Banjarese language

(Redirected from Bahasa Banjar)

The Banjar or Banjarese (Basa Banjar; Jaku Banjar) is an Austronesian language predominantly spoken by the Banjarese—an indigenous ethnic group native to Banjar regions— in the southeastern Kalimantan of Indonesia. The Banjarese language is the de facto lingua franca for various indigenous community especially in South Kalimantan, as well as Central Kalimantan (notably in Seruyan Regency and Sukamara Regency) and East Kalimantan in general.

Basa Banjar
Jaku Banjar
Native toIndonesia
Native speakers
L1: 4,127,124 (2010 census)[1]
L1 & L2: ~10,650,000
Standard forms
Standard Banjarese
  • Banjar Hulu (Pahuluan Banjarese)[2][3]
  • Batangbanyu Banjarese
  • Kuala Banjarese[4][5]
Official status
Official language in
 South Kalimantan (co-official)
Development bodyLanguage Development Center of the Republic of Indonesia
  • South Kalimantan Linguistic Center
    • Banjarmasin Linguistic Center
Language codes
ISO 639-3bjn
Daerah Banjar.PNG
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A Banjarese speaker.

Apart from the native Banjarese in Indonesia, the Banjarese language also spoken by little Banjarese diaspora abroad (such as in Brunei, Malaysia (notably in Sabah and Perak), and Singapore); however, they tend to not use it as their primary language, and their fluency degree is questionable.


There are at least three divisions of dialects within the Banjarese language:

  1. Batangbanyu Banjarese
  2. Kuala Banjarese[4][5]
  3. Pahuluan Banjarese[2][3]

According to Cense,[6] the Pahuluan Banjarese are predominantly spoken by Banjarese people in the South Hulu Sungai Regency and North Hulu Sungai Regency regions.



The consonantal inventory of Banjarese language is shown below. All but [ʔ] occur at the onset of a syllable:[7]

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
voiceless p t k (ʔ)
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative s h
Lateral l
Rhotic r
Approximant w j
  • [ʔ] is an allophone of /k/ at the end of a word.
  • The following consonants can close a CVC syllable: /p t k m n ŋ s h r l/. Words cannot begin with consonant clusters. Within a root, an NC sequence will always be homorganic, though reduplication and a few prefixes such as sing- can produce other sequences, e.g. /ŋb, ŋp, ŋt, ŋr, ŋl, kr, /. Other medial sequences include /kt/, /kn/, /ŋn/, /nɲ/, /st/, /sn/, /hk/, /hj/, /lk/ and /rɡ/.[2]


Sudarmo finds five monophthongs:[7]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ɛ (ə) o
Open a

[ə] is an allophone of /ɛ/.

Durasid finds three monophthongs and three diphthongs in Pahuluan Banjarese:[2]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Open a

Regionally, /a/ has an allophone [ə] and /u/ has an allophone [ɔ]. The diphthongs are /ai/, /au/, /ui/. Loans with /e/ or /o/ are assimilated to these three vowels. E.g. kréték is realized as [karitik].


The standard alphabet is as follows:[8]

a b c d é g h i j k l m n ny ng o p r s t u w y
Phonetic value
a b d ɛ ɡ h i k l m n ɲ ŋ o p r s t u w j

Sample textEdit

Universal Declaration of Human RightsEdit

The following texts are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Banjarese language along with the original declaration in English.

English[9] Banjarese
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Pranyatan Hak Urang Barataan
Article 1 Ujah 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Sagala urang hiput babar lik sapala awak barataan. Urang sanyaan dibari nugaraha baakal maigungakan, handak bakawalan nang mambawa sumangat sapaadingan.

Simple conversationEdit

Here are examples of simple conversation in Banjarese language:

Banjarese sapa ngaran pian?
English what is your name?
Banjarese ngaran ulun ...
English my name is ...
Banjarese ulun handak bailang kasidin
English I want to visit there
Banjarese lawas ka lagian hanyar tuntung gawian pian?
English is it still long for you to finish your work?
Banjarese ulun dibari uma wadai
English I was given a cake by a woman


Here are examples of expressions in Banjarese language:

Standard Banjarese bahindang bahindala
Literal translation the color is lit
Meaning striking or colorful sight
Standard Banjarese gawi sabumi baimbai
Literal translation work on a land together
Meaning mutual cooperation
Standard Banjarese hirang mamburit rinjing
Literal translation as black as the bottom of wok
Meaning (racial slur) black people
Standard Banjarese kaguguran andaru
Literal translation something fall
Meaning windfall
Standard Banjarese yaindang yaimput
Literal translation pensive and shrink
Meaning stuck (about mindset)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia (Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010) [Citizenship, Ethnicity, Religion, and Languages of the Indonesian Population (Results of the 2010 Population Census)] (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Central Bureau of National Statistics of the Republic of Indonesia, 2010
  2. ^ a b c d Bahasa Banjar Hulu [Pahuluan Banjar Language] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Language Development Center of the Republic of Indonesia. 1978.
  3. ^ a b Kamus Bahasa Banjar Dialek Hulu-Indonesia [Pahuluan Banjarese Dictionary to Indonesian] (in Indonesian). Banjarmasin: Banjarmasin Linguistic Center, Department of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia. 2008. ISBN 978-979-685-776-0.
  4. ^ a b Struktur Bahasa Banjar Kuala [Language Structure of Kuala Banjarese] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Language Development Center of the Republic of Indonesia. 1981.
  5. ^ a b Morfo Sintaksis Bahasa Banjar Kuala [Syntactic Morphology of Kuala Banjarese] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Language Development Center of the Republic of Indonesia. 1986.
  6. ^ A.A.Cee - E.M. Uhienbeck, Critical Survey of Studies on the Language of Borneo, 'S-Gravenhage-Martinus Nijhoff. 1958, hal. 9.
  7. ^ a b Sudarmo, Sudarmo (2016). Fonotaktik Bahasa Banjar. Jurnal Bahasa Sastra Dan Pembelajarannya 6.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  8. ^ Hapip, Abdul Jebar (2006). Kamus Banjar Indonesia, Cetakan V.
  9. ^ "OHCHR -". Archived from the original on 30 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.


External linksEdit