Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics and/or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy, and/or its adherents. At various points after the Reformation, some majority Protestant states, including England, Prussia, Scotland, and the United States, turned anti-Catholicism, opposition to the Pope (anti-Papalism), mockery of Catholic rituals, and opposition to Catholic adherents into major political themes and policies of religious persecution. The anti-Catholic sentiment which resulted from this trend frequently led to religious discrimination against Catholic communities and individuals and it occasionally led to the religious persecution of them (frequently, they were derogatorily referred to as "papists" or "Romanists" in Anglophone and Protestant countries.) Historian John Wolffe identifies four types of anti-Catholicism: constitutional-national, theological, popular and socio-cultural.
Historically, Catholics who lived in Protestant countries were frequently suspected of conspiring against the state in furtherance of papal interests. Their support of the alien pope led to allegations that they lacked loyalty to the state. In majority Protestant countries which experienced large scale immigration, such as the United States and Australia, suspicion of Catholic immigrants and/or discrimination against them frequently overlapped or was conflated with nativist, xenophobic, ethnocentric and/or racist sentiments (e.g. anti-Irish sentiment, anti-Filipino sentiment, anti-Italianism, anti-Spanish sentiment, and anti-Slavic sentiment, specifically anti-Polish sentiment).
In the Early modern period, the Catholic Church struggled to maintain its traditional religious and political role in the face of rising secular power in Catholic countries. As a result of these struggles, a hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social, spiritual and religious power of the Pope and the clergy arose in majority Catholic countries in the form of anti-clericalism. The Inquisition was a favorite target of attack. After the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, anti-clerical forces gained strength in some primarily Catholic nations, such as France, Spain, Mexico, and certain regions of Italy (especially in Emilia-Romagna). Certain political parties in these historically Catholic regions subscribed to and propagated an internal form of anti-Catholicism, generally known as anti-clericalism, that expressed a hostile attitude towards the Catholic Church as an establishment and the overwhelming political, social, spiritual and religious power of the Catholic Church, attacking the pope's power to name bishops and criticizing the perceived power of Catholic international orders such as the Jesuits.
In primarily Protestant countriesEdit
Protestant Reformers, including John Wycliffe, Martin Luther, Henry VIII, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, Roger Williams, Cotton Mather, and John Wesley, as well as most Protestants of the 16th–19th centuries, identified the Papacy with the Antichrist. The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg which was headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume Magdeburg Centuries in order to discredit the Papacy and lead other Christians to recognize the Pope as the Antichrist. The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran–Catholic dialogue notes,
In calling the pope the "Antichrist", the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century. Not only dissidents and heretics but even saints had called the bishop of Rome the "Antichrist" when they wished to castigate his abuse of power. What Lutherans incorrectly understood as a papal claim to unlimited authority over everything and everyone reminded them of the Apocalyptic imagery of Daniel 11, a passage that had been applied to the pope as the Antichrist of the last days even prior to the Reformation.
Doctrinal works of literature which were published by the Lutherans, the Reformed churches, the Presbyterians, the Baptists, the Anabaptists, and the Methodists contain references to the Pope as the Antichrist, including the Smalcald Articles, Article 4 (1537), the Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope (1537), the Westminster Confession, Article 25.6 (1646), and the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, Article 26.4. In 1754, John Wesley published his Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament, which is currently an official Doctrinal Standard of the United Methodist Church. In his notes on the Book of Revelation (chapter 13), he commented: "The whole succession of Popes from Gregory VII are undoubtedly Antichrists. Yet this hinders not, but that the last Pope in this succession will be more eminently the Antichrist, the Man of Sin, adding to that of his predecessors a peculiar degree of wickedness from the bottomless pit."
Referring to the Book of Revelation, Edward Gibbon stated that "The advantage of turning those mysterious prophecies against the See of Rome, inspired the Protestants with uncommon veneration for so useful an ally." Protestants condemned the Catholic policy of mandatory celibacy for priests.
During the Enlightenment Era, which spanned the 17th and 18th centuries, with its strong emphasis on the need for religious toleration, the Inquisition was a favorite target of attack for intellectuals.
Institutional anti-Catholicism in Britain and Ireland began with the English Reformation under Henry VIII. The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the English crown to be "the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England" in place of the pope. Any act of allegiance to the latter was considered treasonous because the papacy claimed to have both spiritual and political power over its followers. It was under this act that saints Thomas More and John Fisher were executed and became martyrs for the Catholic faith.
Queen Mary, Henry's daughter, was a devout Catholic and during her five years as queen (1553–1558) she tried to reverse the Reformation. She married the Catholic king of Spain and executed Protestant leaders. Protestants reviled her as "Bloody Mary".
Anti-Catholicism among many of the English was not only grounded in their fear that the pope sought to reimpose religio-spiritual authority over England, it was also grounded in their fear that the pope also sought to impose secular power over them in alliance with their arch-enemies France and Spain. In 1570, Pope Pius V sought to depose Elizabeth with the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis, which declared that she was a heretic and purportedly dissolved the duty of all of Elizabeth's subjects to maintain their allegiance to her. This rendered Elizabeth's subjects who persisted in their allegiance to the Catholic Church politically suspect, and it also made the position of her Catholic subjects largely untenable if they tried to maintain both allegiances at once. The Recusancy Acts, which made worship in the Anglican Church a legal obligation, date back to Elizabeth's reign.
Assassination plots in which Catholics were prime movers fueled anti-Catholicism in England. These plots included the famous Gunpowder Plot, in which Guy Fawkes and other conspirators plotted to blow up the English Parliament while it was in session. The fictitious "Popish Plot" involving Titus Oates was a hoax that many Protestants believed to be true, exacerbating Anglican-Catholic relations.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689 involved the overthrow of King James II, of the Stuart dynasty, who favoured the Catholics, and his replacement by a Dutch Protestant. For decades the Stuarts were supported by France in plots to invade and conquer Britain, and anti-Catholicism persisted.
Gordon Riots 1780Edit
The Gordon Riots of 1780 was a violent anti-Catholic riot in London against the Papists Act of 1778. Passed by Parliament, the new law was supposed to reduce official discrimination against British Catholics. Lord George Gordon, head of the Protestant Association, warned that the law would enable Catholics who were serving in the British Army to become a dangerous threat. The protest evolved into riots and widespread looting. Local magistrates feared reprisals and as a result, they did not enforce the riot act. The riots were not suppressed until the Army moved in and dispersed the crowds by shooting them, killing hundreds of rioters. The violence lasted from 2 June to 9 June 1780. Public opinion, especially in middle-class and elite circles, repudiated anti-Catholicism and lower-class violence, and it also rallied behind the government of Lord North. Demands for the establishment of a police force in London were subsequently made.
Anglo-French conflicts during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, which lasted from 1793 until 1815, saw the rise of anti-Catholicism as an underlying method to unify the Protestant populations of England, Scotland and Wales. Permeating through all social classes, antagonism towards Catholicism became firmly enmeshed with British national identity. As noted by English historian Linda Colley in her seminal work Britons: Forging of a Nation 1707–1837, the "defensive unity brought on by war with a Catholic French 'other' helped transform Great Britain from a new and largely artificial polity into a nation with a strong self-image rooted in Protestantism."
Catholics in Ireland gained the right to vote in the 1790s but they were politically inert for another three decades. Finally, they were mobilized by Daniel O'Connell into majorities in most of the Irish parliamentary districts. They could only elect, but Catholics could not be seated in parliament. The Catholic emancipation issue became a major crisis. Previously anti-Catholic politicians led by the Duke of Wellington and Robert Peel reversed themselves to prevent massive violence. All Catholics in Britain were "emancipated" in the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829. That is, they were freed from most of the penalties and restrictions they faced. Anti-Catholic attitudes continued, however.
Since World War II, anti-Catholic feeling in England has abated somewhat. Ecumenical dialogue between Anglicans and Catholics culminated in the first meeting between an Archbishop of Canterbury and a Pope since the Reformation when Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher visited Rome in 1960. Since then, the dialogue has continued through envoys and standing conferences. Meanwhile, both the nonconformist churches such as the Methodists, and the established Church of England, have dramatically declined in membership. Membership in the Catholic Church continues to grow in Britain, thanks to the immigration of Irish and more recently, the immigration of Polish workers.
Conflict and rivalry between Catholicism and Protestantism since the 1920s, especially since the 1960s, has centered on the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
Anti-Catholicism in Britain was long represented by the burning of an effigy of the Catholic conspirator Guy Fawkes during widespread celebrations of Guy Fawkes Night every 5 November. However, this celebration has lost most of its anti-Catholic connotations. According to Clive D. Field, only faint remnants of anti-Catholicism are found today.
As punishment for the rebellion of 1641, almost all of the lands which were owned by Irish Catholics were confiscated and given to Protestant settlers. Under the Penal Laws, no Irish Catholic could sit in the Parliament of Ireland, even though some 90% of Ireland's population was native Irish Catholic when the first of these bans was introduced in 1691. Tensions between Irish Catholics and Protestants have been blamed for much of "The Troubles", an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland.
During the 18th century, the Peep o' Day Boys, an agrarian association composed of Irish Protestants, engaged in numerous acts of anti-Catholic violence through County Armagh. These acts culminated in the Armagh disturbances, a period of intense sectarian conflict during the 1780's and 1790's between the Peep o' Day Boys and the Catholic Defenders. The Peep o' Day Boys would conduct early morning raids on Catholic homes to confiscate weapons, which Irish Catholics were forbidden from owning under the Penal Laws. This led to confrontations between them and the Defenders, which culminated in the Battle of the Diamond, a confrontation which saw six killed and many more wounded. Though the Orange Order would denounce the actions of the Peep o' Day Boys, further anti-Catholic violence would continue to erupt in Ireland in the years leading up the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
Laws which restricted the rights of Irish CatholicsEdit
The Great Famine of Ireland was exacerbated by the imposition of anti-Catholic laws. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the penal laws prohibited Irish Catholics from either purchasing or leasing land, from voting, from holding political office, from living either within 5 miles (8 km) away from a corporate town, from obtaining an education, from entering a profession, and doing many of the other things which a person needed to do in order to succeed and prosper in society. The laws had largely been reformed by 1793, and in 1829, Irish Catholics could again sit in parliament following the Act of Emancipation.
The state of Northern Ireland came into existence in 1921, following the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Though Catholics were a majority on the island of Ireland, comprising 74% of the population in 1911, they were a third of the population in Northern Ireland.
In 1934, Sir James Craig, the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, said, "Since we took up office we have tried to be absolutely fair towards all the citizens of Northern Ireland... They still boast of Southern Ireland being a Catholic State. All I boast of is that we are a Protestant Parliament and a Protestant State."
In 1957, Harry Midgley, the Minister of Education in Northern Ireland, said, in Portadown Orange Hall, "All the minority are traitors and have always been traitors to the Government of Northern Ireland."
The first Catholic to be appointed a minister in Northern Ireland was Dr Gerard Newe, in 1971.
In 1986, at the annual conference of the Democratic Unionist Party, MP for Mid Ulster William McCrea interrupted councillor Ethel Smyth when she said she regretted the death of Sean Downes, a 24-year-old Catholic civilian who had been killed by a plastic bullet fired by the RUC during an anti-internment march in Andersonstown in 1984. McCrea shouted, "No. No. I'll not condemn the death of John Downes [sic]. No Fenian. Never. No". In Northern Ireland and Scotland, Fenian is used by some as a derogatory word for Roman Catholics.
Fears of the Catholic Church were quite strong in the 19th century, especially among Presbyterian and other Protestant Irish immigrants across Canada.
In 1853, the Gavazzi Riots left 10 dead in Quebec in the wake of Catholic Irish protests against anti-Catholic speeches by ex-monk Alessandro Gavazzi. The most influential newspaper in Canada, The Globe of Toronto, was edited by George Brown, a Presbyterian immigrant from Ireland who ridiculed and denounced the Catholic Church, Jesuits, priests, nunneries, etc. Irish Protestants remained a political force until the 20th century. Many belonged to the Orange Order, an anti-Catholic organization with chapters across Canada that was most powerful during the late 19th century.
A key leader was Dalton McCarthy (1836–1898), a Protestant who had immigrated from Ireland. In the late 19th century he mobilized the "Orange" or Protestant Irish, and fiercely fought against Irish Catholics as well as the French Catholics. He especially crusaded for the abolition of the French language in Manitoba and Ontario schools.
In response to the 2021 Canadian Indian residential school gravesite discoveries, numerous churches and monuments in Western Canada have been vandalized or burned down.
French language schools in CanadaEdit
One of the most controversial issues was public support for Catholic French-language schools. Although the Confederation Agreement of 1867 guaranteed the status of Catholic schools when they were legalized by provincial governments, disputes erupted in numerous provinces, especially in the Manitoba Schools Question in the 1890s and in Ontario in the 1910s. In Ontario, Regulation 17 was a regulation by the Ontario Ministry of Education that restricted the use of French as a language of instruction to the first two years of schooling. French Canada reacted vehemently and lost, dooming its French-language Catholic schools. This was a central reason for French Canada's distance from the World War I effort, as its young men refused to enlist.
Protestant elements succeeded in blocking the growth of French-language Catholic public schools. However, the Irish Catholics generally supported the English language position which was advocated by the Protestants.
Newfoundland long experienced social and political tensions between the large Irish Catholic working-class, on the one hand and the Anglican elite on the other. In the 1850s, the Catholic bishop organized his flock and made them stalwarts of the Liberal party. Nasty rhetoric was the prevailing style elections; bloody riots were common during the 1861 election. The Protestants narrowly elected Hugh Hoyles as the Conservative Prime Minister. Hoyles unexpectedly reversed his long record of militant Protestant activism and worked to defuse tensions. He shared patronage and power with the Catholics; all jobs and patronage were split between the various religious bodies on a per capita basis. This 'denominational compromise' was further extended to education when all religious schools were put on the basis which the Catholics had enjoyed since the 1840s. Alone in North America Newfoundland had a state funded system of denominational schools. The compromise worked and politics ceased to be about religion and became concerned with purely political and economic issues.
The presence of Catholicism in Australia came with the 1788 arrival of the First Fleet of British convict ships at Sydney. The colonial authorities blocked a Catholic clerical presence until 1820, reflecting the legal disabilities of Catholics in Britain. Some of the Irish convicts had been transported to Australia for political crimes or social rebellion and authorities remained suspicious of the minority religion.
Catholic convicts were compelled to attend Church of England services and their children and orphans were raised as Anglicans. The first Catholic priests to arrive came as convicts following the Irish 1798 Rebellion. In 1803, Fr James Dixon was conditionally emancipated and permitted to celebrate Mass, but following the Irish led Castle Hill Rebellion of 1804, Dixon's permission was revoked. Fr Jeremiah Flynn, an Irish Cistercian, was appointed as Prefect Apostolic of New Holland and set out uninvited from Britain for the colony. Watched by authorities, Flynn secretly performed priestly duties before being arrested and deported to London. Reaction to the affair in Britain led to two further priests being allowed to travel to the colony in 1820. The Church of England was disestablished in the Colony of New South Wales by the Church Act of 1836. Drafted by the Catholic attorney-general John Plunkett, the act established legal equality for Anglicans, Catholics and Presbyterians and was later extended to Methodists.
By the late 19th century approximately a quarter of the population of Australia were Irish Australians. Many were descended from the 40,000 Irish Catholics who were transported as convicts to Australia before 1867. The majority consisted of British and Irish Protestants. The Catholics dominated the labour unions and the Labor Party. The growth of school systems in the late 19th century typically involved religious issues, pitting Protestants against Catholics. The issue of independence for Ireland was long a sore point, until the matter was resolved by the Irish War of Independence.
Limited freedom of belief is protected by Section 116 of the Constitution of Australia, but sectarianism in Australia was prominent (though generally nonviolent) in the 20th century, flaring during the First World War, again reflecting Ireland's place within the Empire, and the Catholic minority remained subject to discrimination and suspicion. During the First World War, the Irish gave support for the war effort and comprised 20% of the army in France. However, the labour unions and the Irish in particular, strongly opposed conscription, and in alliance with like-minded farmers, defeated it in national plebiscites in 1916 and 1917. The Anglicans in particular talked of Catholic "disloyalty". By the 1920s, Australia had its first Catholic prime minister.
During the 1950s, the split in the Australian Labor Party between allies and opponents of the Catholic anti-Communist B.A. Santamaria meant that the party (in Victoria and Queensland more than elsewhere) was effectively divided between pro-Catholic and anti-Catholic elements. As a result of such disunity the ALP was defeated at every single national election between 1955 and 1972. In the late 20th century, the Catholic Church replaced the Anglican Church as the largest single Christian body in Australia; and it continues to be so in the 21st century, although it still has fewer members than do the various Protestant churches combined.
While older sectarian divides declined, commentators have observed a re-emergence of anti-Catholicism in Australia in recent decades amid rising secularism and broader anti-Christian movements.
According to New Zealand historian Michael King, the situation in New Zealand has never been as clear as in Australia. Catholics first arrived in New Zealand in 1769, and the Church has had a continuous presence in the country from the time of permanent settlement by Irish Catholics in the 1820s, with the first Maori converted to Catholicism in the 1830s. The signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, which formalised New Zealand's status as a British colony and instigated substantial immigration from England and Scotland, resulted in the country developing a predominantly Protestant religious character. Nonetheless, French bishop Jean Baptiste Pompallier was able to negotiate the inclusion of a clause guaranteeing freedom of religion in some of the versions of the treaties signed and oral promises during meetings beforehand.
New Zealand has had several Catholic prime ministers, which is indicative of the widespread acceptance of Catholicism within the country; Jim Bolger, who lead the Fourth National Government of the 1990s, was the country's fourth Catholic prime minister; Bill English, who lead the Fifth National Government from 2016 to 2017, was the fifth and most recent. Probably the most notable of New Zealand's Catholic prime ministers was Michael Joseph Savage, an Australian-born trade unionist and social reformer who instigated numerous progressive policies as leader of the First Labour Government of the 1930s.
Unification into the German Empire in 1871 saw a country with a Protestant majority and large Catholic minority, speaking German or Polish. Anti-Catholicism was common. The powerful German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck – a devout Lutheran – forged an alliance with secular liberals in 1871–1878 to launch a Kulturkampf (literally, "culture struggle") especially in Prussia, the largest state in the new German Empire to destroy the political power of the Catholic Church and the Pope. Catholics were numerous in the South (Bavaria, Baden-Wuerttemberg) and west (Rhineland) and fought back. Bismarck intended to end Catholics' loyalty with Rome (ultramontanism) and subordinate all Germans to the power of his state.
Priests and bishops who resisted the Kulturkampf were arrested or removed from their positions. By the height of anti-Catholic legislation, half of the Prussian bishops were in prison or in exile, a quarter of the parishes had no priest, half the monks and nuns had left Prussia, a third of the monasteries and convents were closed, 1800 parish priests were imprisoned or exiled, and thousands of laymen were imprisoned for helping the priests. There were anti-Polish elements in Greater Poland and Silesia. The Catholics refused to comply; they strengthened their Centre Party.
Pius IX died in 1878 and was replaced by more conciliatory Pope Leo XIII who negotiated away most of the anti-Catholic laws beginning in 1880. Bismark himself broke with the anti-Catholic Liberals and worked with the Catholic Centre Party to fight Socialism. Pope Leo officially declared the end of the Kulturkampf on 23 May 1887.
The Catholic Church faced repression in Nazi Germany (1933–1945). Hitler despised the Church even though he had been brought up in a Catholic home. The long-term aim of many Nazis was the de-Christianization of Germany and the establishment of a form of Germanic paganism which would replace Christianity. however Richard J. Evans writes that Hitler believed that in the long run National Socialism and religion would not be able to co-exist, stressing repeatedly that Nazism was a secular ideology, founded on modern science: "Science, he declared, would easily destroy the last remaining vestiges of superstition". Germany could not tolerate the intervention of foreign influences such as the Pope and "Priests, he said, were 'black bugs', 'abortions in black cassocks'". Nazi ideology desired the subordination of the Church to the State and could not accept an autonomous establishment, whose legitimacy did not spring from the government. From the beginning, the Catholic Church faced general persecution, regimentation and oppression. Aggressive anti-Church radicals like Alfred Rosenberg and Martin Bormann saw the conflict with the Churches as a priority concern, and anti-Church and anti-clerical sentiments were strong among grassroots party activists. To many Nazis, Catholics were suspected of insufficient patriotism, or even of disloyalty to the Fatherland, and of serving the interests of "sinister alien forces".
Adolf Hitler had some regard for the organisational power of Catholicism, but towards its teachings he showed nothing but the sharpest hostility, calling them "the systematic cultivation of the human failure": To Hitler, Christianity was a religion that was only fit for slaves and he detested its ethics. Alan Bullock wrote: "Its teaching, he declared, was a rebellion against the natural law of selection by struggle and the survival of the fittest". For political reasons, Hitler was prepared to restrain his anti-clericalism, seeing danger in strengthening the Church by persecuting it, but he intended to wage a show-down against it after the war. Joseph Goebbels, the Minister for Propaganda, led the Nazi persecution of the Catholic clergy and wrote that there was "an insoluble opposition between the Christian and a heroic-German world view". Hitler's chosen deputy, Martin Bormann, was a rigid guardian of Nazi orthodoxy and saw Christianity and Nazism as "incompatible", as did the official Nazi philosopher, Alfred Rosenberg, who wrote in Myth of the Twentieth Century (1930) that the Catholic Church were among the chief enemies of the Germans. In 1934, the Sanctum Officium put Rosenberg's book on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (forbidden books list of the Church) for scorning and rejecting "all dogmas of the Catholic Church, indeed the very fundamentals of the Christian religion".
The Nazis claimed that they had jurisdiction over all collective and social activities and based on their claim, they infiltrated all collective and social institutions, interfered in all of the activities which they performed, and banned them if they did not become Nazified, including Catholic schools, youth groups, workers' clubs and cultural societies. Hitler moved quickly to eliminate Political Catholicism, rounding up members of the Catholic aligned Bavarian People's Party and Catholic Centre Party, which ceased to exist in early July 1933. Vice Chancellor Papen meanwhile, amid continuing molestation of Catholic clergy and organisations, negotiated a Reich concordat with the Holy See, which prohibited clergy from participating in politics. Hitler then proceeded to close all Catholic institutions whose functions were not strictly religious:
It quickly became clear that [Hitler] intended to imprison the Catholics, as it were, in their own churches. They could celebrate Mass and retain their rituals as much as they liked, but they could have nothing at all to do with German society otherwise. Catholic schools and newspapers were closed, and a propaganda campaign against the church was launched.— Extract from An Honourable Defeat by Anton Gill
Almost immediately after agreeing the Concordat, the Nazis promulgated their sterilization law, an offensive policy in the eyes of the Catholic Church and moved to dissolve the Catholic Youth League. Clergy, nuns and lay leaders began to be targeted, leading to thousands of arrests over the ensuing years, often on trumped up charges of currency smuggling or "immorality". In Hitler's Night of the Long Knives purge, Erich Klausener, the head of Catholic Action, was assassinated. Adalbert Probst, national director of the Catholic Youth Sports Association, Fritz Gerlich, editor of Munich's Catholic weekly and Edgar Jung, one of the authors of the Marburg speech, were among the other Catholic opposition figures killed in the purge.
By 1937, the Church hierarchy in Germany, which had initially attempted to co-operate with the new government, had become highly disillusioned. In March, Pope Pius XI issued the Mit brennender Sorge encyclical – accusing the Nazis of violations of the Concordat, and of sowing the "tares of suspicion, discord, hatred, calumny, of secret and open fundamental hostility to Christ and His Church". The Pope noted on the horizon the "threatening storm clouds" of religious wars of extermination over Germany. The Nazis responded with, an intensification of the Church Struggle. There were mass arrests of clergy and Church presses were expropriated. Goebbels renewed the regime's crackdown and propaganda against Catholics. By 1939 all Catholic denominational schools had been disbanded or converted to public facilities. By 1941, all Church press had been banned.
Later Catholic protests included the 22 March 1942 pastoral letter by the German bishops on "The Struggle against Christianity and the Church". About 30 per cent of Catholic priests were disciplined by police during the Nazi era. In effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, the security services monitored Catholic clergy very closely – instructing that agents monitor every diocese, that the bishops' reports to the Vatican should be obtained and that bishops' activities be discovered and reported. Priests were frequently denounced, arrested, or sent to concentration camps – many to the dedicated clergy barracks at Dachau. Of a total of 2,720 clergy imprisoned at Dachau, some 2,579 (or 95%) were Catholic. Nazi policy towards the Church was at its most severe in the territories it annexed to Greater Germany, where the Nazis set about systematically dismantling the Church – arresting its leaders, exiling its clergymen, closing its churches, monasteries and convents. Many clergymen were murdered.
The independence of the Netherlands from Spanish rule led to the formation of a majority Protestant country in which the dominant form of Protestantism was Calvinism. In Amsterdam, Catholic priests were driven out of the city and following the Dutch takeover, all Catholic churches were converted into Protestant churches. Amsterdam's relationship with the Catholic Church was not normalized until the 20th century.
After the dissolution of Denmark-Norway in 1814, the new Norwegian Constitution of 1814, did not grant religious freedom, as it stated that both Jews and Jesuits were denied entrance to the Kingdom of Norway. It also stated that attendance in a Lutheran church was compulsory, effectively banning Catholics. The ban on Catholicism was lifted in 1842, and the ban on Jews was lifted in 1851. At first, there were multiple restrictions on the practice of Catholicism by Norwegians and only foreign citizens were freely allowed to practice it. The first post-reformation parish was founded in 1843, Catholics were only allowed to celebrate Mass in this one parish. In 1845 most of the restrictions on the practice of non-Lutheran Christianity were lifted, and Catholics were now allowed to freely practice their religion, but Monasticism and the Jesuits were not allowed in the country until 1897 and 1956 respectively.
During the period of great power in Sweden, conversions to Catholicism were punished with fines or imprisonment and in exceptional cases, death. Sweden during the Thirty Years War saw itself as the protector of Protestantism in all of Europe against the pope. The Linköping Bloodbath of 20 March 1600 saw several prominent Catholic nobles beheaded by order of King Charles IX of Sweden. The executions were partially motivated by the Polish invasion of Sweden and a threat of a potential Catholic takeover under Polish king Sigismund III Vasa, who planned to reconvert Sweden back to Catholicism. The Battle of Stångebro prevented Sigismund from conquering and reconverting Sweden. Catholic nobles were put in a majority of leading positions by Sigismund In the Swedish government without the approval of the Swedish people or parliament. The conspiracy provoked new laws preventing Catholics from holding leading government positions in the Swedish government. Due to the Austrian emperor winning a lot of great victories before Sweden joined. The war and Swedish successes cemented Protestantism's continued survival in the Holy Roman Empire and the following anti-Catholicism ingrained in the religion.
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden was known as the "Lion from the North". He did prevent the pillaging of Catholic villages of Swedish troops by proclaiming Protestant moral superiority in 1631, while Catholic armies were plundering Saxony. He did not wear any armour during the Battle of Rain against the Catholics and proclaimed he was divinely chosen by God to lead the Protestants to glory, and so felt he needed no protection in battle. Russian Orthodox populations had the right to practice their faith since their incorporation in 1617 after the Ingrian War and never faced similar persecution. Even after Eastern Orthodoxy was legalized, there remained an extreme anti-Catholic sentiment in Sweden which was widely supported by German nobility and German Protestants in Swedish territories.
Only in 1781 did Catholics have the right to worship once again in Sweden, the latest of all major religions except Judaism that was legalized in the same era, even though Judaism had already been in practice tolerated since Charles XII of Sweden brought Muslim and Jewish advisors with him from the Ottoman Empire. While Protestant Swedes could not join any other religious organization until 1873, still, in 1849, Catholic converts were punished with imprisonment. Conversion to Catholicism was punished with fines or imprisonment even after the reform. Catholics could not become a minister of the Swedish government or work as teachers or nurses in Sweden until 1951.
John Higham described anti-Catholicism as "the most luxuriant, tenacious tradition of paranoiac agitation in American history."
- Jenkins, Philip. The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice (Oxford University Press, New ed. 2004). British anti-Catholicism was exported to the United States. Two types of anti-Catholic rhetoric existed in colonial society. The first, which was derived from the heritage of the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars of the sixteenth century, consisted of the "Anti-Christ" and the "Whore of Babylon" variety and it dominated Anti-Catholic thought until the late seventeenth century. The second was a more secular variety which focused on the supposed intrigue of the Catholics and accused them of plotting to extend medieval despotism worldwide.
Historian Arthur Schlesinger Sr. has called anti-Catholicism "the deepest-held bias in the history of the American people".
Historian Joseph G. Mannard says that wars reduced anti-Catholicism: "enough Catholics supported the War for Independence to erase many old myths about the inherently treasonable nature of Catholicism.... During the Civil War the heavy enlistments of Irish and Germans into the Union Army helped to dispel notions of immigrant and Catholic disloyalty."
American anti-Catholicism has its origins in the Protestant Reformation which generated anti-Catholic propaganda for various political and dynastic reasons. Because the Protestant Reformation justified itself as an effort to correct what it perceived were the errors and the excesses of the Catholic Church, it formed strong positions against the Catholic bishops and the Papacy in particular. These positions were brought to New England by English colonists who were predominantly Puritans. They opposed not only the Catholic Church but also the Church of England which, due to its perpetuation of some Catholic doctrines and practices, was deemed insufficiently "reformed". Furthermore, English and Scottish identity to a large extent was based on opposition to Catholicism. "To be English was to be anti-Catholic," writes Robert Curran.
Because many of the British colonists, such as the Puritans and Congregationalists, were fleeing religious persecution by the Church of England, much of early American religious culture exhibited the more extreme anti-Catholic bias of these Protestant denominations. Monsignor John Tracy Ellis wrote that a "universal anti-Catholic bias was brought to Jamestown in 1607 and vigorously cultivated in all the thirteen colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia". Colonial charters and laws often contained specific proscriptions against Catholics. For example, the second Massachusetts charter of October 7, 1691, decreed "that forever hereafter there shall be liberty of conscience allowed in the worship of God to all Christians, except Papists, inhabiting, or which shall inhabit or be resident within, such Province or Territory". Historians have only identified one Catholic who lived in colonial Boston – Ann Glover. She was hanged as a witch in 1688, four years before the much more famous witchcraft trials in nearby Salem.
Monsignor Ellis noted that a common hatred of the Catholic Church could unite Anglican clerics and Puritan ministers despite their differences and conflicts. One of the Intolerable Acts passed by the British Parliament that helped fuel the American Revolution was the Quebec Act of 1774, which granted freedom of worship to Roman Catholics in Canada.
The patriot reliance on Catholic France for military, financial and diplomatic aid led to a sharp drop in anti-Catholic rhetoric. Indeed, the king replaced the pope as the demon patriots had to fight against. Anti-Catholicism remained strong among loyalists, some of whom went to Canada after the war while most remained in the new nation. By the 1780s, Catholics were extended legal toleration in all of the New England states that previously had been so hostile. "In the midst of war and crisis, New Englanders gave up not only their allegiance to Britain but one of their most dearly held prejudices."
George Washington was a vigorous promoter of tolerance for all religious denominations as commander of the army (1775–1783) where he suppressed anti-Catholic celebrations in the Army and appealed to French Catholics in Canada to join the American Revolution; a few hundred of them did. Likewise he guaranteed a high degree of freedom of religion as president (1789–1797), when he often attended services of different denominations. The military alliance with Catholic France in 1778 changed attitudes radically in Boston. Local leaders enthusiastically welcomed French naval and military officers, realizing the alliance was critical to winning independence. The Catholic chaplain of the French army reported in 1781 that he was continually receiving "new civilities" from the best families in Boston; he also noted that "the people in general retain their own prejudices." By 1790, about 500 Catholics in Boston formed the first Catholic Church there.
Fear of the pope agitated some of America's Founding Fathers. For example, in 1788, John Jay urged the New York Legislature to prohibit Catholics from holding office. The legislature refused, but did pass a law designed to reach the same goal by requiring all office-holders to renounce foreign authorities "in all matters ecclesiastical as well as civil". Thomas Jefferson, looking at the Catholic Church in France, wrote, "History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government", and "In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own."
Anti-Catholic fears reached a peak in the nineteenth century when the Protestant population became alarmed by the influx of Catholic immigrants. Irish and German Catholic immigrants in particular were pouring into the US at rapid speeds in the early decades of the nineteenth century. Some settled in urban centers in the East, but a large portion also began moving to the unsettled western land along the Mississippi River Valley. The land provided the resources that they would need to survive in their new home, but it also created tensions with the Protestant Americans looking to inhabit the land themselves. Theories about the Roman Catholic Church's intentions were abundant since it appeared that the church was impeding on the Protestants' right to the western lands.
Some Protestant ministers preached the belief that the Catholic Church is the Whore of Babylon which is described in the Book of Revelation. The resulting "nativist" movement, which achieved prominence in the 1840s, was whipped into a frenzy of anti-Catholicism that led to mob violence, most notably the Philadelphia Nativist Riot of 1844. Historian David Montgomery argues that the Irish Catholic Democrats in Philadelphia had successfully appealed to the upper-class Whig leadership. The Whigs wanted to split the Democratic coalition, so they approved Bishop Kendrick's request that Catholic children be allowed to use their own Bible. That approval outraged the evangelical Protestant leadership, which rallied its support in Philadelphia and nationwide. Montgomery states:
- The school controversy, however, had united 94 leading clergymen of the city in a common pledge to strengthen Protestant education and "awaken the attention of the community to the dangers which... threaten these United States from the assaults of Romanism." The American Tract Society took up the battle cry and launched a national crusade to save the nation from the "spiritual despotism" of Rome. The whole Protestant edifice of churches, Bible societies, temperance societies, and missionary agencies was thus interposed against Catholic electoral maneuvers ... at the very moment when those maneuvers were enjoying some success.
The nativist movement found expression in a national political movement called the "American" or Know-Nothing Party of 1854–1856. It had considerable success in local and state elections in 1854–55 by emphasizing nativism and warning against Catholics and immigrants. It nominated former president Millard Fillmore as its presidential candidate in the 1856 election. However, Fillmore was not anti-Catholic or nativist; his campaign concentrated almost entirely on national unity. Historian Tyler Anbinder says, "The American party had dropped nativism from its agenda." Fillmore won 22% of the national popular vote.
During this period of time, discussions of public versus religious education were growing in both urban and rural settings. Protestants and Catholics alike understood the importance of educating the youth; however, finding common ground on how to approach education became a challenge with differing values mixing together.
While the push for moderated school systems increased in the mid-nineteenth century, government oversight was common, especially in less-populated, rural regions. As such, the local church and community tended to create educational systems centered on their particular faith, and education was largely seen as a group effort. In urban areas, public education was more closely monitored and at the forefront of politics since cities saw the largest increases in immigrant population which brought in new children to educate.
Many Catholic immigrants coming into the United States found it was more comforting to stay tightly-knit with those of the same nationality, leading churches to create their own educational facilities for the children within a particular community. Every immigrant group coming from a Catholic country had unique saints to venerate and views on how to educate their children, so ethnic groups tended to stick together in order to preserve their traditions. Classes were taught in the immigrants' native language in an attempt to keep their culture alive as well, but many American Protestants viewed this negatively, as though the immigrants were unwilling to adjust to their new lives in an English-speaking nation.
The push for public education came from a hope that America would become a more prosperous place if it were made up of well-rounded, well-educated individuals. And because immigrants made up a large portion of the population, common education had to be established. Many Catholic communities wanted to remain separate, though, since public education tended to have biblical influence from the Protestant Christian King James Bible. Major disputes erupted because the Catholic church did not want their youth to be educated under Protestant ideologies, as most public schools read bible hymns and utilized McGuffey Readers, which featured biblical passages teaching moral lessons to students from a Protestant point of view.
The disagreements between faiths led leaders of public education systems, typically Protestant in faith, to advocate for disintegration between schools. To the leaders, the Catholic community was not worthwhile and had too many differences from Protestantism; therefore, they assumed, combining educational systems would only bring about further complications. Additionally, combining systems meant leaders on either side would have to give up their authority in dictating the ideas and lessons pushed to the forefront in public education.
Anti-Catholicism among American Jews further intensified in the 1850s during the international controversy over the Edgardo Mortara case, when a baptized Jewish boy in the Papal States was removed from his family and refused to return to them.
The First Vatican Council convened in 1869 and caused another rift to form between Catholics and Protestants. The Council passed the doctrine of papal infallibility, meaning that anything the pope said in relation to faith and religious practices was fact. Protestants viewed this as an attempt for the Roman Catholic Church and the pope, who was Pope Pius IX at the time, to establish greater power over their Catholic followers.
This distrust of Rome continued to infiltrate the educational facilities in the United States as well, leading to the fight for eliminating government-funded Catholic schooling. Many cities made attempts to integrate school systems, though there were varying degrees of success. One of the successful attempts was allowing Catholic teachers to find work within public schools, teaching children of countless denominations. But there were instances of limiting Catholics in public education as seen in Poughkeepsie, NY, in 1873 when a law was passed that forbade Catholic garments from being worn within public education facilities--it was not repealed until 1898.
In the Orange Riots in New York City in 1871 and 1872, Irish Catholics violently attacked Irish Protestants, who carried orange banners.
In 1875, another attempt at limiting Catholic funding came about in the form of the Blaine Amendment. It was brought into the courts after James G. Blaine, who was searching for a campaign platform for presidency, created an argument for defunding parochial, or denominational, schools. Though it was not explicitly stated to be against Catholicism, Catholic versus public education had been a heated topic for several years by this point. Many newspapers argued that Blaine wanted to build his following from those who held anti-Catholic beliefs. Although the amendment was vetoed, it made lasting impacts on the United States. After 1875, many states passed constitutional provisions, called "Blaine Amendments", forbidding tax money be used to fund parochial schools. In 2002, the United States Supreme Court partially vitiated these amendments, when they ruled that vouchers were constitutional if tax dollars followed a child to a school even if the school were religious.
A favorite rhetorical device in the 1870s was using the code words for Catholicism: "superstition, ambition and ignorance". President Ulysses Grant in a major speech to veterans in October 1875 warned that America again faced an enemy: religious schools. Grant saw another civil war in the "near future": it would not be between North and South, but will be between "patriotism and intelligence on the one side and superstition, ambition and ignorance on the other." According to historian Charles W. Calhoun, "at various points in his life, Grant had bristled privately at what he considered religious communicants' thralldom to a domineering clergy, but he did not specifically mention Catholicism in his speech. Still, Catholic journals decried the president's seeming exploitation of religious bigotry." In his December 1875 Annual Message to Congress, Grant urged taxation on "vast amounts of untaxed church property" which Professor John McGreevey says was "a transparently anti-Catholic measure since only the Catholic Church owned vast amounts of property – in schools, orphanages, and charitable institutions". Grant told Congress such legislation would protect American citizens from tyranny "whether directed by the demagogue or by priestcraft."
20th and 21st centuriesEdit
Anti-Catholicism played a major role in the defeat of Al Smith, the Democratic nominee for president in 1928. Smith did very well in Catholic precincts, but he did poorly in the South relative to previous Democratic presidential candidates, as well as among the Lutherans of the North. His candidacy was also hampered by his close ties to the notorious Tammany Hall political machine in New York City and his strong opposition to prohibition. His cause was uphill in any case, because he faced a popular Republican leadership in a year of peace and unprecedented prosperity.
The passage of the 18th Amendment in 1919, a culmination of a half-century of anti-liquor agitation, also fueled anti-Catholic sentiment. Prohibition enjoyed strong support among dry pietistic Protestants, and equally strong opposition by wet Catholics, Episcopalians, and German Lutherans. The drys focused their distrust on the Catholics who showed little popular support for the enforcement of prohibition laws, and when the Great Depression began in 1929, there was increasing sentiment that the government needed the tax revenue which the repeal of Prohibition would bring.
Over 10 million Protestant soldiers who served in World War II came into close contact with Catholic soldiers; they got along well and, after the war, they played a central role in spreading a greater level of ethnic and religious tolerance for Catholics among other white Americans. Although anti-Catholic sentiment declined in the U.S. in the 1960s, particularly after John F. Kennedy became the first Catholic U.S. president, traces of it persist in both the media and popular culture. In March, 2000, the Catholic League criticized Slate magazine and journalist Jack Shafer for a piece the League described as taking "delight in justifying anti-Catholicism." Anti-Catholic hate crimes against persons and property have also continued to occur. The summer of 2020 saw a wave of anti-Catholic acts which ranged from the vandalization of churches and cathedrals; to the destruction and often the decapitation of statues, particularly statues of St Junipero Serra, Mary, and Jesus; Illinois, and Florida. Many of these acts are tied to other political movements, most notably the QAnon movement, though other far right groups have also espoused anti-Catholic sentiment. One popular conspiracy is that the three stars on the DC flag stand for London, the Vatican and Washington. Another far right conspiracy claims the pope was arrested for sexual abuse.
In primarily Catholic countriesEdit
Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. It suggests a more active and partisan role than mere laïcité. The goal of anticlericalism is sometimes to reduce religion to a purely private belief-system with no public profile or influence. However, many times it has included outright suppression of all aspects of faith.
Anticlericalism has at times been violent, leading to murders and the desecration, destruction and seizure of Church property. Anticlericalism in one form or another has existed throughout most of Christian history, and it is considered to be one of the major popular forces underlying the 16th century reformation. Some of the philosophers of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire, continually attacked the Catholic Church, both its leadership and its priests, claiming that many of its clergy were morally corrupt. These assaults in part led to the suppression of the Jesuits, and played a major part in the wholesale attacks on the very existence of the Church during the French Revolution in the Reign of Terror and the program of dechristianization. Similar attacks on the Church occurred in Mexico and Portugal since their 1910 revolutions and in Spain during the twentieth century.
In 1954, Argentina saw extensive destruction of churches, denunciations of clergy and confiscation of Catholic schools as Juan Perón attempted to extend state control over national institutions such as the Catholic Church in Argentina.
Holy Roman EmpireEdit
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (emperor 1765–1790) opposed what he called "contemplative" religious institutions – reclusive Catholic institutions that he perceived as doing nothing positive for the community. Although Joseph II was himself a Catholic, he also believed in firm state control of ecclesiastical matters outside of the strictly religious sphere and decreed that Austrian bishops could not communicate directly with the Roman Curia. His policies are included in what is called Josephinism, that promoted the subjection of the Catholic Church in the Habsburg lands to service for the state.
Georg Ritter von Schönerer (1842–1921) was an Austrian landowner and politician of Austro-Hungary. He was a major opponent of political Catholicism and the founder of the movement Away from Rome!, aimed the conversion of all the Catholic German-speaking population of Austria to Lutheranism, or, in some cases, to the Old Catholic Churches.
Brazil has the largest number of Catholics in the world, and as a result, it has not experienced any large anti-Catholic movements.
During the Nineteenth Century, the Religious Issue was the name given to the crisis when Freemasons in the Brazilian government imprisoned two Catholic bishops for enforcing the Church's prohibition against Freemasonry.
Even during times in which the Church was experiencing intense conservatism, such as the era of the Brazilian military dictatorship, anti-Catholicism was not advocated by the left-wing movements (instead, Liberation theology gained force). However, with the growing number of Protestants (especially Neo-Pentecostals) in the country, anti-Catholicism has gained strength. A pivotal moment during the rise of anti-Catholicism was the kicking of the saint episode in 1995. However, owing to the protests of the Catholic majority, the perpetrator was transferred to South Africa for the duration of the controversy.
During the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, drug dealers took advantage of the pandemic to unite five slums in Rio de Janeiro imposing evangelical Protestantism on the area and attacking Catholics (and also members of Umbanda).
Anti-Catholic and anti-clerical sentiments, some of which were spurred by an anti-clerical conspiracy theory which was circulating in Colombia during the mid-twentieth century, led to the persecution and killing of Catholics, most specifically, the persecution and killing of members of the Catholic clergy, during the events which are known as La Violencia.
Cuba, under the rule of the atheist Fidel Castro, succeeded in reducing the ability of the Catholic Church to work by deporting one archbishop and 150 Spanish priests, by discriminating against Catholics in public life and education and refusing to accept them as members of the Communist Party. The subsequent flight of 300,000 Cubans from the island also helped to diminish the Church there.
During the French Revolution (1789–1795), the clergy and the laity were persecuted and Church property was confiscated and destroyed by the new government as part of a process of Dechristianization, the aims of which were the destruction of Catholic practices and the destruction of the very faith itself, culminating in the imposition of the atheistic Cult of Reason followed by the imposition of the deistic Cult of the Supreme Being. The persecution led Catholics who lived in the west of France to wage a counterrevolution, the War in the Vendée, and when the state was victorious, it killed tens of thousands of Catholics. A few historians have called the killings a genocide. However, most historians believe that the killings constituted a brutal crackdown against political enemies rather than a genocide. The French invasions of Italy (1796–1799) included an assault on Rome and the exile of Pope Pius VI in 1798.
Relations improved in 1802 when Napoleon came to terms with the Pope in the Concordat of 1801. It allowed the Church to operate but did not give back the lands; it proved satisfactory for a century. By 1815 the Papacy supported the growing alliance against Napoleon, and was re-instated as the State Church during the conservative Bourbon Restoration of 1815–1830. The brief French Revolution of 1848 again opposed the Church, but the Second French Empire (1851–1871) gave it full support. The history of 1789–1871 had established two camps – the left against the Church and the right supporting it – that largely continued until the Vatican II process in 1962–1965.
The Government of France's Third Republic (1871–1940) was dominated by anti-clericalism, the desire to secularise the State and cultural life, based on an obsession with being faithful to the most extreme currents of the French Revolution. This was the position of the radicals and socialists. in 1902 Émile Combes became Minister of the Interior, and the main energy of the government was devoted to furthering an anti-clerical agenda. The parties of the Left, Socialists and Radicals, united upon this question in the Bloc republicain, supported Combes in his application of the law of 1901 on the religious associations, and voted the new bill on the congregations (1904). By 1904, through his efforts, nearly 10,000 religious schools had been closed and thousands of priests and nuns left France rather than be persecuted. Under his guidance parliament passed the 1905 French law on the separation of Church and State, which reversed the Napoleonic arrangement of 1801.
In the Affaire Des Fiches, in France in 1904–1905, it was discovered that the militantly anticlerical War Minister under Combes, General Louis André, had imposed religious discrimination upon the French armed forces by using the Masonic Grand Orient de France's huge card index documenting which military officers were practicing Catholics and attended Mass and then blocking them from all future promotions. Exposure of the policy in the National Assembly by the opposition almost caused the government to fall; instead Emile Combes retired.
In the Napoleonic era, anti-clericalism was a powerful political force. From 1860 through 1870, the new Italian government, under the House of Savoy, outlawed all religious orders, both male and female, including the Franciscans, the Dominicans and the Jesuits, closed down their monasteries and confiscated their property, and imprisoned or banished bishops who opposed this (see Kulturkampf). Italy took over Rome in 1870 when it lost its French protection; the Pope declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican. Relations were finally normalized in 1929 with the Lateran Treaty.
Following the Reform War, President Benito Juárez issued a decree nationalizing Church properties, separating Church and State, and suppressing religious orders.
In the wake of the Mexican Revolution, the Mexican Constitution of 1917 contained further anti-clerical provisions. Article 3 called for secular education in the schools and prohibited the Church from engaging in primary education; Article 5 outlawed monastic orders; Article 24 forbade public worship outside the confines of churches; and Article 27 placed restrictions on the right of religious organizations to hold property. Article 130 deprived clergy members of political rights.
Mexican President Plutarco Elías Calles's strict enforcement of previous anti-clerical legislation denying priests' rights, enacted as the Calles Law, prompted the Mexican Episcopate to suspend all Catholic worship in Mexico from August 1, 1926, and sparked the bloody Cristero War of 1926–1929 in which some 50,000 peasants took up arms against the government. Their slogan was "¡Viva Cristo Rey!" (Long live Christ the King!).
The effects of the war on the Church were profound. Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. Where there were 4,500 priests serving the people before the rebellion, in 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government to serve fifteen million people, the rest having been eliminated by emigration, expulsion, assassination or not obtaining licenses. It appears that ten states were left without any priests. Other sources indicate that the persecution was such that, by 1935, 17 states had no registered priests.
Some of the Catholic casualties of this struggle are known as the Saints of the Cristero War. Events relating to this were famously portrayed in the novel The Power and the Glory by Graham Greene.
For the situation in Russian Poland, see Anticatholicism in Russian Empire
Catholicism in Poland, the religion of the vast majority of the population, was severely persecuted during World War II, following the Nazi invasion of the country and its subsequent annexation into Germany. Over 3 million Catholics of Polish descent were murdered during the Invasion of Poland, including 3 bishops, 52 priests, 26 monks, 3 seminarians, 8 nuns and 9 lay people, later beatified in 1999 by Pope John Paul II as the 108 Martyrs of World War II.
The Roman Catholic Church was even more violently suppressed in Reichsgau Wartheland and the General Government. Churches were closed, and clergy were deported, imprisoned, or killed, among them was Maximilian Kolbe, a Pole of German descent. Between 1939 and 1945, 2,935 members of the Polish clergy (18%) were killed in concentration camps. In the city of Chełmno, for example, 48% of the Catholic clergy were killed.
Catholicism continued to be persecuted under the Communist regime from the 1950s. Contemporary Stalinist ideology claimed that the Church and religion in general were about to disintegrate. Initially, Archbishop Wyszyński entered into an agreement with the Communist authorities, which was signed on 14 February 1950 by the Polish episcopate and the government. The Agreement regulated the matters of the Church in Poland. However, in May of that year, the Sejm breached the Agreement by passing a law for the confiscation of Church property.
On 12 January 1953, Wyszyński was elevated to the rank of cardinal by Pius XII as another wave of persecution began in Poland. When the bishops voiced their opposition to state interference in ecclesiastical appointments, mass trials and the internment of priests began – the cardinal being one of its victims. On 25 September 1953 he was imprisoned at Grudziądz, and later placed under house arrest in monasteries in Prudnik near Opole and in Komańcza Monastery in the Bieszczady Mountains. He was released on 26 October 1956.
Pope John Paul II, who was born in Poland as Karol Wojtyla, often cited the persecution of Polish Catholics in his stance against Communism.
Anti-clericalism in Spain at the start of the Spanish Civil War resulted in the killing of almost 7,000 clergy, the destruction of hundreds of churches and the persecution of lay people in Spain's Red Terror. Hundreds of Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War have been beatified and hundreds more in October 2007.
In mixed Catholic-Protestant countriesEdit
The Jesuits (Societas Jesu) were banned from all activities in either clerical or pedagogical functions by Article 51 of the Swiss constitution in 1848. The reason for the ban was the perceived threat to the stability of the state resulting from Jesuit advocacy of traditional Catholicism; it followed the Roman Catholic cantons forming an unconstitutional separate alliance leading to civil war. In June 1973, 55% of Swiss voters approved removing the ban on the Jesuits (as well as Article 52 which banned monasteries and convents from Switzerland). (See Kulturkampf and Religion in Switzerland)
In primarily Orthodox countriesEdit
In the East–West Schism of 1054 the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church broke their full communion with each other because of Ecclesiastical differences, Theological, and Liturgical disputes.
In April 1182, the Eastern Orthodox population of the Byzantine Empire committed a large-scale massacre against the Catholic population of Constantinople, this massacre is known as the Massacre of the Latins and it further worsened relations and increased enmity between Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
During Russian rule, Catholics, primarily Poles and Lithuanians, suffered great persecution not only because of their ethnic-national background, but also for religious reasons. Especially after the uprisings of 1831 and 1863, and within the process of Russification (understanding that there is a strong link between religion and nationality), the tsarist authorities were anxious to promote the conversion of these peoples to the official faith, intervening in public education in those regions (an Orthodox religious education was compulsory) and censoring the actions of the Catholic Church. In particular, attention was focused on the public actions of the Church, such as masses or funerals, because they could serve as the focus of protests against the occupation. Many priests were imprisoned or deported because of their activities in defense of their religion and ethnicity. In the late nineteenth century, however, there was a progressive relaxation of the control of Catholic institutions by the Russian authorities.
During World War II in Yugoslavia, the Chetniks killed an estimated 18,000–32,000 Croats, who were mostly Roman Catholic. The terror tactics against the Croats were, to at least an extent, a reaction to the terror carried out by the Ustaše against Serbs. Along with mass murder, the Ustashe conducted religious persecution of Serbs that included a policy of forced conversion from Eastern Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism, often with the participation of local Catholic priests. However, the largest Chetnik massacres took place in eastern Bosnia where they preceded any significant Ustashe operations. Croats (and Muslims) living in areas intended to be part of Greater Serbia were to be cleansed of non-Serbs regardless, in accordance with Mihailović's directive of 20 December 1941. About 300 villages and small towns were destroyed, along with a large number of mosques and Catholic churches. Fifty-two Catholic priests were killed by Chetniks throughout the war. A number of Catholic nuns were also raped and killed, including the killing of several nuns from Goražde in December 1941.
During the war in Croatia, the ICTY determined that ethnic Croats were persecuted on political, racial and religious grounds, as part of a general campaign of killings and forced-removals of Croat civilians. This included the deliberate destruction of religious buildings and monuments. Approximately 450 Catholic churches were destroyed or severely damaged, with another 250 suffering lesser damages. In addition, approximately 151 rectories, 31 monasteries, and 57 cemeteries were destroyed or severely damaged. While another 269 religious buildings were destroyed during the Bosnian War.
In the separatist region known as the Donetsk People's Republic, the government has declared that the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate is the state religion, and Protestant churches have been occupied by paramilitaries. Jehovah's Witnesses have lost their property, and their Kingdom Halls have been occupied by rebels in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Ukrainian Orthodox, and Protestant clergy have been kidnapped by groups such as the Russian Orthodox Army, and they have also been accused of opposing Russian Orthodox values. Human Rights Watch says that the bodies of several members of the Church of the Transfiguration were found in a mass grave in 2014.
On 3 June 2001, nine people were killed by a bomb explosion at a Roman Catholic church in the Gopalganj District.
On May 12, 2019, six Catholics including a priest were killed by gunmen who rode on motorcycles and stormed a church in Dablo during a Sunday morning mass. A day later, on May 13, 2019, four people were killed and a statue of the Virgin Mary was destroyed by armed men in an attack on Catholic parishioners during a religious procession in the remote village of Zimtenga.
The Daoguang Emperor modified an existing law, making the spread of Catholicism punishable by death. During the Boxer Rebellion, Catholic missionaries and their families were murdered by Boxer rebels. During the 1905 Tibetan Rebellion, Tibetan rebels murdered Catholics and Tibetan converts.
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, all religions including Catholicism only operate under state control. However, many Catholics do not accept State control of the Church and as a result, they worship clandestinely. There has been some rapprochement between the Chinese government and the Vatican.
Chinese Christians have reportedly been persecuted in both official and unsanctioned churches. In 2018, the Associated Press reported that China's paramount leader Xi Jinping "is waging the most severe systematic suppression of Christianity in the country since religious freedom was written into the Chinese constitution in 1982", which has involved "destroying crosses, burning bibles, shutting churches and ordering followers to sign papers renouncing their faith".
On 5 February 1597 a group of twenty-six Catholics were killed on the orders of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japanese Catholics were suppressed, leading to an armed rebellion during the 1630s. After the rebellion was crushed, Catholicism was further suppressed and many Japanese Catholics went underground. Catholicism was not openly restored to Japan until the 1850s.
Catholic priests and nuns have been arrested and harassed for protesting against the construction of the Jeju Island Naval Base.
In Sri Lanka, A Buddhist-influenced government took over 600 parish schools in 1960 without compensation and secularized them. Attempts were made by future governments to restore some autonomy.
Since 2000, in a context of rising violence against religious minorities, i.e. Christians, Muslims and Hindus, multiple attacks on Catholic churches occurred. For instance, in 2009, a mob of 1,000 smashed the interior of a church in the town of Crooswatta, assaulting parishioners with clubs, swords and stones, forcing several of them to be treated in hospitals. In 2013, vandals smashed a statue of the Virgin Mary as well as a tabernacle, and they also tried to burn the Eucharist at a church in Angulana, near Colombo.
The term "anti-Catholic Catholic" has come to be applied to Catholics who are perceived to view the Catholic Church with animosity. Traditionalist or conservative Catholics frequently use it as a descriptive term for modernist or liberal Catholics, especially those modernist or liberal Catholics who seek to reform Church doctrine, make secularist critiques of the Catholic Church, or place secular principles above Church teachings. Those who take issue with the Catholic theology of sexuality are especially prone to be given this label.
Suppression of the JesuitsEdit
Prime Minister Pombal of Portugal was aggressively hostile to the Jesuit order because it reported to an Italian power – the Pope – and it also tried to operate independently rather than operate under the control of the government. In Portugal as well as in much of Catholic Europe, he waged a full-scale war against the Jesuits. The Jesuit order was suppressed in the Portuguese Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767), and Austria and Hungary (1782). The Pope himself suppressed the order everywhere in 1773, but it survived in Russia and Prussia. The suppression of the Jesuits was a major blow to Catholic education across Europe, with nearly 1000 secondary schools and seminaries were shut down. Their lands, buildings, and endowments were confiscated; their teachers were scattered. Although Jesuit education had become old fashioned in Poland and other areas, it was the main educational support network for Catholic intellectuals, senior clergy, and prominent families. Governments unsuccessfully attempted to replace all of those schools, but there were far too few non-clerical teachers who were suitable.
The Jesuit order was restored by the pope in 1814 and it flourished in terms of rebuilding schools and educational institutions but it never regained its enormous political power. The suppression of the Jesuits has been described as "an unmitigated disaster for Catholicism." The political weakness of the once-powerful institution was on public display for more ridicule and bullying. The Church lost its best educational system, its best missionary system, and its most innovative thinkers. Intellectually, it would take two centuries for the Church to fully recover.
In popular cultureEdit
Anti-Catholic stereotypes are a long-standing feature of English literature, popular fiction, and pornography. Gothic fiction is particularly rich in this regard. Lustful priests, cruel abbesses, immured nuns, and sadistic inquisitors appear in such works as The Italian by Ann Radcliffe, The Monk by Matthew Lewis, Melmoth the Wanderer by Charles Maturin and "The Pit and the Pendulum" by Edgar Allan Poe.
- Black Legend
- Catholic revival
- History of Christianity
- Protestant Revolutionary Propaganda
- The Great Apostasy
- Persecution of Christians
- ^ Anti-catholicism. Dictionary.com. WordNet 3.0. Princeton University. (accessed: November 13, 2008).
- ^ Mehmet Karabela (2021). Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes. New York: Routledge. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0-367-54954-1.
- ^ John Wolffe, "A Comparative Historical Categorisation of Anti‐Catholicism." Journal of Religious History 39.2 (2015): 182–202.
- ^ John W. O'Malley SJ, The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present (2017).[ISBN missing][page needed]
- ^ Oberman, Heiko Augustinus (1 January 1994). The Impact of the Reformation: Essays. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-0732-8 – via Google Books.
- ^ Luther's Last Battles: Politics And Polemics 1531–46 By Mark U. Edwards, Jr. Fortress Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8006-3735-4
- ^ HIC OSCULA PEDIBUS PAPAE FIGUNTUR
- ^ "Nicht Bapst: nicht schreck uns mit deim ban, Und sey nicht so zorniger man. Wir thun sonst ein gegen wehre, Und zeigen dirs Bel vedere"
- ^ Mark U. Edwards, Jr., Luther's Last Battles: Politics And Polemics 1531–46 (2004), p. 199
- ^ Mehmet Karabela (2021). Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-367-54954-1.
- ^ Joseph A. Burgess; Jeffrey Gros, eds. (1989). Building Unity. New York: Paulist Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-8091-3040-5.
- ^ "Smalcald Articles - Book of Concord". 8 November 2019. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
- ^ Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope Archived 2008-10-10 at the Wayback Machine in the Triglot translation of the Book of Concord
- ^ Archived copy at the Library of Congress (May 8, 2009).
- ^ "UMC.org: The official online ministry of The United Methodist Church".
- ^ Edward Gibbon (1994 edition, edited by David Womersley), The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Penguin Books: Vol. 1, 469.
- ^ Mark A. Noll; Carolyn Nystrom (2008). Is the Reformation Over?: An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism. Baker Academic. pp. 236–237. ISBN 978-0-8010-3575-3.
- ^ Edward Peters (1989). Inquisition. U of California Press. pp. 155–188. ISBN 978-0-520-06630-4.
- ^ David M. Loades, The Reign of Mary Tudor: Politics, Government and Religion in England, 1553–58 (1991)
- ^ McConnel, James (2011). "Remembering the 1605 Gunpowder Plot in Ireland, 1605–1920". Journal of British Studies. 50 (4): 863–891. doi:10.1086/661200. S2CID 145376199.
- ^ Colin Haydon, Anti-Catholicism in eighteenth-century England, c. 1714–80: A political and social study (Manchester University Press, 1993)
- ^ Dorothy Marshall, Eighteenth Century England (1974) pp. 469–472
- ^ Marjule Anne Drury, "Anti-Catholicism in Germany, Britain, and the United States: A Review and Critique of Recent Scholarship" Church History (2001) 70#1
- ^ E. R. Norman. Anti-Catholicism in Victorian England (1968)
- ^ J.R.H. Moorman (1973) A History of the Church in England. London, A&C Black: 457
- ^ John D. Brewer, and Gareth I. Higgins, Anti-catholicism in Northern Ireland, 1600–1998: the mote and the beam (1998)
- ^ Steven Roud (2006) The English Year. London, Penguin: 455–463
- ^ Clive D. Field, "No Popery's Ghost." Journal of Religion in Europe 7#2 (2014): 116–149.
- ^ Laws in Ireland for the Suppression of Popery Archived 2008-01-03 at the Wayback Machine at University of Minnesota Law School
- ^ S. J. Connolly (2008). Divided Kingdom, Ireland 1630–1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 453–455. ISBN 978-0-19-958387-4.
- ^ S. J. Connolly (2007). Oxford Companion to Irish History. Oxford University Press. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-19-923483-7.
- ^ MacManus, Seumas (1944). The Story of the Irish Race. New York: The Devin-Adair Company. pp. 458–459.
- ^ Feargal Cochrane, Unionist Politics and the Politics of Unionism since the Anglo-Irish Agreement (Cork: Cork University Press, 2001), p. 155
- ^ "Fenian". TheFreeDictionary.com.
- ^ a b Miller, James R. (1985). "Anti-Catholic Thought in Victorian Canada". Canadian Historical Review. 66 (4): 474–494. doi:10.3138/chr-066-04-03. S2CID 161882813.
- ^ Bernard Aspinwall, "Rev. Alessandro Gavazzi (1808–1889) and Scottish Identity: A Chapter in Nineteenth Century Anti-Catholicism." Recusant History 28#1 (2006): 129–152
- ^ Horner, Dan (2011). "'Shame upon you as men!': Contesting Authority in the Aftermath of Montreal's Gavazzi Riot". Histoire Sociale/Social History. 44 (1): 29–52. doi:10.1353/his.2011.0006. S2CID 55335177.
- ^ J.M.C. Careless, Brown of the Globe: Volume One: Voice of Upper Canada 1818-1859 (1959) 1:172–174
- ^ Kenny, Stephen (2002). "A Prejudice that Rarely Utters Its Name: A Historiographical and Historical Reflection upon North American Anti-Catholicism". American Review of Canadian Studies. 32 (4): 639–672. doi:10.1080/02722010209481678. S2CID 143681268.
- ^ See Hereward Senior "Orange Order" in Canadian Encyclopedia (2015).
- ^ J. R. Miller, "'As a Politician He is a Great Enigma': The Social and Political Ideas of D'Alton McCarthy." Canadian Historical Review 58.4 (1977): 399–422.
- ^ Bilefsky, Dan (22 June 2021). "Fire Destroys Two Catholic Churches on Canadian Indigenous Land". The New York Times.
- ^ "Statue of Pope John Paul II outside Edmonton Catholic church painted red | CBC News".
- ^ "'Of course it's suspicious': 2 more Catholic churches burn in B.C.'s Southern Interior | Globalnews.ca".
- ^ Prang, Margaret (1960). "Clerics, Politicians, and the Bilingual Schools Issue in Ontario, 1910–1917". Canadian Historical Review. 41 (4): 281–307. doi:10.3138/chr-041-04-01. S2CID 159985043.
- ^ Robert Craig Brown, and Ramsay Cook, Canada, 1896–1921: A nation transformed (1974) pp. 253–262
- ^ Jack Cecillon, "Turbulent Times in the Diocese of London: Bishop Fallon and the French-Language Controversy, 1910–18". Ontario History (1995) 87#4 pp: 369–395.
- ^ John Edward FitzGerald, Conflict and culture in Irish-Newfoundland Roman Catholicism, 18291850 (U of Ottawa, 1997) online Archived 2021-11-11 at the Wayback Machine online.
- ^ Jeff A. Webb, "The Election Riots of 1861" (2001) online edition
- ^ Frederick Jones, "HOYLES, Sir HUGH WILLIAM," in Dictionary of Canadian Biography vol. 11, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed May 25, 2015, online.
- ^ a b "The Catholic Community in Australia". Catholic Australia. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Australia". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- ^ Stephen A. Chavura and Ian Tregenza. "A Political History of the Secular in Australia, 1788–1945." in Timothy Stanley, ed., Religion after Secularization in Australia (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015) pp. 3–31.
- ^ Mike Cronin; Daryl Adair (2006). The Wearing of the Green: A History of St Patrick's Day. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-203-00714-3.
- ^ O'Farrell, Patrick James (1987). "Chapter Six: Rebels". The Irish in Australia. NSWU Press. ISBN 978-0-86840-146-1.
- ^ Griffin, James. "Mannix, Daniel (1864–1963)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University – via Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- ^ Jeffrey Grey (2008-02-28). A Military History of Australia. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-139-46828-2.
- ^ Gilbert, Alan D. (1971). "Protestants, Catholics and Loyalty: An Aspect of the Conscription Controversies, 1916–1917". Politics. 6 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1080/00323267108401230.
- ^ Robertson, J. R. "Scullin, James Henry (1876–1953)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University – via Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- ^ Henderson, Gerard (5 October 2004). "Abbott, Pell and the new sectarianism". The Age.
- ^ "I'll wear ovaries T-shirt again: Nettle". The Sydney Morning Herald. 10 February 2006.
- ^ For the lynch mob, priests are guilty until proven innocent; www.dailytelegraph.com.au; march 16, 2019
- ^ Archbishop Coleridge says ABC not interested in the 'real story' of the Catholic Church; http://catholicleader.com.au; July 26, 2017
- ^ (God's Farthest Outpost, A History of Catholics in New Zealand, Viking, 1997, p. 9)
- ^ "Article four and Hobson's choice". NZ Herald. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
- ^ Colenso, William (1890). The Authentic and Genuine History of the Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi Wellington: Government Printer. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- ^ Fresne, Karl Du (2017-07-25). "New Zealand politics isn't as anti-Catholic as Britain's". Stuff. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
- ^ Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "Building a national Catholic Church". teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
- ^ Michael B. Gross, The war against Catholicism: Liberalism and the anti-Catholic imagination in nineteenth-century Germany (U of Michigan Press, 2004).
- ^ Helmstadter, Richard J., Freedom and religion in the nineteenth century, p. 19, Stanford Univ. Press 1997
- ^ (in English) Norman Davies (1982). God's Playground. Columbia University Press. pp. 126–127.
- ^ Michael B. Gross, The War against Catholicism: Liberalism and the Anti-Catholic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Germany (2005)
- ^ Ronald J. Ross, The Failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and State Power in Imperial Germany, 1871–1887 (Catholic University of America Press, 1998)
- ^ Sharkey, Word for Word/The Case Against the Nazis; How Hitler's Forces Planned To Destroy German Christianity, New York Times, 13 January 2002
- ^ The Nazi Master Plan: The Persecution of the Christian Churches Archived 2013-09-26 at the Wayback Machine, Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion, Winter 2001, publishing evidence compiled by the O.S.S. for the Nuremberg war-crimes trials of 1945 and 1946
- ^ Griffin, Roger (2006). "Introduction: Part 1: Defining Fascism: Fascism's relation to religion". In Blamires, Cyprian (ed.). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC–CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-57607-940-9.
There is no doubt that in the long run Nazi leaders such as Hitler and Himmler intended to eradicate Christianity just as ruthlessly as any other rival ideology, even if in the short term they had to be content to make compromises with it.
- ^ Mosse, George Lachmann, Nazi culture: intellectual, cultural and social life in the Third Reich, p. 240, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2003: "Had the Nazis won the war their ecclesiastical policies would have gone beyond those of the German Christians, to the utter destruction of both the Protestant and the Catholic Church."
- ^ Shirer, William L., Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, p. 240, Simon and Schuster, 1990: "And even fewer paused to reflect that under the leadership of Rosenberg, Bormann and Himmler, who were backed by Hitler, the Nazi regime would eventually destroy Christianity in Germany, if it could, and replace it with the old paganism of the early tribal Germanic gods and the new paganism of the Nazi extremists."
- ^ Fischel, Jack R., Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust, p. 123, Scarecrow Press, 2010: "The objective was to either destroy Christianity and restore the German gods of antiquity or to turn Jesus into an Aryan."
- ^ Dill, Marshall, Germany: a modern history, p. 365, University of Michigan Press, 1970: "It seems no exaggeration to insist that the greatest challenge the Nazis had to face was their effort to eradicate Christianity in Germany or at least to subjugate it to their general world outlook."
- ^ Wheaton, Eliot Barculo (1968). Prelude to calamity: the Nazi revolution, 1933–35: with a background survey of the Weimar era. Doubleday. pp. 290, 363. ISBN 978-0-575-00184-8.
Hitler ... determined 'to eradicate Christianity in Germany root and branch.'
- ^ Bendersky, Joseph W., A concise history of Nazi Germany, p. 147, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007: "Consequently, it was Hitler's long range goal to eliminate the churches once he had consolidated control over his European empire."
- ^ Richard J. Evans; The Third Reich at War; Penguin Press; New York 2009, p. 547.
- ^ Theodore S. Hamerow; On the Road to the Wolf's Lair – German Resistance to Hitler; Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 1997; ISBN 0-674-63680-5; p. 196.
- ^ Peter Hoffmann; The History of the German Resistance 1933-1945; 3rd Edn (First English Edn); McDonald & Jane's; London; 1977; p. 14
- ^ a b c Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; pp. 381–382.
- ^ Theodore S. Hamerow; On the Road to the Wolf's Lair – German Resistance to Hitler; Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 1997; ISBN 0-674-63680-5; p. 74.
- ^ Alan Bullock. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p. 218.
- ^ Alan Bullock. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p. 219.
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Fascism - Identification with Christianity; 2013. Web. 14 April 2013
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online - Martin Bormann; web 25 April 2013
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online - Alfred Rosenberg; web 25 April 2013.
- ^ Richard Bonney; Confronting the Nazi War on Christianity: the Kulturkampf Newsletters, 1936-1939; International Academic Publishers; Bern; 2009; ISBN 978-3-03911-904-2; p. 122.
- ^ Theodore S. Hamerow; On the Road to the Wolf's Lair – German Resistance to Hitler; Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 1997; ISBN 0-674-63680-5; p. 136.
- ^ Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; W.W. Norton & Company; London; p. 290.
- ^ Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p. 295.
- ^ Anton Gill; An Honourable Defeat; A History of the German Resistance to Hitler; Heinemann; London; 1994; p. 57.
- ^ a b William L. Shirer; The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich; Secker & Warburg; London; 1960; pp. 234–235.
- ^ Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p. 315
- ^ John S. Conway; The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933–1945; Regent College Publishing; 2001; ISBN 1-57383-080-1 (US); p. 92.
- ^ Joachim Fest; Plotting Hitler's Death: The German Resistance to Hitler 1933–1945; Weidenfeld & Nicolson; London; p. 374.
- ^ Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3; pp. 245–246.
- ^ Fest, Joachim (1996). Plotting Hitler's Death: The German Resistance to Hitler 1933–1945. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; p. 377.
- ^ Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3; p. 244.
- ^ Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 978-0-85211-009-6; pp. 141–2
- ^ Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 978-0-85211-009-6; pp. 276–277
- ^ Libionka, Dariusz (2004). "The Catholic Church in Poland and the Holocaust, 1939–1945" (PDF). In Carol Rittner; Stephen D. Smith; Irena Steinfeldt (eds.). The Holocaust And The Christian World: Reflections On The Past Challenges For The Future. New Leaf Press. pp. 74–78. ISBN 978-0-89221-591-1.
- ^ "Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 28 November 2005. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- ^ Norman Davies; Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw; Viking; 2003; p. 92.
- ^ World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 558. ISBN 978-0-7614-7890-4.
- ^ Let's Go Amsterdam 5th Edition. Macmillan. 2007. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-312-37454-9.
- ^ Esser, Raingard (2012). The Politics of Memory: The Writing of Partition in the Seventeenth-Century Low Countries. Brill. p. 34. ISBN 978-90-04-20807-0.
- ^ Arab, Pooyan Tamimi (2017). Amplifying Islam in the European Soundscape: Religious Pluralism and Secularism in the Netherlands. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-4742-9144-6.
- ^ Oftestad, Bernt T. (2013). Norway and the Jesuit Order: A History of Anti-Catholicism. Brill Rodopi. pp. 209–222. ISBN 978-94-012-0963-2.
- ^ Prinz, Oliver C. (2005) (in German). Der Einfluss von Heeresverfassung und Soldatenbild auf die Entwicklung des Militärstrafrechts. Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte. 7. Osnabrück: V&R unipress. pp. 40–41. ISBN 3-89971-129-7. Referring to Kroener, Bernhard R. (1993). "Militärgeschichte des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit bis 1648. Vom Lehnskrieger zum Söldner". In Neugebauer, Karl-Volker (in German). Grundzüge der deutschen Militärgeschichte. 1. Freiburg: Rombach. p. 32.
- ^ Kuosa, Tauno (1963). Jokamiehen Suomen historia II. Sata sotaista vuotta ("Everyman's Finnish History II: Hundred Warlike Years"). Helsinki: Werner Söderström Publishing Ltd.. (Finnish)
- ^ Påminner om Karl XII:s brev om religionsfrihet (2016) 21 march https://www.svt.se/nyheter/lokalt/skane/paminner-om-karl-xii-s-brev-om-religionsfrihet
- ^ ^ [a b c d e] Alwall, Jonas (2003). "Muslimerna och religionsfriheten". i Ingvar Svanberg & David Westerlund. Blågul islam? Muslimer i Sverige. ISBN 91-578-0308-0
- ^ ^ Se Yvonne Maria Werners artikel "Katolicism och religionsfrihet", Signum 2002; 9
- ^ Jenkins, Philip (2004). The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-19-517604-9.
- ^ a b Mannard, Joseph G. (1981). American Anti-Catholicism and its Literature. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27.
- ^ "The Coming Catholic Church". By David Gibson. HarperCollins: Published 2004.
- ^ Robert Emmett Curran, Papist Devils: Catholics in British America, 1574–1783 (2014) pp 201–202
- ^ Ellis, John Tracy (1956). American Catholicism.
- ^ The Charter Granted by their Majesties King William and Queen Mary, to the Inhabitants of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in New-England, Publisher: Boston, in New-England: Printed by S. Kneeland, by Order of His Excellency the Governor, Council and House of Representatives, (1759), p. 9. 
- ^ Thomas H. O'Connor (1998). Boston Catholics: A History of the Church and Its People. UPNE. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-55553-359-5.
- ^ Elizabeth Fenton, "Birth of a Protestant nation: Catholic Canadians, religious pluralism, and national unity in the early US Republic." Early American Literature 41.1 (2006): 29–57.
- ^ Francis Cogliano, No King, No Popery: Anti-Catholicism in Revolutionary New England (1995) pp 154–155, quote p 155. online
- ^ Paul F. Boller, George Washington & Religion (1983) p 125.
- ^ O'Connor (1998). Boston Catholics. UPNE. pp. 13–16. ISBN 978-1-55553-359-5.
- ^ Kaminski, John P. (March 2002). "Religion and the Founding Fathers" (PDF). Annotation. pp. 1, 4. ISSN 0160-8460.
- ^ Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813
- ^ Jefferson letter to Horatio G. Spafford, March 17, 1814
- ^ Le Beau, Bryan (1991). ""Saving the West from the Pope": Anti-Catholic Propaganda and the Settlement of the Mississippi River Valley". American Studies. 32 (1): 101–114. ISSN 0026-3079. JSTOR 40642429.
- ^ Bilhartz, Terry D. (1986). Urban Religion and the Second Great Awakening. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8386-3227-7.
- ^ Montgomery, David (1972). "The Shuttle and the Cross: Weavers and Artisans in the Kensington Riots of 1844". Journal of Social History. 5 (4): 427. doi:10.1353/jsh/5.4.411. JSTOR 3786374.
- ^ Tyler Anbinder (1992). Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the Politics of the 1850s. Oxford UP. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-19-508922-6.
- ^ a b Tyack, David, and Elizabeth Hansot (1981). "Conflict and Consensus in American Public Education". Daedalus. 110 (3): 1–25. JSTOR 20024738.
- ^ a b c Neem, Johann N. (2017). Democracy's Schools: The Rise of Public Education in America. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-2321-0.
- ^ a b Lazerson, Marvin (1977). "Understanding American Catholic Educational History". History of Education Quarterly. 17 (3): 297–317. doi:10.2307/367880. ISSN 0018-2680. JSTOR 367880. S2CID 147145994.
- ^ Verhoeven, Timothy (2014). "Transatlantic Connections: American Anti-Catholicism and the First Vatican Council (1869–70)". The Catholic Historical Review. 100 (4): 695–720. doi:10.1353/cat.2014.0218. ISSN 1534-0708. S2CID 159458501.
- ^ a b Lazerson, Marvin (1977). "Understanding American Catholic Educational History". History of Education Quarterly. 17 (3): 297–317. doi:10.2307/367880. ISSN 0018-2680. JSTOR 367880. S2CID 147145994.
- ^ Michael Gordon, The Orange riots: Irish political violence in New York City, 1870 and 1871 (1993)
- ^ Green, Stephen K. (1992). "The Blaine Amendment Reconsidered". The American Journal of Legal History. 36 (1): 38–69. doi:10.2307/845452. JSTOR 845452 – via JSTOR.
- ^ "Blaine Amendments". The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty. Archived from the original on 2002-10-04.
- ^ Tony Mauro (2003-05-20). "High court agrees to settle Part II of voucher battle". firstamendmentcenter.org. First Amendment Center. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- ^ Bush, Jeb (March 4, 2009). NO: Choice forces educators to improve. The Atlanta Constitution-Journal.
- ^ On the meaning of the code words see Paul E. Peterson; Michael W. McConnell (2017). Scalia's Constitution: Essays on Law and Education. Springer. p. 78. ISBN 978-3-319-58931-2., Steven Green (2010). The Second Disestablishment: Church and State in Nineteenth-Century America. Oxford University Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-19-974159-5., and T. Jeremy Gunn; John Witte Jr. (2012). No Establishment of Religion: America's Original Contribution to Religious Liberty. Oxford University Press. pp. 356+. ISBN 978-0-19-998601-9.
- ^ John T. McGreevy (2003). Catholicism and American Freedom: A History. W.W. Norton. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-393-04760-8.
- ^ Charles W. Calhoun The Presidency of Ulysses S Grant (2017) p. 505.
- ^ McGreevy (2003). Catholicism and American Freedom: A History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-393-04760-8.
- ^ Moore, Edmund Arthur (1956). A Catholic Runs for President: The Campaign of 1928. Ronald Press Company.
- ^ David E. Kyvig, Repealing national prohibition (Kent State University Press, 2000)
- ^ Thomas A. Bruscino (2010). A Nation Forged in War: How World War II Taught Americans to Get Along. U. of Tennessee Press. pp. 214–215. ISBN 978-1-57233-695-7.
- ^ "America's dark and not-very-distant history of hating Catholics". The Guardian. March 7, 2016.
- ^ Phillip Jenkins. The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press, 2003.
- ^ "SLATE JUSTIFIES ANTI-CATHOLICISM". CatholicLeague.org. 16 March 2000. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- ^ Shafer, Jack (12 March 2000). "Don't Hate Andrew Sullivan Because He's Catholic". Slate.com. The Slate Group. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- ^ "'Native Land' graffiti in Fremont mission being investigated as hate crime". The Mercury News. 2020-07-05. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ Lambert, Ben (2020-07-17). "Archdiocese: New Haven Catholic church vandalized with 'satanic,' 'anarchist' symbols". New Haven Register. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ "Vandals spray paint graffiti on South City church". Fox 2. 2020-01-30. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ Narizhnaya, Khristina; Rosenberg, Rebecca; Celona, Larry (2020-06-18). "Two protesters arrested for St. Patrick's Cathedral vandalism". New York Post. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ Rousselle, Christine. "Churches in 6 states damaged by violent protests". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ "Junipero Serra statue toppled in downtown L.A." KTLA. 2020-06-21. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ "Statues of Junipero Serra, Ulysses S. Grant toppled at Golden Gate Park". The Mercury News. 2020-06-20. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ "Protesters tear down statue of Spanish missionary and saint Junipero Serra in Sacramento". www.msn.com. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ "Statue of Virgin Mary beheaded at Tennessee parish". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ Kale, Wilk. "Virgin Mary statue vandalized, church leaders say". nwitimes.com. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ Rosa, Christian De La (2020-07-16). "Church members searching for answers after statue of Jesus Christ is decapitated". WPLG. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ Californian, The Bakersfield. "Vandal hits Wasco church". The Bakersfield Californian. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ Camarillo, Emmanuel (2020-04-16). "Man out on bond on hate crime charges tried to burn down Palos Hills church: police". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ Fedschun, Travis (2020-07-12). "Florida man crashes into church, sets it on fire with parishioners inside, sheriff says". Fox News. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- ^ "What Every American Should Know: Washington DC – Times Square Chronicles". 24 January 2021. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
- ^ "Fact check: Article falsely reports arrest of Pope Francis". Reuters. 2021-01-12. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
- ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church an Illustrated History (2007), pp. 167–168
- ^ Franz, H. (1910). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company. . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).
- ^ Okey, Robin (2002), The Habsburg Monarchy c. 1765–1918, New York: Palgrave MacMillan
- ^ Austria – Early reign of Joseph II, 1780–85. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- ^ The science of the swastika, Bernard Thomas Mees.
- ^ Whiteside, Andrew G. (1975). The Socialism of Fools: Georg Ritter von Schönerer and Austrian Pan-Germanism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-52002-434-2.
- ^ IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics). Religion in Brazil – 2000 Census. Retrieved 2009-01-06.
- ^ "Traficante evangélico cria "Complexo de Israel" em favelas do Rio e ataca católicos e umbandistas". Fórum. 2020-07-25.
- ^ "Traficantes usam pandemia para criar 'Complexo de Israel' unindo cinco favelas na Zona Norte do Rio". G1. 2020-07-24.
- ^ Williford, Thomas J. Armando los espiritus: Political Rhetoric in Colombia on the Eve of La Violencia, 1930–1945 pp. 217–278 (Vanderbilt University 2005)
- ^ a b Chadwick, A History of Christianity (1995), p. 266
- ^ Tallet, Frank Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789 pp. 1–2, 1991 Continuum International Publishing
- ^ See Reynald Secher. A French Genocide: The Vendee (2003)
- ^ Farewell, Revolution: Disputed Legacies: France, 1789/1989. Cornell University Press. 1995. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-8014-2718-3.
- ^ Nigel Aston, Religion and revolution in France, 1780–1804 (Catholic University of America Press, 2000) pp 279–335
- ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age. Vol. I: The 19th Century in Europe; Background and the Roman Catholic Phase (1969), pp 127–146, 399–415
- ^ Timothy Verhoeven. Transatlantic Anti‐Catholicism: France and the United States in the Nineteenth Century (Palgrave MacMillan, 2010)
- ^ Foster, J. R.; Jean Marie Mayeur; Madeleine Rebérioux (1988). The Third Republic from Its Origins to the Great War, 1871–1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-521-35857-6.
- ^ "Emile Combes who boasted of taking office for the sole purpose of destroying the religious orders. He closed thousands of what were not then called 'faith schools'" Bigots united in the Guardian, 9 October 2005
- ^ Burns, Michael France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History p. 171 (1999 Palgrave Macmillan)
- ^ Paul Sabatier, Disestablishment in France (1906) online
- ^ Franklin 2006, p. 9 (footnote 26) cites Larkin, Maurice, Church and State after the Dreyfus Affair, pp. 138–141: "Freemasonry in France", Austral Light, 6: 164–172, 241–250, 1905
- ^ Michael Broers, The Politics of Religion in Napoleonic Italy. The War against God, 1801–1814 (2002) Online
- ^ Ulrich Muller (2009-11-25). "Congregation of the Most Precious Blood". Catholic Encyclopedia 1913. Catholic Encyclopedia.
- ^ Michael Ott (2009-11-25). "Pope Pius IX". Catholic Encyclopedia 1913. Catholic Encyclopedia.
- ^ Edward Townley (2002). Mussolini and Italy. Heinemann. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-435-32725-5.
- ^ a b c Van Hove, Brian Blood-Drenched Altars Archived 2017-11-09 at the Wayback Machine Faith & Reason 1994
- ^ a b Scheina, Robert L. Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791–1899 p. 33 (2003 Brassey's) ISBN 978-1-57488-452-4
- ^ Ruiz, Ramón Eduardo Triumphs and Tragedy: A History of the Mexican People p. 393 (1993 W. W. Norton & Company) ISBN 978-0-393-31066-5
- ^ Mark Almond (1996) Revolution: 500 Years of Struggle For Change: 136–137
- ^ Barbara A. Tenenbaum and Georgette M. Dorn (eds.), Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture (New York: Scribner's, 1996).
- ^ Ridgeway, Stan (2001). "Monoculture, Monopoly, and the Mexican Revolution: Tomáás Garrido Canabal and the Standard Fruit Company in Tabasco (1920–1935)". Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos. 17 (1): 143–169. doi:10.1525/msem.2001.17.1.143. JSTOR 10.1525/msem.2001.17.1.143.
- ^ Online, Catholic. "108 Polish Martyrs – Saints & Angels". Catholic Online.
- ^ a b John S. Conway, "The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933–1945", Regent College Publishing, 1997
- ^ Weigel, George (2001). Witness to Hope – The Biography of Pope John Paul II. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-018793-4.
- ^ Craughwell, Thomas J., The Gentile Holocaust Catholic Culture. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- ^ de la Cueva, Julio. "Religious Persecution, Anticlerical Tradition and Revolution: On Atrocities against the Clergy during the Spanish Civil War". Journal of Contemporary History. 33 (3): 355.
- ^ "New Evangelization with the Saints". L'Osservatore Romano. Eternal Word Television Network. 28 November 2001.
- ^ Stephanie Innes (2007-12-06). "Tucson priests one step away from sainthood". Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- ^ Cross, Frank Leslie; Livingstone, Elizabeth A. (2005). "Great Schism". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
- ^ The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 950–1250. Cambridge University Press. 1986. pp. 506–508. ISBN 978-0-521-26645-1.
- ^ Gregory, Timothy (2010). A History of Byzantium. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 309. ISBN 978-1-4051-8471-7.
- ^ Vasiliev, Aleksandr (1958). History of the Byzantine Empire. 2, Volume 2. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 446. ISBN 978-0-299-80926-3.
- ^ Weeks, Theodore (2001). "Religion and Russification: Russian Language in the Catholic Churches of the "Northwest Provinces" after 1863". Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 2 (1): 87–110. doi:10.1353/kri.2008.0090. S2CID 159901288.
- ^ Weeks, Ted (2011). "Religion, nationality, or politics: Catholicism in the Russian empire, 1863–1905". Journal of Eurasian Studies. 2 (1): 52–59. doi:10.1016/j.euras.2010.10.008.
- ^ Vladimir Geiger (2012). "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Review of Croatian History. Croatian Institute of History. VIII (1): 86.
- ^ a b Tomasevich 1975, p. 259.
- ^ McCormick, Robert B. (2014). Croatia Under Ante Pavelic: America, the Ustase and Croatian Genocide in World War II. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-0-85772-535-6.
- ^ Subotic, Jelena (2019). Yellow Star, Red Star: Holocaust Remembrance after Communism. Cornell University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-5017-4241-5.
- ^ Hoare 2006, p. 143.
- ^ Ramet 2006, p. 146.
- ^ a b Sobolevski 2004, p. 149.
- ^ "Case Information Sheet – Milan Babić" (PDF). Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- ^ "Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia vs. Yugoslavia)" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 2 July 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- ^ Darlington, John (2020). Fake Heritage: Why We Rebuild Monuments. Yale University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-300-24676-6.
- ^ Miletitch, Nicolas (3 June 2014). "Ukraine crisis deepens rift between Orthodox Churches". Yahoo! News. AFP. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- ^ "Religious Buildings Seized in Eastern Regions of Ukraine". Jw.org. 13 February 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- ^ "Secret Protestant Churches in Donetsk: Ukraine's Religious War". Vice News. 20 Mar 2015.
- ^ "Ukraine: Rebel Forces Detain, Torture Civilians". 28 Aug 2014.
Detention and Torture of Religious Activists
- ^ "Bangladesh church bomb kills nine". BBC News. 3 June 2001. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ Bethlehem Feleke and Duarte Mendonca (12 May 2019). "Attack on Catholic church in Burkina Faso leaves 6 dead". CNN. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
- ^ Ouezen Louis Oulon and Bukola Adebayo, for (15 May 2019). "Four killed in ambush on Catholic parade in Burkina Faso". CNN. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
- ^ Robert Samuel Maclay (1861). Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China. Carlton & Porter. p. 336. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
mohammedan slaves to beys.
- ^ Joseph Esherick, The Origins of the Boxer Uprising (1987), pp. 190–191; Paul Cohen, History in Three Keys (1997), p. 51.
- ^ East India (Tibet): Further Papers Relating to Tibet. London: H. M. Stationery Office. 1904. p. 17. Retrieved 2011-06-28.
- ^ AsiaNews.it. "The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association celebrates 50 years at a less than ideal moment".
- ^ U.S Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report 2010: China, 17 Nov 2010.
- ^ "Pope invites Chinese bishops to Synod meeting". CatholicCulture.org. 8 September 2005.
- ^ "Asia is 'new hotbed of Christian persecution' with situation in China worst since Cultural Revolution, report claims". South China Morning Post. 16 January 2019. Archived from the original on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- ^ O'Keeffe and, Kate; Ferek, Katy Stech (14 November 2019). "Stop Calling China's Xi Jinping 'President,' U.S. Panel Says". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019..
- ^ Group: Officials destroying crosses, burning bibles in China. Associated Press. 10 September 2018.
- ^ "Martyrs List". Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
- ^ "S". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- ^ "隠れキリシタン" [Kakure Kirishitan]. Dijitaru Daijisen (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- ^ "South Korea Jeju: priests and nun arrested for protesting against naval base". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- ^ "SOutKast's Korea: Priests and lay people arrested for protesting against new military base on Jeju Island". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- ^ "Jeju Island Naval Base – A Threat to the South Korean Island of World Peace | Columban Fathers". columban.org. Archived from the original on 2015-11-16. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- ^ W.L.A.Don Peter. "Catholic Church in Sri Lanka – A History in Outline".
- ^ Greaves, Marc (2015-01-02). "Sri Lanka's not-so-tranquil Buddhists". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
- ^ Weigel, George (21 June 2011). "Maureen Dowd's Catholic Problem". National Review Online. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- ^ Arkes, Hadley (1 November 1996). "Life Watch: Anti-Catholic Catholics". Crisis Magazine. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- ^ Lawler, Phil (13 July 2011). "Anti-Catholic Catholics". Catholic Culture. Trinity Communications. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- ^ Nigel Aston (2002). Christianity and Revolutionary Europe, 1750–1830. Cambridge UP. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-521-46592-2.
- ^ Christine Vogel, The Suppression of the Society of Jesus, 1758–1773, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011.
- ^ Nicholas Atkin and Frank Tallett, Priests, Prelates and People: A History of European Catholicism since 1750 (2003) p. 35.
- ^ Patrick R O'Malley (2006) Catholicism, sexual deviance, and Victorian Gothic culture. Cambridge University Press
- Franklin, James (2006), "Freemasonry in Europe", Catholic Values and Australian Realities, Connor Court Publishing Pty Ltd, pp. 7–10, ISBN 978-0-9758015-4-3
- Hoare, Marko Attila (2006). Genocide and Resistance in Hitler's Bosnia: The Partisans and the Chetniks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-726380-8.
- Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34656-8.
- Sobolevski, Mihael (2004). "Pljačka i teror Dinarske četničke divizije na području općine Krivi put 28. i 29. prosinca 1944" [Robbery and Terror of Dinara Chetnik Division in the Krivi Put Region on 28th and 29th December 1944]. The Anthology of Senj: Contributions to Geography, Ethnology, Economy, History and Culture (in Croatian). Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Institute of History. 31 (1): 271–289.
- Tomasevich, Jozo (1975). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: The Chetniks. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0857-9.
- Anbinder, Tyler. Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the Politics of the 1850s 1992; in U.S.
- Aston, Nigel (2002). Christianity and Revolutionary Europe, 1750–1830. Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0-521-46592-2.
- Bennett, David H. The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movements to the New Right in American History University of North Carolina Press, 1988
- Blanshard, Paul. American Freedom and Catholic Power Beacon Press, 1949; famous attack on Catholicism
- Brown, Thomas M. "The Image of the Beast: Anti-Papal Rhetoric in Colonial America", in Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown, eds., Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History (1972), 1–20.
- Bruce, Steve. No Pope of Rome: Anti-Catholicism in Modern Scotland (Edinburgh, 1985).
- Clifton, Robin (1971). "Popular Fear of Catholics during the English Revolution". Past and Present. 52 (52): 23–55. doi:10.1093/past/52.1.23. JSTOR 650394.
- Cogliano, Francis D. No King, No Popery: Anti-Catholicism in Revolutionary New England Greenwood Press, 1995
- Cruz, Joel Morales. The Mexican Reformation: Catholic Pluralism, Enlightenment Religion, and the Iglesia de Jesus Movement in Benito Juarez's Mexico (1859–72) (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2011).
- Davis, David Brion (1960). "Some Themes of Counter-subversion: An Analysis of Anti-Masonic, Anti-Catholic and Anti-Mormon Literature". Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 47 (2): 205–224. doi:10.2307/1891707. JSTOR 1891707.
- Drury, Marjule Anne (2001). "Anti-Catholicism in Germany, Britain, and the United States: A review and critique of recent scholarship". Church History. 70 (1): 98–131. doi:10.2307/3654412. JSTOR 3654412. S2CID 146522059.
- Greeley, Andrew M. An Ugly Little Secret: Anti-Catholicism in North America 1977.
- Henry, David. "Senator John F. Kennedy Encounters the Religious Question: I Am Not the Catholic Candidate for President." in Contemporary American Public Discourse Ed. H. R. Ryan. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc., 1992. 177–193.
- Higham; John. Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925 1955
- Hinckley, Ted C. (1962). "American Anti-Catholicism During the Mexican War". Pacific Historical Review. 31 (2): 121–137. doi:10.2307/3636570. JSTOR 3636570. S2CID 161327008.
- Hostetler; Michael J. "Gov. Al Smith Confronts the Catholic Question: The Rhetorical Legacy of the 1928 Campaign," Communication Quarterly (1998) 46#1 pp 12+.
- Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–1896 (1971)
- Joskowicz, Ari. The Modernity of Others: Jewish Anti-Catholicism in Germany and France (Stanford University Press; 2013) 376 pages; how Jewish intellectuals defined themselves as modern against the anti-modern positions of the Catholic Church
- Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age (5 vol 1969), covers 1790s to 1960; comprehensive global history
- Karabela, Mehmet (2021). Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes. New York: Routledge, 2021. ISBN 978-0-367-54954-1.
- Keating, Karl. Catholicism and Fundamentalism – The Attack on "Romanism" by "Bible Christians" (Ignatius Press, 1988). ISBN 978-0-89870-177-7
- Lehner, Ulrich and Michael Printy, eds. A Companion to the Catholic Enlightenment in Europe (2010)
- McGreevy, John T (1997). "Thinking on One's Own: Catholicism in the American Intellectual Imagination, 1928–1960". The Journal of American History. 84 (1): 97–131. doi:10.2307/2952736. JSTOR 2952736.
- Moore; Leonard J. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921–1928 University of North Carolina Press, 1991
- Mourret, Fernand. History Of The Catholic Church (8 vol, 1931) comprehensive history to 1878. country by country. online free; by French Catholic priest; see vols. 6-7-8.
- Paz, D. G. (1979). "Popular Anti-Catholicism in England, 1850–1851". Albion. 11 (4): 331–359. doi:10.2307/4048544. JSTOR 4048544.
- Stark, Rodney (2016). Bearing False Witness: Debunking Centuries of Anti-Catholic History. Templeton Press. ISBN 978-1-59947-499-1.
- Thiemann, Ronald F. Religion in Public Life Georgetown University Press, 1996.
- Wiener, Carol Z. (1971). "The Beleaguered Isle. A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism". Past and Present. 51: 27–62. doi:10.1093/past/51.1.27.
- Wolffe, John (2013). "North Atlantic Anti-Catholicism in the Nineteenth Century: A Comparative Overview". European Studies: A Journal of European Culture, History and Politics. 31 (1): 25–41.
- Wolffe, John, ed., Protestant-Catholic Conflict from the Reformation to the Twenty-first Century (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2013). Table of contents
- Wolffe, John. "A Comparative Historical Categorisation of Anti‐Catholicism." Journal of Religious History 39.2 (2015): 182–202. online free