This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Chinese. (July 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
Chen (Chinese: 陈国; Chinese: 陳國; pinyin: Chen Guo) was a state founded by the Duke Hu of Chen during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It existed from c. 1045 BC–479 BC. Its capital was Wanqiu, in present-day Huaiyang County in the plains of eastern Henan province. Chen, the 4th most popular surname in the world, and members of the Hu clan would claim descent from the Duke Hu of Chen who was in turn descended from the legendary Emperor Shun. At its peak, Chen encompassed fourteen cities in modern-day Henan and Anhui.
State of Chen
|c. 1045 BC–479 BC|
|c. 1045 BC|
• Became capital of Chu
It is written 陳 the same as the Chen surname. In ancient texts, it is sometimes misspelled as 敶, also pronounced Chen.
Chen was originally from Taihao (太昊、太皞), the capital of Fuxi's clan. It was south of the Yellow River.
Its capital was Wanqiu, in present-day Huaiyang County in the plains of eastern Henan province. Zhu Xi explains that Wanqiu means "[a hill] with a crater on top surrounded by high walls on all four sides".
Wanqiu features prominently in an eponymous aria in Shijing (《詩經·國風》《陳風·宛丘》) :
How gay and dissipated you are, there on the top of Wanqiu! You are full of kindly affection indeed, but you have nothing to make you looked up to!
How your blows on the drum resound, at the foot of Wanqiu! Be it winter, be it summer, you are holding your egret's feather!
How you beat your earthen vessel, on the way to Wanqiu! Be it winter, be it summer, you are holding your egret-fan!— Classic of Poetry "Arias of the States - Arias of Chen - Wanqiu" (translated by James Legge)
This section needs expansion with: See Chinese article. You can help by adding to it. (July 2020)
According to tradition, the royal family of Chen were descendants of the legendary sage king Emperor Shun. After the conquest of the Shang dynasty in 1046/45 BC, King Wu of Zhou enfeoffed his son-in-law Gui Man, a descendant of Shun, at Chen, and Man became known as Duke Hu of Chen (Chen Hugong).
Duke Shēn of Chen, son of Hugong then became second duke of Chen.
Chen later became an ally state of Chu, fighting as an ally of Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. It was finally unified with the Chu in 479 BC. Many people of Chen then took the name of their former country as their family name, and account for the many of Chinese people with the family name Chen today. After the destruction of the old Chu capital at Ying, Chen became the Chu capital.
Achievements and descendantsEdit
- The founding duke, Chen Hugong, is credited with being the originator of the Chen (surname), now the fourth most popular surname in the world
- The Chen clan would later found the Chen Dynasty of China and then the Trần dynasty, a golden age of Vietnam (陳朝 Tran is the Vietnamese pronunciation of Chen).
- In 1400 AD, Hồ Quý Ly overthrew the Trần dynasty and established the Hồ dynasty (Hồ is the Vietnamese pronunciation for "Hu"). He claimed to be a descendant of Chen Hugong and Emperor Shun, and changed the name of Vietnam from Đại Việt to Đại Ngu (大虞), or Great Ngu (Ngu is the Vietnamese pronunciation for Yu 虞 the legendary state of Emperor Shun).
- In ancient times 陳 sounded similar to 東 dong, meaning 'East'. It also sounded similar to 田 tian. After the warring states period, some members of the Chen clan in Qi (state) adopted the surname 田 Tian, which later became popular in Chinese and Japanese surnames.
In summary, surnames with descent from Chen include:
The Shijing has at least 10 songs dedicated to Chen:《宛丘》、《東門之枌》、《衛門》、《東門之池》、《東門之楊》、《墓門》、《防有鵲巢》、《月出》、《株林》、《澤陂》。
The Chen state lasted nearly 600 years and produced over 25 rulers. In chronological order from first to last (note Hu Gong means Duke of Hu and vice versa):
- Duke Hu of Chen
- Duke Shēn of Chen 
- Duke Xiang of Chen
- Duke Xiao of Chen
- Duke Shèn of Chen
- Duke You of Chen
- Duke Xi of Chen
- Duke Wu of Chen
- Duke Yi of Chen
- Duke Ping of Chen
- Duke Wen of Chen
- Duke Huan of Chen
- Chen Tuo
- Duke Li of Chen
- Duke Zhuang of Chen
- Duke Xuan of Chen
- Duke Mu of Chen
- Duke Gong of Chen
- Duke Ling of Chen
- Xia Zhengshu
- Duke Cheng of Chen
- Duke Ai of Chen
- Prince Liu
- Chuan Fengxu
- Duke Hui of Chen
- Duke Huai of Chen
- Duke Min of Chen
|Ruler||Title (Chinese)||Other Name (Chinese)||Reign (BC)||Number of years ruling||Identity|
|1||Chen Hugong||胡公||滿||1045—986||Ruled for 60 years||The founder of Chen|
|2||Duke Shēn of Chen ||申公||犀侯||985—961||Ruled for 25 years||-|
|3||Duke Xiang of Chen||相公||皋羊||960—939||Ruled for 22 years||The younger brother of Duke Shēn|
|4||Duke Xiao of Chen||孝公||突||938—905||Ruled for 34 years||The son of Duke Shēn|
|5||Duke Shèn of Chen||慎公||圉戎||904—855||Ruled for 50 years||The son of Duke Xiao|
|6||Duke You of Chen||幽公||寧||854—832||Ruled for 23 years||The son of Duke Shen|
|7||Duke Xi of Chen||僖公||孝||831—796||Ruled for 36 years||The son of Duke You|
|8||Duke Wu of Chen||武公||靈||795—781||Ruled for 15 years||The son of Duke Xi|
|9||Duke Yi of Chen||夷公||說||780—778||Ruled for 3 years||The son of Duke Wu|
|10||Duke Ping of Chen||平公||燮||777—755||Ruled for 23 years||The younger brother of Duke Yi|
|11||Duke Wen of Chen||文公||圉||754—745||Ruled for 10 years||The son of Duke Ping|
|12||Duke Huan of Chen||桓公||鮑||744—707||Ruled for 38 years||The son of Duke Wen|
|13||Chen Tuo||-||佗||707─706||Ruled for 8 months||The younger brother of Duke Huan|
|14||Duke Li of Chen||厲公||躍||706─700||Ruled for 7 years||The son of Duke Huan|
|15||Duke Zhuang of Chen||莊公||林||699—693||Ruled for 7 years||The son of Duke Li|
|16||Duke Xuan of Chen||宣公||杵臼||692—648||Ruled for 45 years||The younger brother of Duke Zhuang|
|17||Duke Mu of Chen||穆公||款||647—632||Ruled for 16 years||The son of Duke Xuan|
|18||Duke Gong of Chen||共公||朔||631—614||Ruled for 18 years||The son of Duke Mu|
|19||Duke Ling of Chen||靈公||平國||613—599||Ruled for 15 years||The son of Duke Gong|
|20||Xia Zhengshu||-||徵舒||599||Ruled for multiple months||The great-grandson of Duke Xuan|
|21||Duke Cheng of Chen||成公||午||598—569||Ruled for 30 years||The son of Duke Ling|
|22||Duke Ai of Chen||哀公||弱||568—534||Ruled for 35 years||The son of Duke Cheng|
|23||Gongzi Liu||-||留||534, from March to November||Ruled for 9 months||The son of Duke Ai|
|24||Chuan Fengxu||-||穿封戌||533—529||Ruled for 5 years||Advisor of Chu|
|25||Duke Hui of Chen||惠公||吳||529—506||Ruled for 28 years||Grandson of Duke Ai|
|26||Duke Huai of Chen||懷公||柳||505—502||Ruled for 4 years||Son of Duke Hui|
|27||Duke Min of Chen||湣公||越||501—478||Ruled for 24 years||Son of Duke Huai|
|Rulers of Chen, Hugong to Yougong|
|Rulers of Chen, Yougong to Wengong|
|Rulers of Chen, Wengong to Gonggong|
- Chen (surname), 陳姓 adopted by people of Chen state
- Chen Hugong, founding emperor
- Emperor Shun (舜帝), forefather of Chen
- Tian Qi 田齊
- Gui surname 妫姓
- Hu surname 胡姓
- Tian surname 田姓
- Yu surname 虞姓
- Yao surname 姚姓
- Yuan surname 袁姓
- Yuan Taotu, relative of Chen family
- ^ 《說文解字》陳 段玉裁注
- ^ a b 《左傳·昭公十七年》：陈，大皞之虚也
- ^ 《史记·货殖列传》："陈在楚夏之交，通鱼盐之货，其民多贾。"
- ^ 《吕氏春秋·似顺论》对此有更为详细的记载："荆庄王欲伐陈，使人视之。使者曰：'陈不可伐也'。·庄王曰：'何故？'对曰：'城郭高，沟洫深，蓄积多也。'
- ^ 《毛詩傳》："四方高，中央下曰宛丘"
- ^ 白壽彝版《中國通史》第03卷 上古時代 第四節 地學
- ^ Zhu Xi, Collected Explanations on the Classic of Poetry, "Volume 3 - Wanqiu". Qinzaotang siku quanshu huiyao 摛藻堂四庫全書薈要 version p. 79 of 124. quote: "四方高中央下曰宛丘。"
- ^ Classic of Poetry "Arias of the States - Arias of Chen - Wanqiu", translated by James Legge
- ^ Yang 2003, p. 121.
- ^ Han 2010, pp. 2776–7.
- ^ a b c Han 2010, pp. 2778–9.
- ^ 陳姓源于淮陽 陳胡公是得姓始祖及舜帝的後裔 [Chen surname originated in Huaiyang, Duke Hu of Chen is the founding ancestor and a descendant of Emperor Shun] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 22 March 2014. Archived from the original on May 29, 2015.
- ^ Ngô 1479, p. 296.
- ^ 《詩經·國風》
- Han, Zhaoqi, ed. (2010). "Houses of Chen and Qi". Shiji 史记 (in Chinese). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3.
- Ngô, Sĩ Liên (1479). Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư [Complete Annals of Dai Viet] (in Vietnamese).
- Yang, Kuan (2003). Xi Zhou Shi 西周史 [History of the Western Zhou] (in Chinese). Shanghai People's Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-208-04538-5.
- 《史記》卷36：陳杞世家 [Shiji]
- 《春秋左氏傳》(始見於隱公三年) [Spring and Autumn period]