most populous city in Andhra Pradesh

There are 123 urban local bodies, comprising 17 municipal corporatins, 79 municipalities and 27 nagar panchyats in the state. The urban population is 149 million as per 2011 census.[106] There are two cities with more than one million inhabitants, namely Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada.

Top cities with most population in Andhra Pradesh, as per the 2011 Census[107]
Ciy/Town District(s) post 2022 reorg Population (2011)
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam, Anakapalli 1,728,128
Vijayawada NTR 1,476,931
Guntur Guntur 743,354
Nellore Nellore 558,548
Kurnool Kurnool 484,327
Rajahmundry East Godavari 560,756
Tirupati Tirupati 461,900
Kakinada Kakinada 443,028
Kadapa Kadapa 344,893
Anantapur Anantapur 340,613

Government and politics

District court, Guntur
Eluru district Collectorate complex, Eluru

When the state was first created, Tanguturi Prakasam, became the Chief Minister. After the unification with Telangana, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy became the first Chief Minister. He later served as the President of India.[108][109]

The Indian National Congress (INC), the Praja Socialist Party and the Krishi Lok Party were the major parties in the 1950s. Later the Communist Party of India (CPI) became the dominant opposition party. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties were eliminated and the CPI lost opposition party status.

The INC ruled the state from 1956 to 1982. In 1983, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N. T. Rama Rao became the Chief Minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long-time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC. The 1989 elections ended the rule of Rao, with the INC returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992.

In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and Rao became the Chief Minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, Rao's son-in-law, came to power in 1995 with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu. Thus Naidu held the record for the longest-serving Chief Minister (1995 to 2004).[110]

In 2004, Congress returned to power with a new chief ministerial face, YS Rajashekara Reddy, better known as YSR. INC also won the 2009 elections under the leadership of YSR. He was elected chief minister again, but was killed in a helicopter crash that occurred in Sep 2009. He was succeeded by two other Congressmen, namely Konijeti Rosaiah and Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy, the latter resigned over the impending division of state to form Telangana.

In the final elections held in the unified state in 2014, the TDP got a mandate in its favour in the residual state of Andhra Pradesh. N. Chandrababu Naidu, the chief of the TDP became the chief minister on 8 June 2014.[111]

The Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh is the lower house of the state with 175 members and the Legislative Council is the upper house with 58 members. In the Parliament of India, Andhra Pradesh has 11 seats in the Rajya Sabha, and 25 seats in the Lok Sabha.[112] There are a total of 175 Assembly constituencies in the state.[113][114]

In the 2019 elections, YSR's son Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy, leader of the YSR Congress Party became the chief minister with a resounding mandate by winning 151 out of 175 seats.

Government revenue and expenditure

For 2021-22, total receipts of the Andhra Pradesh government were ₹ 2,05,946 crores, inclusive of ₹ 53,284 crores of loans. states' own tax revenue was ₹ 70,979 crores. The top 3 sources of non tax revenue are state GST ( ₹ 23,809 crores), sales tax/ VAT ( ₹ 20,808 crores), state excise ( ₹ 14,703 crores).[115] Government earned revenue of ₹7,345.38 croress from 25.74 lakh transactions for registration services. Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Guntur and Tirupati cities are the top contributors to the revenue. [116]

The government total expenditure was ₹ 1,91,594 crores, which includes debt repayment of ₹ 13,920 crores. Fiscal deficit was ₹ 25,013 crores, which was 2.1% of GSDP. Revenue expenditure was ₹ 1,59,163 crores, and capital expenditure was ₹ 16,373 crores. Category-wise, welfare expenditure gets the maximum share, while education accounts for ₹ 25,796 crores, energy ₹ 10,852 crores and irrigation ₹ 7,027 crores.[115]

Outstanding debt was ₹ 3.89 lakh crore an increase of almost ₹ 40,000 crore compared to previous year. This accounts for 32.4 per cent of the GSDP.[117] Outstanding guarantee estimate was ₹ 1,38,875 crore, of which ₹ 38,473 are for the power sector, which equals 12% of GSDP. [115]

Amaravati protests

In August 2020, Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly passed Andhra Pradesh Decentralisation and Inclusive Development of All Regions Act, 2020, which provided for limiting Amaravati as legislative capital, while naming Vizag as executive capital and Kurnool as judicial capital.[118] The events leading to this decision resulted in widespread continuing protests by the farmers of Amaravati.[119] The act has been challenged in Andhra Pradesh High Court, which ordered to maintain status quo until the court completes its hearing. The government, led by Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy, withdrew the act, when the high court hearing reached the final stage. The chief minister, however, said his government would bring a better and more complete bill.[120]

The protesters under the banner of Amaravati Parirakshana Samithi (APS) and Joint Action Committee (JAC) of Amaravati received support from all the political parties barring the ruling YCP when they held their long marches across Andhra Pradesh seeking support for their agitation.[121]

On 5 March 2022, High court ruled that the government can not abandon development of Amaravati as capital city after farmers parted with 33,000 acres of land against the agreement with APCRDA to develop it as the capital city and ₹15,000 crore was sunk in it over development expenditure. It asked the government to develop Amaravati within six months.[122] When the government appealed in the Supreme court, it got a stay on the judgement regarding developing the city within six months. Supreme court posted the case to 11 July 2023 for hearing.[123]

Meanwhile, Jaganmohan Reddy announced that Visakhapatnam will become the new capital when he addressed a meeting on 31 January 2023, relating to an upcoming investment summit in Vizag.[124]

Interstate disputes

Assets divison with Telanagana

There are 91 institutions under Schedule IX with assets of ₹1.42 lakh crore and 142 institutions under Schedule X with assets of ₹24,018.53 crore and another 12 institutions not mentioned in the Act with assets of ₹1,759 crore, which are to be split between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana following the bifurcation. Despite several bilateral meetings and trilateral meetings, the issue was not resolved. Expert committee headed by Sheela Bhide gave recommendation for bifurcation of 89 out of the 91 Schedule IX institutions. Telangana selectively accepted the recommendations, while Andhra Pradesh is asking for the acceptance in total. The divison of the RTC headquarters and the Deccan Infrastructure and Landholdings Limited (DIL) with huge land parcels has become contentious. Despite several meetings of the trilateral dispute resolution committees, no progress was made. Andhra Pradesh government has filed a suit in the Supreme Court.[125]

Krishna river water sharing dispute

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana continue to dispute water share of the Krishna river, even nine years after the bifurcation of the combined State. In 1969, the Bachawat Tribunal (KWDT-I) for allocation of water share among the riparian stats allocated 811 tmcft water to Andhra Pradesh. The Andhra Pradesh government split it in 512:299 tmcft ratio between Andhra (including the basin area of Rayalaseema) and Telangana respectively. It was based on the utilisation facilities established at that time. Though Tribunal recommended utilisation of the Tungabhadra Dam ( a part of the Krishna Basin) water to the drought-prone Mahabubnagar area of Telangana, this was not implemented. The bifurcation act advised the formation of the Krishna River Management Board (KRMB) and the Godavari River Management Board (GRMB) for resolving the disputes between the new states. In 2015, the two states agreed to share water in the 66:34 (A.P:Telangana) ratio as an interim arrangement in a meeting with central water ministry, which is to be reviewed every year. This practice continued without further review. Telangana state is asking for 70% share and has filed a suit in Supreme court. Following the assurance of formation of tribunal to resolve the issue, Telangana withdrew its suit. Center is yet to form the Tribunal.[126]

Godavari water sharing dispute

The undivided Andhra Pradesh got 1172.78 tmc ft of Godavari water. Telangana is utilising 433 tmc ft for its completed projects, while Andhra Pradesh share is 739 tmc ft. Andhra Pradesh government has opposed Telangana submitting DPR for additional utilisation through new/upgraded projects such as Kaleswaram Tupakulagudem, Sitarama, Mukteswaram and Modikunta lift irrigation projects.[127]

Polavaram flood prone villages

The 1.50-metre increase in the height of the Polavaram coffer dam to 44 metre raised the suspicion that it led to flooding of Bhadrachalam and several nearby villages along the Godavari river in 2022. Telangana would like to take back five villages on the river banks as Telangana government machinery has to pass through these villages to provide rehabilitation support to its other villages beyond them, which Andhra Pradesh government is objecting.[128]


GSDP at current prices for the year 2022-23 is estimated at 131,772.8 crore (US$17 billion) (Advance estimates) against 113,383.7 crore (US$14 billion) (First revised estimates) for the year 2021–22. Share of agriculture contribution to GSDP is at 36.19% while industry is at 23.36% and the services is at 40.45%. The state posted a record growth of 7.02% at constant prices (2011–12) against the country's growth of 7%.[115] A,P. achieved overall 4th rank in SDG India Report for the year 2020–21, with first rank in SDG-7 (affordable energy) and second rank in SDG-14 (Life below water).[129]

In 2014–15, the first year after bifurcation, the state ranked eighth in GSDP at current prices, which stood at 52,003 crore (US$6.5 billion). It recorded 12.03% growth compared to previous fiscal which was 46,418.4 crore (US$5.8 billion).[130] The agriculture sector accounts for 27.59%, the industrial sector for 20.62% and the service sector for 51.79% of the gross state domestic product.[131][132]

In the 2010 list by Forbes magazine, several people from Andhra Pradesh were among the top 100 richest Indians.[133]


Lush green farms in Konaseema

Andhra Pradesh's economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Tungabhadra flow through the state and provide irrigation. 60 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of India".[134][135] The state has three Agricultural Economic Zones in the united Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, the united Krishna district for mangoes, the united Guntur district for chilies.[136]

Besides rice, farmers also grow jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts are popular.

Livestock and poultry is also another profitable business, which involves rearing cattle in enclosed areas for commercial purposes. The state is also the largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it is nicknamed as "Egg Bowl of Asia".[137][138]

Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production of India.[139] The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. The most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp[140]

Industrial sector

As per Annual Survey of Industries 2019-20, the number of factories is 12,582 with 6,81,224 employees. Top 4 employment providers are Food products(25.48%), Non-metallic Minerals (11.26%), Textiles (9.35%) and Pharmaceuticals (8.68%). GVA contributed by industrial sector is INR 550,350 billion of which of which food products (18.95%), pharmaceuticals (17.01%) and non-metallic minerals (16.25%) are the top 3 contributors. From a district perspective, top three districts were Visakhapatnam, Chittoor and Krishna.[141]

Sri City located in Tirupati district is an integrated business city which is home to several multi national companies.[142] The state has 36 big auto players such as Ashok Leyland, Hero Motors and Kia Motors, with investment of over USD 2.8 billion. It accounts for 10% of auto exports of India.[143]


General mining
Mangampet Barytes

Industrial minerals, dimensional stones,building materials and sand are the main minerals. Mining sector contributed ₹ 3,390 crores revenue to the state during 2021-22.[144]

Petroleum and natural gas

Ravva block, in the shallow offshore area of Krishna Godavari Basin, produced ~311 million barrels of crude oil, and 385 billion cubic feet of natural gas, which equals 53% recovery till FY2023,starting from the initial production in March 1994.[145]

State accounts for 2.7% of crude oil production in India, with 827.8 TMT from its Krishna Godavari basin both offshore and onshore.[146]: 31  809 MMSCM natural gas is produced from onshore sites, which accounts for 2.4% of India's production.[146]: 33 



The value of information technology exports from Andhra Pradesh in 2021-22 was ₹926 crore, which is 0.14% of the IT exports from India. Exports remained below 2% in the past five years.[147]

Travel and tourism

Andhra Pradesh is ranked 3 in the domestic tourist footfalls for the year 2021, with 9.32 crore domestic tourists, which amounts to 13.8 per cent of all India domestic tourists. Major share of the tourists visit temples in Tirupati, Vijayawada and Srisailam.[148]



The state is well connected to other states through road and rail networks. It is also connected to other countries by means of international airports and seaports as well. One of the largest seaports in South India is at Visakhapatnam.


The state has a total major road network of 47,244.83 km (29,356.58 mi). This comprises 8,163.72 km (5,072.70 mi) of National highways, 12,595.60 km (7,826.54 mi) of state highways and 26,485.51 km (16,457.33 mi) of major district roads.[149] NH 16, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project. The proposed Anantapuram - Amaravati Expressway is changed to Anantapur-Guntur National highway 544D with implementation expected to begin in January 2023.[150]

The state government owned Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the public bus transport provider. It is split into 129 depots across 4 zones. It has a fleet strength of 11,098 buses with a staff count of 49,544. It operates 1.11 billion kms and serves 3.68 million passesngers daily.[151] Pandit Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in Vijayawada is one of the largest bus terminals in Asia.[152]

1.828 million transport vehicles and 13.7 million non-transport vehicles are registered in the state. In the transport category, 0.98 million are goods carriages consituting 53.61% and 0.66 million are auto rickshaws constituting 36.21% and 0.109 million are cabs constituting 5.96%. In the non transport category, 12.2 million are motor cycles constituting 89.5%, 1.067 million are four wheelers constituting 7.29%. [153] Integrated road accident database project, an initiative of MORTH is under implementation in the state. Construction of Institute of Driver Training and Research facilities at Darsi, Praksam district and Dhone at Nandyal district in partnership with Maruti Suzuki and Ashok Leyland respectively is in progress.[154] Automation of driving test tracks in 9 district capitals is expected to be completed by 31 March 2023.[155]


Andhra Pradesh has a total broad-gauge railway route of 3,969 km (2,466 mi).[156]The rail density of the state is 24.36 km per 1000 square kilometres. The railway network in Andhra Pradesh is under South Central Railway, East Coast railway and South Western railway zones.[157][158][159]

During 2014-2022, 350 km of new lines were constructed at the rate of 44 Km per year in Andhra Pradesh under South Central railway division. The rate of construction was only 2 km per year in the preceding five years.[160]: 5  Nadikudi- Srikalahasti line of 308.70 kilometres sanctioned at a budget of Rs 22.89 billion in 2011-12 is progressing slowly with only phase-1 of 46 km between New Piduguralla station and Savalyapuram completed in 2021-22.[160]: 29 

There are three A1 and twenty-three A-category railway stations in the state as per the assessment in 2017.[161] Visakhapatnam has been declared the cleanest railway station in the country as per the assessment in 2018.[162] The railway station of Shimiliguda was the first highest broad gauge railway station in the country.[163]

A new railway zone South Coast Railway Zone (SCoR) with headquarters at Visakhapatnam was announced as the newest railway zone of the Indian Railways in 2019.[164]


Airports in Andhra Pradesh[165]

Visakhapatnam Airport, NTR Amaravati International Airport, at Vijayawada, Tirupati Airport are international airports in the state. The state has three other domestic airports, Rajahmundry Airport, Kadapa Airport and Kurnool Airport.[166] A privately owned airport for emergency flights and chartered flights is at Puttaparthi. There are also 16 small airstrips located in the state.

Sea ports

Operational Seaports excluding fishing harbors in Andhra Pradesh[167]

The state has one major port at Visakhapatnam under the administrative control of Central government and 15 notified ports inclusive of 3 captive ports under the control of state government.[168][169] The other famous ports are Krishnapatnam Port, Gangavaram Port and Kakinada Port. Gangavaram Port is a deep seaport which can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT.[170]


APSFL is an initiative of the government of Andhra Pradesh to set up an optical fiber network throughout the thirteen districts of Andhra Pradesh. This network provides internet connectivity, telephony and IPTV with fiber to private and corporate users of Andhra Pradesh.[171]


Srisailam Hydel power project

Thermal, Hydel and renewable power plants supply power to the state. Installed capacity share of state in the public sector generating stations is 7,245 MW. Private sector installed capacity is 9,370 MW, which includes Independent power producer capacity of 1,961 MW. Total installed capacity is 16,615 MW. Peak power demand of the state in 2021-21 is 12,032 MW and per capita consumption is 1,285 KWh. Energy consumed in the year is 68972 MU.[172]: 1–2 

Education and research


The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, managed and regulated by the School Education Department of the state.[173][174] There are urban, rural and residential schools.[175][176] As per the child info and school information report (2018–19), there were a total of 7,041,568 students,[177] enrolled in 62,063 schools.[178] The Directorate of Government Examinations of the state administers and conduct the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination.[179] More than 600,000 students have appeared for the 2019 SSC exam and recorded an overall pass percentage of 94.88% with a 100% pass percentage in 5,464 schools.[180] The mediums of instruction are primarily Telugu and English with a very few opting for Urdu, Hindi, Kannada, Odia and Tamil.[181]

The state initiated education reforms in 2020 by creating six types of schools namely satellite foundation school (pre primary), foundational schools (pre primary - class II), foundational school plus (pre primary - class V) and pre High school (class III - class VII/VIII) and high school (class III - Class X) and high school plus (class III - Class XII).[182] Transition to English medium education in all government schools started in the academic year 2020-2021 is expected to reach completion by 2024–25. 1000 government schools are affiliated to CBSE in the year 2022-23 as an initial step and the bilingual text book scheme was adopted to ease the transition.[183] The state government is going ahead with English medium based on the parents survey despite protests and courtcases.[184] The state initiative is being funded in part by loan from World Bank to the tune of $250M over 2021-2026 through "Supporting Andhra's Learning Transformation" (SALT) project to improve the learning outcomes of children up to class II level.[185]

There are 169 government degree colleges and 55 private aided degree colleges in the state. 66 government colleges and 48 private aided colleges have valid NAAC grades. There are 85 government and aided, 175 private polytechnic colleges with a sanctioned strength of 75,906 students.[186] AP state council of higher education organises various entrance tests for different streams and conducts counseling for admissions.[187] AP State Skill Development Corporation is setup to support skill development and placement for the educated.[188]

There are total 36 universities, which comprise 3 central universities, 23 state public universities, 6 state private universities and 4 deemed universities.[189]: 100  Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in Higher education for the age group 18-23 for the state is at 35.2% for the year 2019-20, which compares favourably with the GER for all India at 27.1%. With female GER of 35.3 and male GER of 38.2, Gender parity index is 0.84. The corresponding ratio for India is 1.01[189]: 93 

Some of the central institutions in the state include All India Institute of Medical Sciences at Mangalagiri, IIM Visakhapatnam, IIT Tirupati, NIT Tadepalligudem, and National Institute of Design, Vijayawada.

The Government of Andhra Pradesh established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the education needs of the rural youth of Andhra Pradesh.[190] Andhra University is the oldest of the universities in the state, established in 1926.[191][192]


Research institutes have been set up by both the central and state governments. Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), National Institute of Oceanography(NIO), Visakhapatnam, Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research, Visakhapatnam are some of the research institutes in the state. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory carries out fundamental and applied research in atmospheric and space sciences. Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry under control of Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) conducts fundamental and applied research on tobacco for the benefit of the farming community. Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research (IIOPR) at Pedavegi near Eluru in West Godavari district serves as a centre for conducting and co-ordinating research on all aspects of oil palm conservation, improvement, production, protection, post-harvest technology and transfer of technology.

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research at Tirupati, Regional Research Institute for Homeopathy at Gudivada, Clinical Research Institute at Tirupati, Agriculture Research Institute at Kadiri under the control of Acharya NG Ranga Agriculture University are some other research institutes.

Space research

Chadrayaan 2 Module launch at SDSC, Sriharikota

Satish Dhawan Space Centre(SDSC), also known as Sriharikota Range (SHAR), at barrier island of Sriharikota in Tirupati district is a satellite launching station operated by Indian Space Research Organisation.[193] It is India's primary orbital launch site. India's lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre on 22 October 2008.[194]


The total number of registered newspapers and periodicals in the state for the year 2020-21 were 5,798. There were 1,645 dailies, 817 weeklies, 2,431 monthlies and 623 fortnightlies. 787 Telugu dailies had a circulation of 9,911,005. 103 English dailies had a circulation of 1,646,453.[195]: 524  Eenadu, Sakshi, Andhra Jyothi are the top 3 Telugu daily newspapers widely published from Andhra Pradesh in terms of circulation across India.[196] Among English newspapers, Deccan Chronicle is published from 5 centers, The New Indian Express from 5 centers, The Hans India from 4 centers and The Hindu from 3 centers in Andhra Pradesh.

There were 10 general entertainment channels, 23 news channels, 2 health channels, 6 religious channels, 2 other channels, 2 cable distribution channels amounting to total of 45 channels empanelled by Andhra Pradesh Information and Public relations department.[197] All India Radio has several channels operating from several locations in the state. Red FM operates from 4 locations.[198]

Several privately owned news media outlets are considered biased towards specific political parties in the state.[199][200]


Kuchipudi, the cultural dance recognized as the official dance form of the state of Andhra Pradesh, originated in the village of Kuchipudi in Krishna district. It entered the Guinness World Records for performing Mahabrinda Natyam with a total of 6,117 dancers in Vijayawada.[201]

Andhra Pradesh has thirteen geographical indications in categories of agricultural handicrafts, foodstuff and textiles as per Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.[202] It increased to fifteen with the addition of Banaganapalle Mangoes[203] and Bandar laddu.[204] The other GI tagged goods are, Bobbili Veena, Budithi Bell and Brass Craft, Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas, Guntur Sannam, Kondapalli Toys, Machilipatnam Kalamkari, Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics, Srikalahasti Kalamkari, Tirupati Laddu, Uppada Jamdani Sari and Venkatagiri Sari.[202]

Arts, crafts and artifacts

Kondapalli Toys at a house in Vijayawada

Machilipatnam and Srikalahasti Kalamkari are the two unique textile art forms practised in India.[205] There are also other notable handicrafts present in the state, like the soft limestone idol carvings of Durgi.[206] Etikoppaka in Visakhapatnam district is notable for its lac industry, producing lacquered wooden.[207][208]

The state has 32 museums,[209] which feature a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery, and inscriptions, and religious artifacts. Amaravati Archaeological Museum at Amaravati has several archaelogical artefacts.[210] Visakha Museum and Telugu Cultural Museum in Visakhapatnam display the historical artefacts of the pre-independence era. Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada displays a large collection of artifacts.

Archaelogical Survey of India identified 135 centrally protected monuments in the state of Andhra Pradesh.[211] These include the reconstructed monuments at Anupu and Nagarjunakonda.


Nannayya, Tikkana and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu language. Nannayya wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar called Andhra Shabda Chintamani in Sanskrit, as there was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to that.[212] Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam. Vemana is notable for his philosophical poems. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam is termed as Adhunika Telugu Sahityam (Modern Telugu literature). He is known as Gadya Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel, Satyavati Charitam. Jnanpith Award holders from the state include Viswanatha Satyanarayana. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.[213]

Art and cinema

Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, Tyagaraja, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers and singers like Ghantasala and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela, S. Janaki and P. B. Sreenivas. Folk songs are very important and popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.[214] Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story. Harikatha was originated in Andhra.[215] Burra katha is an oral storytelling technique with the topic be either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue.[216] Rangasthalam is an Indian theatre in the Telugu language, based predominantly in Andhra Pradesh.[217] Gurajada Apparao wrote the play Kanyasulkam in 1892, often considered the greatest play in the Telugu language.[218] C. Pullaiah is cited as the father of Telugu theatre movement.[219][220]

The Telugu film industry is largely based in Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. The Telugu film culture (also known as "Tollywood") is the second-largest film industry in India next to the Bollywood film industry.[221] Film producer D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most films produced by a person.[222] In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008, the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[223][224] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[225]

"Naatu Naatu" from the film RRR became the first song from an Indian film to win the Academy Award for Best Original Song and the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song, as well as the first song from an Asian film to win the former.[226][227]


Vegetarian Andhra meal, served on important occasions

Andhra meal is combination of spicy, tangy and sweet flavours. Chillies which are produced abundantly in Andhra Pradesh and curry leaf are used copiously in most preparations of curries, chutneys. Various types of Pappu are made using lentils in combination with one of tomato, spinach, gongura, ridge gourd etc. Apart from curries, Pulusu, a stew made using tamarind juice in combination with vegetables, sea food, chicken, mutton etc., is also popular. Pachchadi, a paste usually made with combination of groundnuts, fried vegetable, chillies is also a must in a meal. Pickles made using Mangos, gooseberries,lemon etc are enjoyed in combination with Pappu. Buttermilk and yogurt mixed with rice and eaten toward the end of meal soothes the body especially after eating spicy food items earlier. Ariselu, Burelu, Laddu and Pootharekulu are some of the sweets made for special festivals and occasions.[228]


Some of the popular religious pilgrim destinations include Tirumala Temple at Tirupati, Shahi Jamia Masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres at Amaravati and Nagarjuna Konda.[229]

The state has several beaches in its coastal districts such as Rushikonda, Mypadu, Suryalanka etc.;[230] caves such as, Borra Caves,[231] Indian rock-cut architecture depicting Undavalli Caves[232] and the country's second longest caves- the Belum Caves.[233] The valleys and hills include, Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Papi Hills etc.[234] Arma Konda peak located in Visakhapatnam district is the highest peak in Eastern Ghats.


The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development, coaching and administration of sports promotion schemes.[235]

The ACA-VDCA Stadium in Visakhapatnam is the home to Andhra Pradesh cricket team. The venue regularly hosts international as well as domestic matches. Some notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh include former Indian captain Mohammad Azharuddin, Maharajkumar of Vizianagram and M. V. Narasimha Rao

Humpy Koneru is an Indian chess Grandmaster. Dandamudi Rajagopal Rao holds the record of the first 12 times National heavy weight lifting Champion. Karnam Malleswari is the first female Indian to win an Olympic medal. Krishnam Raju Gadiraju is a world record holder in speedsolver and unicyclist.[236]

Pullela Gopichand is a former Indian badminton player. He won the All England Open Badminton Championships in 2001, becoming the second Indian to win after Prakash Padukone.[237][238] Srikanth Kidambi, a badminton player, is the first ever Indian to reach the World Championships final in 2021 in the men's singles and win a silver medal.[239] Cherukuri Lenin was an Indian archer and coach who won a silver medal at the Asian Grand Prix in Malaysia and was a national archery coach.

Andhra Pradesh secured 16 medals at the 36th National Games held in 2022. It was ranked 21st in the competition. It won most medals in athletics. Two silver and one bronze were won in weightlifting.[240]

See also


  1. ^ Excluding districts and mandals which went to Telangana
  2. ^ The Christian population is significantly undercounted since SC reservation benefits are denied to Christians
  3. ^ Two entries are repeated


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  2. ^ a b c d e DOP 2023, p. 3.
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  5. ^ "Former SC judge S. Abdul Nazeer appointed as Governor of Andhra Pradesh".
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  7. ^ "Bill recognising Urdu as second official language passed". The Hindu. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
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  19. ^ "Explained: Why Was Andhra's Three-Capital Act Controversial". Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  20. ^ by (27 January 2019). "Growth Of Buddhism in Andhra Pradesh". Andhra Pradesh PCS Exam Notes. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
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  27. ^ Devi, Ragini (1990). Dance Dialects of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-208-0674-0.
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  29. ^ Proceedings of the Andhra Pradesh Oriental Conference: Fourth Session, Nagarjuna University, Guntur, 3rd to 5th March 1984. The Conference. 1987.
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External links


General information