Christopher Columbus[b] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/; between 25 August and 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian[c] explorer and navigator from the Republic of Genoa who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and European colonization of the Americas. His expeditions were the first known European contact with the Caribbean and Central and South America.
Admiral of the Ocean Sea
|1st Governor of the Indies|
|Appointed by||Isabella I of Castile|
|Succeeded by||Francisco de Bobadilla|
between 25 August and 31 October 1451
Genoa, Republic of Genoa
|Died||20 May 1506 (aged 54)|
|Resting place||Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain|
(m. 1479; died 1484)
|Domestic partner||Beatriz Enríquez de Arana|
|Relatives||Bartholomew Columbus (brother)|
The name Christopher Columbus is the anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. Growing up on the coast of Liguria, he went to sea at a young age and travelled widely, as far north as the British Isles and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, who bore a son Diego, and was based in Lisbon for several years. He later took a Castilian mistress, Beatriz Enríquez de Arana, who bore a son, Ferdinand.
Largely self-educated, Columbus was knowledgeable in geography, astronomy, and history. He developed a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade. After the Granada War, and Columbus's persistent lobbying in multiple kingdoms, the Catholic Monarchs Queen Isabella I and King Ferdinand II agreed to sponsor a journey west. Columbus left Castile in August 1492 with three ships and made landfall in the Americas on 12 October, ending the period of human habitation in the Americas now referred to as the pre-Columbian era. His landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani. He then visited the islands now known as Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti. Columbus returned to Castile in early 1493, with captured natives. Word of his voyage soon spread throughout Europe.
Columbus made three further voyages to the Americas, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, and the east coast of Central America in 1502. Many names he gave to geographical features, particularly islands, are still in use. He gave the name indios ("Indians") to the indigenous peoples he encountered. The extent to which he was aware the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain; he never clearly renounced his belief he had reached the Far East. As a colonial governor, Columbus was accused by his contemporaries of significant brutality and removed from the post. Columbus's strained relationship with the Crown of Castile and its colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the privileges he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.
Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries, thus bringing the Americas into the European sphere of influence. The transfer of commodities, ideas, and people between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange. These events and the effects which persist to the present are often cited as the beginning of the modern era. Columbus was widely celebrated in the centuries after his death, but public perception fractured in the 21st century due to greater attention to the harms committed under his governance, particularly the beginning of the depopulation of Hispaniola's indigenous Taínos, caused by Old World diseases and mistreatment, including slavery. Many places in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including Colombia, British Columbia, the District of Columbia, and Columbus, Ohio.
Columbus's early life is obscure, but scholars believe he was born in the Republic of Genoa between 25 August and 31 October 1451. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked in Genoa and Savona and owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. He had three brothers—Bartholomew, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo (also called Diego)—as well as a sister, Bianchinetta. Bartholomew ran a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.
His native language is presumed to have been a Genoese dialect (Ligurian) as his first language, though Columbus probably never wrote in it. His name in 16th-century Genoese was Cristoffa Corombo, in Italian, Cristoforo Colombo, and in Spanish Cristóbal Colón.
In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at 14. In 1470, the family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. Some modern authors have argued that he was not from Genoa, but from the Aragon region of Spain or from Portugal. These competing hypotheses have been discounted by most scholars.
In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the wealthy Spinola, Centurione, and Di Negro families of Genoa. Later, he made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island then ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe. He probably visited Bristol, England, and Galway, Ireland, where he may have visited St. Nicholas' Collegiate Church. It has been speculated he went to Iceland in 1477, though many scholars doubt this. It is known that in the autumn of 1477, he sailed on a Portuguese ship from Galway to Lisbon, where he found his brother Bartholomew, and they continued trading for the Centurione family. Columbus based himself in Lisbon from 1477-85. In 1478, the Centuriones sent Columbus on a sugar-buying trip to Madeira. He married Felipa Perestrello e Moniz, daughter of Bartolomeu Perestrello, a Portuguese nobleman of Lombard origin, who had been the donatary captain of Porto Santo.
In 1479 or 1480, Columbus's son Diego was born. Between 1482 and 1485, Columbus traded along the coasts of West Africa, reaching the Portuguese trading post of Elmina at the Guinea coast in present-day Ghana. Before 1484, Columbus returned to Porto Santo to find that his wife had died. He returned to Portugal to settle her estate and take Diego with him.
He left Portugal for Castile in 1485, where he took a mistress in 1487, a 20-year-old orphan named Beatriz Enríquez de Arana. It is likely that Beatriz met Columbus when he was in Córdoba, a gathering place for Genoese merchants and where the court of the Catholic Monarchs was located at intervals. Beatriz, unmarried at the time, gave birth to Columbus's second son, Fernando Columbus, in July 1488, named for the monarch of Aragon. Columbus recognized the boy as his offspring. Columbus entrusted his older, legitimate son Diego to take care of Beatriz and pay the pension set aside for her following his death, but Diego was negligent in his duties.
As an ambitious man, Columbus learned Latin, Portuguese, and Castilian. He read widely about astronomy, geography, and history, including the works of Ptolemy, Pierre d'Ailly's Imago Mundi, the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, Pliny's Natural History, and Pope Pius II's Historia rerum ubique gestarum. According to historian Edmund Morgan,
Columbus was not a scholarly man. Yet he studied these books, made hundreds of marginal notations in them and came out with ideas about the world that were characteristically simple and strong and sometimes wrong ...
Quest for Asia
Under the Mongol Empire's hegemony over Asia and the Pax Mongolica, Europeans had long enjoyed a safe land passage on the Silk Road to parts of East Asia, including China and Maritime Southeast Asia, which were sources of valuable goods. With the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453, the Silk Road was closed to Christian traders.
In 1474, the Florentine astronomer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli suggested to King Afonso V of Portugal that sailing west across the Atlantic would be a quicker way to reach the Maluku (Spice) Islands, China, and Japan than the route around Africa, but Afonso rejected his proposal. In the 1480s, Columbus and his brother proposed a plan to reach the East Indies by sailing west. Columbus supposedly wrote Toscanelli in 1481 and received encouragement, along with a copy of a map the astronomer had sent Afonso implying that a westward route to Asia was possible. Columbus's plans were complicated by Bartolomeu Dias's rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, which suggested the Cape Route around Africa to Asia.
Carol Delaney and other commentators have argued that Columbus was a Christian millennialist and apocalypticist and that these beliefs motivated his quest for Asia in a variety of ways. Columbus often wrote about seeking gold in the log books of his voyages and writes about acquiring it "in such quantity that the sovereigns... will undertake and prepare to go conquer the Holy Sepulcher" in a fulfillment of Biblical prophecy.[d] Columbus often wrote about converting all races to Christianity. Abbas Hamandi argues that Columbus was motivated by the hope of "[delivering] Jerusalem from Muslim hands" by "using the resources of newly discovered lands".
Despite a popular misconception to the contrary, nearly all educated Westerners of Columbus's time knew that the Earth is spherical, a concept that had been understood since antiquity. The techniques of celestial navigation, which uses the position of the Sun and the stars in the sky, had long been in use by astronomers and were beginning to be implemented by mariners.
As far back as the 3rd century BC, Eratosthenes had correctly computed the circumference of the Earth by using simple geometry and studying the shadows cast by objects at two remote locations. In the 1st century BC, Posidonius confirmed Eratosthenes's results by comparing stellar observations at two separate locations. These measurements were widely known among scholars, but Ptolemy's use of the smaller, old-fashioned units of distance led Columbus to underestimate the size of the Earth by about a third.
Three cosmographical parameters determined the bounds of Columbus's enterprise: the distance across the ocean between Europe and Asia, which depended on the extent of the oikumene, i.e., the Eurasian land-mass stretching east-west between Spain and China; the circumference of the Earth; and the number of miles or leagues in a degree of longitude, which was possible to deduce from the theory of the relationship between the size of the surfaces of water and the land as held by the followers of Aristotle in medieval times.
From Pierre d'Ailly's Imago Mundi (1410), Columbus learned of Alfraganus's estimate that a degree of latitude (equal to approximately a degree of longitude along the equator) spanned 56.67 Arabic miles (equivalent to 66.2 nautical miles, 122.6 kilometers or 76.2 mi), but he did not realize that this was expressed in the Arabic mile (about 1,830 meters or 1.14 mi) rather than the shorter Roman mile (about 1,480 m) with which he was familiar. Columbus therefore estimated the size of the Earth to be about 75% of Eratosthenes's calculation, and the distance westward from the Canary Islands to the Indies as only 68 degrees, equivalent to 3,080 nmi (5,700 km; 3,540 mi) (a 58% error).
Most scholars of the time accepted Ptolemy's estimate that Eurasia spanned 180° longitude, rather than the actual 130° (to the Chinese mainland) or 150° (to Japan at the latitude of Spain). Columbus believed an even higher estimate, leaving a smaller percentage for water. In d'Ailly's Imago Mundi, Columbus read Marinus of Tyre's estimate that the longitudinal span of Eurasia was 225° at the latitude of Rhodes. Some historians, such as Samuel Morison, have suggested that he followed the statement in the apocryphal book 2 Esdras (6:42) that "six parts [of the globe] are habitable and the seventh is covered with water." He was also aware of Marco Polo's claim that Japan (which he called "Cipangu") was some 2,414 km (1,500 mi) to the east of China ("Cathay"), and closer to the equator than it is. He was influenced by Toscanelli's idea that there were inhabited islands even farther to the east than Japan, including the mythical Antillia, which he thought might lie not much farther to the west than the Azores.
Based on his sources, Columbus estimated a distance of 2,400 nmi (4,400 km; 2,800 mi) from the Canary Islands west to Japan; the actual distance is 10,600 nmi (19,600 km; 12,200 mi). No ship in the 15th century could have carried enough food and fresh water for such a long voyage, and the dangers involved in navigating through the uncharted ocean would have been formidable. Most European navigators reasonably concluded that a westward voyage from Europe to Asia was unfeasible. The Catholic Monarchs, however, having completed the Reconquista, an expensive war against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula, were eager to obtain a competitive edge over other European countries in the quest for trade with the Indies. Columbus's project, though far-fetched, held the promise of such an advantage.
Though Columbus was wrong about the number of degrees of longitude that separated Europe from the Far East and about the distance that each degree represented, he did take advantage of the trade winds, which would prove to be the key to his successful navigation of the Atlantic Ocean. He planned to first sail to the Canary Islands before continuing west with the northeast trade wind. Part of the return to Spain would require traveling against the wind using an arduous sailing technique called beating, during which progress is made very slowly. To effectively make the return voyage, Columbus would need to follow the curving trade winds northeastward to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic, where he would be able to catch the "westerlies" that blow eastward to the coast of Western Europe.
The navigational technique for travel in the Atlantic appears to have been exploited first by the Portuguese, who referred to it as the volta do mar ('turn of the sea'). Through his marriage to his first wife, Felipa Perestrello, Columbus had access to the nautical charts and logs that had belonged to her deceased father, Bartolomeu Perestrello, who had served as a captain in the Portuguese navy under Prince Henry the Navigator. In the mapmaking shop where he worked with his brother Bartholomew, Columbus also had ample opportunity to hear the stories of old seamen about their voyages to the western seas, but his knowledge of the Atlantic wind patterns was still imperfect at the time of his first voyage. By sailing due west from the Canary Islands during hurricane season, skirting the so-called horse latitudes of the mid-Atlantic, he risked being becalmed and running into a tropical cyclone, both of which he avoided by chance.
Quest for financial support for a voyage
By about 1484, Columbus proposed his planned voyage to King John II of Portugal. The king submitted Columbus's proposal to his advisors, who rejected it, correctly, on the grounds that Columbus's estimate for a voyage of 2,400 nmi was only a quarter of what it should have been. In 1488, Columbus again appealed to the court of Portugal, and John II again granted him an audience. That meeting also proved unsuccessful, in part because not long afterwards Bartolomeu Dias returned to Portugal with news of his successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa (near the Cape of Good Hope).
Columbus sought an audience with the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, who had united several kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula by marrying and now ruled together. On 1 May 1486, permission having been granted, Columbus presented his plans to Queen Isabella, who, in turn, referred it to a committee. The learned men of Spain, like their counterparts in Portugal, replied that Columbus had grossly underestimated the distance to Asia. They pronounced the idea impractical and advised the Catholic Monarchs to pass on the proposed venture. To keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere, and perhaps to keep their options open, the sovereigns gave him an allowance, totaling about 14,000 maravedis for the year, or about the annual salary of a sailor. In May 1489, the queen sent him another 10,000 maravedis, and the same year the monarchs furnished him with a letter ordering all cities and towns under their dominion to provide him food and lodging at no cost.
Columbus also dispatched his brother Bartholomew to the court of Henry VII of England to inquire whether the English crown might sponsor his expedition, but he was captured by pirates en route, and only arrived in early 1491. By that time, Columbus had retreated to La Rábida Friary, where the Spanish crown sent him 20,000 maravedis to buy new clothes and instructions to return to the Spanish court for renewed discussions.
Agreement with the Spanish crown
Columbus waited at King Ferdinand's camp until Ferdinand and Isabella conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian Peninsula, in January 1492. A council led by Isabella's confessor, Hernando de Talavera, found Columbus's proposal to reach the Indies implausible. Columbus had left for France when Ferdinand intervened,[e] first sending Talavera and Bishop Diego Deza to appeal to the queen. Isabella was finally convinced by the king's clerk Luis de Santángel, who argued that Columbus would take his ideas elsewhere, and offered to help arrange the funding. Isabella then sent a royal guard to fetch Columbus, who had traveled 2 leagues (over 10 km) toward Córdoba.
In the April 1492 "Capitulations of Santa Fe", King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella promised Columbus that if he succeeded he would be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands he might claim for Spain. He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands. He would be entitled to 10% (diezmo) of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity. He also would have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture in the new lands, and receive one-eighth (ochavo) of the profits.
In 1500, during his third voyage to the Americas, Columbus was arrested and dismissed from his posts. He and his sons, Diego and Fernando, then conducted a lengthy series of court cases against the Castilian crown, known as the pleitos colombinos, alleging that the Crown had illegally reneged on its contractual obligations to Columbus and his heirs. The Columbus family had some success in their first litigation, as a judgment of 1511 confirmed Diego's position as viceroy but reduced his powers. Diego resumed litigation in 1512, which lasted until 1536, and further disputes initiated by heirs continued until 1790.
Between 1492 and 1504, Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas, each voyage being sponsored by the Crown of Castile. On his first voyage he reached the Americas, initiating the European exploration and colonization of the continent, as well as the Columbian exchange. His role in history is thus important to the Age of Discovery, Western history, and human history writ large.
In Columbus's letter on the first voyage, published following his first return to Spain, he claimed that he had reached Asia, as previously described by Marco Polo and other Europeans. Over his subsequent voyages, Columbus refused to acknowledge that the lands he visited and claimed for Spain were not part of Asia, in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary. This might explain, in part, why the American continent was named after the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci—who received credit for recognizing it as a "New World"—and not after Columbus.[f]
First voyage (1492–1493)
On the evening of 3 August 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships. The largest was a carrack, the Santa María, owned and captained by Juan de la Cosa, and under Columbus's direct command. The other two were smaller caravels, the Pinta and the Niña, piloted by the Pinzón brothers. Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands. There he restocked provisions and made repairs then departed from San Sebastián de La Gomera on 6 September, for what turned out to be a five-week voyage across the ocean.
On 7 October, the crew spotted "[i]mmense flocks of birds". On 11 October, Columbus changed the fleet's course to due west, and sailed through the night, believing land was soon to be found. At around 02:00 the following morning, a lookout on the Pinta, Rodrigo de Triana, spotted land. The captain of the Pinta, Martín Alonso Pinzón, verified the sight of land and alerted Columbus. Columbus later maintained that he had already seen a light on the land a few hours earlier, thereby claiming for himself the lifetime pension promised by Ferdinand and Isabella to the first person to sight land. Columbus called this island (in what is now the Bahamas) San Salvador (meaning "Holy Savior"); the natives called it Guanahani.[h] Christopher Columbus's journal entry of 12 October 1492 states:
I saw some who had marks of wounds on their bodies and I made signs to them asking what they were; and they showed me how people from other islands nearby came there and tried to take them, and how they defended themselves; and I believed and believe that they come here from tierra firme to take them captive. They should be good and intelligent servants, for I see that they say very quickly everything that is said to them; and I believe they would become Christians very easily, for it seemed to me that they had no religion. Our Lord pleasing, at the time of my departure I will take six of them from here to Your Highnesses in order that they may learn to speak.
Columbus called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited Los Indios (Spanish for "Indians"). He initially encountered the Lucayan, Taíno, and Arawak peoples. Noting their gold ear ornaments, Columbus took some of the Arawaks prisoner and insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold. Columbus did not believe he needed to create a fortified outpost, writing, "the people here are simple in war-like matters ... I could conquer the whole of them with fifty men, and govern them as I pleased." The Taínos told Columbus that another indigenous tribe, Caribs, were fierce warriors and cannibals, who made frequent raids on the Taínos, often capturing their women.
Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba, where he landed on 28 October. On the night of 26 November, Martín Alonso Pinzón took the Pinta on an unauthorized expedition in search of an island called "Babeque" or "Baneque", which the natives had told him was rich in gold. Columbus, for his part, continued to the northern coast of Hispaniola, where he landed on 6 December. There, the Santa María ran aground on 25 December 1492 and had to be abandoned. The wreck was used as a target for cannon fire to impress the native peoples. Columbus was received by the native cacique Guacanagari, who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind. Columbus left 39 men, including the interpreter Luis de Torres,[i] and founded the settlement of La Navidad, in present-day Haiti. Columbus took more natives prisoner and continued his exploration. He kept sailing along the northern coast of Hispaniola with a single ship until he encountered Pinzón and the Pinta on 6 January.
On 13 January 1493, Columbus made his last stop of this voyage in the Americas, in the Bay of Rincón in northeast Hispaniola. There he encountered the Ciguayos, the only natives who offered violent resistance during this voyage. The Ciguayos refused to trade the amount of bows and arrows that Columbus desired; in the ensuing clash one Ciguayo was stabbed in the buttocks and another wounded with an arrow in his chest. Because of these events, Columbus called the inlet the Golfo de Las Flechas (Bay of Arrows).
Columbus headed for Spain on the Niña, but a storm separated him from the Pinta, and forced the Niña to stop at the island of Santa Maria in the Azores. Half of his crew went ashore to say prayers of thanksgiving in a chapel for having survived the storm. But while praying, they were imprisoned by the governor of the island, ostensibly on suspicion of being pirates. After a two-day standoff, the prisoners were released, and Columbus again set sail for Spain.
Another storm forced Columbus into the port at Lisbon. From there he went to Vale do Paraíso north of Lisbon to meet King John II of Portugal, who told Columbus that he believed the voyage to be in violation of the 1479 Treaty of Alcáçovas. After spending more than a week in Portugal, Columbus set sail for Spain. Returning to Palos on 15 March 1493, he was given a hero's welcome and soon afterward received by Isabella and Ferdinand in Barcelona.
Columbus's letter on the first voyage, dispatched to the Spanish court, was instrumental in spreading the news throughout Europe about his voyage. Almost immediately after his arrival in Spain, printed versions began to appear, and word of his voyage spread rapidly. Most people initially believed that he had reached Asia. The Bulls of Donation, three papal bulls of Pope Alexander VI delivered in 1493, purported to grant overseas territories to Portugal and the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. They were replaced by the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494.
The two earliest published copies of Columbus's letter on the first voyage aboard the Niña were donated in 2017 by the Jay I. Kislak Foundation to the University of Miami library in Coral Gables, Florida, where they are housed.
Second voyage (1493–1496)
On 24 September 1493, Columbus sailed from Cádiz with 17 ships, and supplies to establish permanent colonies in the Americas. He sailed with nearly 1,500 men, including sailors, soldiers, priests, carpenters, stonemasons, metalworkers, and farmers. Among the expedition members were Alvarez Chanca, a physician who wrote a detailed account of the second voyage; Juan Ponce de León, the first governor of Puerto Rico and Florida; the father of Bartolomé de las Casas; Juan de la Cosa, a cartographer who is credited with making the first world map depicting the New World; and Columbus's youngest brother Diego. The fleet stopped at the Canary Islands to take on more supplies, and set sail again on 7 October, deliberately taking a more southerly course than on the first voyage.
On 3 November, they arrived in the Windward Islands; the first island they encountered was named Dominica by Columbus, but not finding a good harbor there, they anchored off a nearby smaller island, which he named Mariagalante, now a part of Guadeloupe and called Marie-Galante. Other islands named by Columbus on this voyage were Montserrat, Antigua, Saint Martin, the Virgin Islands, as well as many others.
On 22 November, Columbus returned to Hispaniola to visit La Navidad, where 39 Spaniards had been left during the first voyage. Columbus found the fort in ruins, destroyed by the Taínos after some of the Spaniards reportedly antagonized their hosts with their unrestrained lust for gold and women. Columbus then established a poorly located and short-lived settlement to the east, La Isabela, in the present-day Dominican Republic.
From April to August 1494, Columbus explored Cuba and Jamaica, then returned to Hispaniola. By the end of 1494, disease and famine had killed two-thirds of the Spanish settlers. Columbus implemented encomienda, a Spanish labor system that rewarded conquerors with the labor of conquered non-Christian people. Columbus executed Spanish colonists for minor crimes, and used dismemberment as punishment. Columbus and the colonists enslaved the indigenous people, including children. Natives were beaten, raped, and tortured for the location of imagined gold. Thousands committed suicide rather than face the oppression.[k]
In February 1495, Columbus rounded up about 1,500 Arawaks, some of whom had rebelled, in a great slave raid. About 500 of the strongest were shipped to Spain as slaves, with about two hundred of those dying en route.
In June 1495, the Spanish crown sent ships and supplies to Hispaniola. In October, Florentine merchant Gianotto Berardi, who had won the contract to provision the fleet of Columbus's second voyage and to supply the colony on Hispaniola, received almost 40,000 maravedís worth of enslaved Indians. He renewed his effort to get supplies to Columbus, and was working to organize a fleet when he suddenly died in December. On 10 March 1496, having been away about 30 months, the fleet departed La Isabela. On 8 June the crew sighted land somewhere between Lisbon and Cape St. Vincent, and disembarked in Cádiz on 11 June.
Third voyage (1498–1500)
On 30 May 1498, Columbus left with six ships from Sanlúcar, Spain. The fleet called at Madeira and the Canary Islands, where it divided in two, with three ships heading for Hispaniola and the other three vessels, commanded by Columbus, sailing south to the Cape Verde Islands and then westward across the Atlantic. It is probable that this expedition was intended at least partly to confirm rumors of a large continent south of the Caribbean Sea, that is, South America.
On 31 July they sighted Trinidad, the most southerly of the Caribbean islands. On 5 August, Columbus sent several small boats ashore on the southern side of the Paria Peninsula in what is now Venezuela, near the mouth of the Orinoco river. This was the first recorded landing of Europeans on the mainland of South America, which Columbus realized must be a continent. The fleet then sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita, reaching the latter on 14 August, and sighted Tobago and Grenada from afar, according to some scholars.
On 19 August, Columbus returned to Hispaniola. There he found settlers in rebellion against his rule, and his unfulfilled promises of riches. Columbus had some of the Europeans tried for their disobedience; at least one rebel leader was hanged.
In October 1499, Columbus sent two ships to Spain, asking the Court of Spain to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern. By this time, accusations of tyranny and incompetence on the part of Columbus had also reached the Court. The sovereigns sent Francisco de Bobadilla, a relative of Marquesa Beatriz de Bobadilla, a patron of Columbus and a close friend of Queen Isabella, to investigate the accusations of brutality made against the Admiral. Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away, Bobadilla was immediately met with complaints about all three Columbus brothers. He moved into Columbus's house and seized his property, took depositions from the Admiral's enemies, and declared himself governor.
Bobadilla reported to Spain that Columbus once punished a man found guilty of stealing corn by having his ears and nose cut off and then selling him into slavery. He claimed that Columbus regularly used torture and mutilation to govern Hispaniola.[l] Testimony recorded in the report stated that Columbus congratulated his brother Bartholomew on "defending the family" when the latter ordered a woman paraded naked through the streets and then had her tongue cut because she had "spoken ill of the admiral and his brothers". The document also describes how Columbus put down native unrest and revolt: he first ordered a brutal suppression of the uprising in which many natives were killed, and then paraded their dismembered bodies through the streets in an attempt to discourage further rebellion. Columbus vehemently denied the charges. The neutrality and accuracy of the accusations and investigations of Bobadilla toward Columbus and his brothers have been disputed by historians, given the anti-Italian sentiment of the Spaniards and Bobadilla's desire to take over Columbus's position.
In early October 1500, Columbus and Diego presented themselves to Bobadilla, and were put in chains aboard La Gorda, the caravel on which Bobadilla had arrived at Santo Domingo. They were returned to Spain, and languished in jail for six weeks before King Ferdinand ordered their release. Not long after, the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to the Alhambra palace in Granada. The sovereigns expressed indignation at Bobadilla's actions, who was then recalled and ordered to make restitutions of the property he had confiscated from Columbus. The royal couple heard the brothers' pleas; restored their freedom and wealth; and, after much persuasion, agreed to fund Columbus's fourth voyage. However, Nicolás de Ovando was to replace Bobadilla and be the new governor of the West Indies.
New light was shed on the seizure of Columbus and his brother Bartholomew, the Adelantado, with the discovery by archivist Isabel Aguirre of an incomplete copy of the testimonies against them gathered by Francisco de Bobadilla at Santo Domingo in 1500. She found a manuscript copy of this pesquisa (inquiry) in the Archive of Simancas, Spain, uncatalogued until she and Consuelo Varela published their book, La caída de Cristóbal Colón: el juicio de Bobadilla (The fall of Christopher Colón: the judgement of Bobadilla) in 2006.
Fourth voyage (1502–1504)
On 9 May 1502, Columbus left Cádiz with his flagship Santa María and three other vessels. The ships were crewed by 140 men, including his brother Bartholomew as second in command and his son Fernando. He sailed to Asilah on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers said to be besieged by the Moors. The siege had been lifted by the time they arrived, so the Spaniards stayed only a day and continued on to the Canary Islands.
On 15 June, the fleet arrived at Martinique, where it lingered for several days. A hurricane was forming, so Columbus continued westward, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola. He arrived at Santo Domingo on 29 June, but was denied port, and the new governor Francisco de Bobadilla refused to listen to his warning that a hurricane was approaching. Instead, while Columbus's ships sheltered at the mouth of the Rio Jaina, the first Spanish treasure fleet sailed into the hurricane. Columbus's ships survived with only minor damage, while 20 of the 30 ships in the governor's fleet were lost along with 500 lives (including that of Francisco de Bobadilla). Although a few surviving ships managed to straggle back to Santo Domingo, Aguja, the fragile ship carrying Columbus's personal belongings and his 4,000 pesos in gold was the sole vessel to reach Spain. The gold was his tenth (décimo) of the profits from Hispaniola, equal to 240,000 maravedis, guaranteed by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492.
After a brief stop at Jamaica, Columbus sailed to Central America, arriving at the coast of Honduras on 30 July. Here Bartholomew found native merchants and a large canoe. On 14 August, Columbus landed on the continental mainland at Punta Caxinas, now Puerto Castilla, Honduras. He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, seeking a strait in the western Caribbean through which he could sail to the Indian Ocean. Sailing south along the Nicaraguan coast, he found a channel that led into Almirante Bay in Panama on 5 October.
As soon as his ships anchored in Almirante Bay, Columbus encountered Ngäbe people in canoes who were wearing gold ornaments. In January 1503, he established a garrison at the mouth of the Belén River. Columbus left for Hispaniola on 16 April. On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands, naming them "Las Tortugas" after the numerous sea turtles there. His ships sustained damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. Unable to travel farther, on 25 June 1503 they were beached in Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica.
For six months Columbus and 230 of his men remained stranded on Jamaica. Diego Méndez de Segura, who had shipped out as a personal secretary to Columbus, and a Spanish shipmate called Bartolomé Flisco, along with six natives, paddled a canoe to get help from Hispaniola. The governor, Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres, detested Columbus and obstructed all efforts to rescue him and his men. In the meantime Columbus, in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men, won their favor by predicting a lunar eclipse for 29 February 1504, using Abraham Zacuto's astronomical charts. Despite the governor's obstruction, Christopher Columbus and his men were rescued on 28 June 1504, and arrived in Sanlúcar, Spain, on 7 November.
Later life, illness, and death
Columbus had always claimed that the conversion of non-believers was one reason for his explorations, and he grew increasingly religious in his later years. Probably with the assistance of his son Diego and his friend the Carthusian monk Gaspar Gorricio, Columbus produced two books during his later years: a Book of Privileges (1502), detailing and documenting the rewards from the Spanish Crown to which he believed he and his heirs were entitled, and a Book of Prophecies (1505), in which passages from the Bible were used to place his achievements as an explorer in the context of Christian eschatology.
In his later years, Columbus demanded that the Crown of Castile give him his tenth of all the riches and trade goods yielded by the new lands, as stipulated in the Capitulations of Santa Fe. Because he had been relieved of his duties as governor, the Crown did not feel bound by that contract and his demands were rejected. After his death, his heirs sued the Crown for a part of the profits from trade with America, as well as other rewards. This led to a protracted series of legal disputes known as the pleitos colombinos ("Columbian lawsuits").
During a violent storm on his first return voyage, Columbus, then 41, had suffered an attack of what was believed at the time to be gout. In subsequent years, he was plagued with what was thought to be influenza and other fevers, bleeding from the eyes, temporary blindness and prolonged attacks of gout. The attacks increased in duration and severity, sometimes leaving Columbus bedridden for months at a time, and culminated in his death 14 years later.
Based on Columbus's lifestyle and the described symptoms, some modern commentators suspect that he suffered from reactive arthritis, rather than gout. Reactive arthritis is a joint inflammation caused by intestinal bacterial infections or after acquiring certain sexually transmitted diseases (primarily chlamydia or gonorrhea). In 2006, Frank C. Arnett, a medical doctor, and historian Charles Merrill, published their paper in The American Journal of the Medical Sciences proposing that Columbus had a form of reactive arthritis; Merrill made the case in that same paper that Columbus was the son of Catalans and his mother possibly a member of a prominent converso (converted Jew) family. "It seems likely that [Columbus] acquired reactive arthritis from food poisoning on one of his ocean voyages because of poor sanitation and improper food preparation," says Arnett, a rheumatologist and professor of internal medicine, pathology and laboratory medicine at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston.
Some historians such as H. Micheal Tarver and Emily Slape, as well as medical doctors such as Arnett and Antonio Rodríguez Cuartero, believe that Columbus had such a form of reactive arthritis, but according to other authorities, this is "speculative", or "very speculative".
After his arrival to Sanlúcar from his fourth voyage (and Queen Isabella's death), an ill Columbus settled in Seville in April 1505. He stubbornly continued to make pleas to the Crown to defend his own personal privileges and his family's. He moved to Segovia (where the court was at the time) on a mule by early 1506, and, on the occasion of the wedding of King Ferdinand with Germaine of Foix in Valladolid, Spain, in March 1506, Columbus moved to that city to persist with his demands. On 20 May 1506, aged 54, Columbus died in Valladolid.
Location of remains
Columbus's remains were first buried at a convent in Valladolid, then moved to the monastery of La Cartuja in Seville (southern Spain) by the will of his son Diego. They may have been exhumed in 1513 and interred at the Seville Cathedral. In about 1536, the remains of both Columbus and his son Diego were moved to a cathedral in Colonial Santo Domingo, in the present-day Dominican Republic; Columbus had requested to be buried on the island. By some accounts, in 1793, when France took over the entire island of Hispaniola, Columbus's remains were moved to Havana, Cuba. After Cuba became independent following the Spanish–American War in 1898, at least some of these remains were moved back to the Seville Cathedral, where they were placed on an elaborate catafalque.
In June 2003, DNA samples were taken from these remains as well as those of Columbus's brother Diego and younger son Fernando. Initial observations suggested that the bones did not appear to match Columbus's physique or age at death. DNA extraction proved difficult; only short fragments of mitochondrial DNA could be isolated. These matched corresponding DNA from Columbus's brother, supporting that both individuals had shared the same mother. Such evidence, together with anthropologic and historic analyses, led the researchers to conclude that the remains belonged to Christopher Columbus.[m]
In 1877, a priest discovered a lead box at Santo Domingo inscribed: "Discoverer of America, First Admiral". Inscriptions found the next year read "Last of the remains of the first admiral, Sire Christopher Columbus, discoverer." The box contained bones of an arm and a leg, as well as a bullet.[n] These remains were considered legitimate by physician and U.S. Assistant Secretary of State John Eugene Osborne, who suggested in 1913 that they travel through the Panama Canal as a part of its opening ceremony.[o] These remains were kept at the Basilica Cathedral of Santa María la Menor (in the Colonial City of Santo Domingo) before being moved to the Columbus Lighthouse (Santo Domingo Este, inaugurated in 1992). The authorities in Santo Domingo have never allowed these remains to be DNA-tested, so it is unconfirmed whether they are from Columbus's body as well.[p]
The figure of Columbus was not ignored in the British colonies during the colonial era: Columbus became a unifying symbol early in the history of the colonies that became the United States when Puritan preachers began to use his life story as a model for a "developing American spirit". In the spring of 1692, Puritan preacher Cotton Mather described Columbus's voyage as one of three shaping events of the modern age, connecting Columbus's voyage and the Puritans' migration to North America, seeing them together as the key to a grand design.
The use of Columbus as a founding figure of New World nations spread rapidly after the American Revolution. This was out of a desire to develop a national history and founding myth with fewer ties to Britain. His name was the basis for the female national personification of the United States, Columbia, in use since the 1730s with reference to the original Thirteen Colonies, and also a historical name applied to the Americas and to the New World. The federal capital (District of Columbia) was named for her, as well as Columbia, South Carolina, and Columbia Rediviva, the ship for which the Columbia River was named.
Columbus's name was given to the newly born Republic of Colombia in the early 19th century, inspired by the political project of "Colombeia" developed by revolutionary Francisco de Miranda, which was put at the service of the emancipation of continental Hispanic America.
To commemorate the 400th anniversary of the landing of Columbus, the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago was named the World's Columbian Exposition. The U.S. Postal Service issued the first U.S. commemorative stamps, the Columbian Issue, depicting Columbus, Queen Isabella and others in various stages of his several voyages. The policies related to the celebration of the Spanish colonial empire as the vehicle of a nationalist project undertaken in Spain during the Restoration in the late 19th century took form with the commemoration of the 4th centenary on 12 October 1892 (in which the figure of Columbus was extolled by the Conservative government), eventually becoming the very same national day. Several monuments commemorating the "discovery" were erected in cities such as Palos, Barcelona, Granada, Madrid, Salamanca, Valladolid and Seville in the years around the 400th anniversary.[q]
For the Columbus Quincentenary in 1992, a second Columbian issue was released jointly with Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Columbus was celebrated at Seville Expo '92, and Genoa Expo '92.
The Boal Mansion Museum, founded in 1951, contains a collection of materials concerning later descendants of Columbus and collateral branches of the family. It features a 16th-century chapel from a Spanish castle reputedly owned by Diego Colón which became the residence of Columbus's descendants. The chapel interior was dismantled and moved from Spain in 1909 and re-erected on the Boal estate at Boalsburg, Pennsylvania. Inside it are numerous religious paintings and other objects including a reliquary with fragments of wood supposedly from the True Cross. The museum also holds a collection of documents mostly relating to Columbus descendants of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
In many countries of the Americas, as well as Spain and Italy, Columbus Day celebrates the anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the Americas on 12 October 1492.
The voyages of Columbus are considered a turning point in human history, marking the beginning of globalization and accompanying demographic, commercial, economic, social, and political changes.
His explorations resulted in permanent contact between the two hemispheres, and the term "pre-Columbian" is used to refer to the cultures of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus and his European successors. The ensuing Columbian exchange saw the massive exchange of animals, plants, fungi, diseases, technologies, mineral wealth and ideas.
In the first century after his endeavors, Columbus's figure largely languished in the backwaters of history, and his reputation was beset by his failures as a colonial administrator. His legacy was somewhat rescued from oblivion when he began to appear as a character in Italian and Spanish plays and poems from the late 16th century onward.
Columbus was subsumed into the Western narrative of colonization and empire building, which invoked notions of translatio imperii and translatio studii to underline who was considered "civilized" and who was not.
The Americanization of the figure of Columbus began in the latter decades of the 18th century, after the revolutionary period of the United States, elevating the status of his reputation to a national myth, homo americanus. His landing became a powerful icon as an "image of American genesis". The Discovery of America sculpture, depicting Columbus and a cowering Indian maiden, was commissioned on 3 April 1837, when U.S. President Martin Van Buren sanctioned the engineering of Luigi Persico’s design. This representation of Columbus's triumph and the Indian's recoil is a demonstration of white superiority over savage, naive Indians. As recorded during its unveiling in 1844, the sculpture extends to "represent the meeting of the two races", as Persico captures their first interaction, highlighting the "moral and intellectual inferiority" of Indians. Placed outside the U.S. Capitol building where it remained until its removal in the mid-20th century, the sculpture reflected the contemporary view of whites in the U.S. toward the Natives; they are labeled "merciless Indian savages" in the United States Declaration of Independence. In 1836, Pennsylvania senator and future U.S. President James Buchanan, who proposed the sculpture, described it as representing "the great discoverer when he first bounded with ecstasy upon the shore, ail his toils past, presenting a hemisphere to the astonished world, with the name America inscribed upon it. Whilst he is thus standing upon the shore, a female savage, with awe and wonder depicted in her countenance, is gazing upon him."
The American Columbus myth was reconfigured later in the century when he was enlisted as an ethnic hero by immigrants to the United States who were not of Anglo-Saxon stock, such as Jewish, Italian, and Irish people, who claimed Columbus as a sort of ethnic founding father. Catholics unsuccessfully tried to promote him for canonization in the 19th century.
From the 1990s onward, a narrative of Columbus being responsible for the genocide of indigenous peoples and environmental destruction began to compete with the then predominant discourse of Columbus as Christ-bearer, scientist, or father of America. This narrative features the negative effects of Columbus' conquests on native populations. Exposed to Old World diseases, the indigenous populations of the New World collapsed, and were largely replaced by Europeans and Africans, who brought with them new methods of farming, business, governance, and religious worship.
Originality of discovery of America
Though Christopher Columbus came to be considered the European discoverer of America in Western popular culture, his historical legacy is more nuanced. After settling Iceland, the Norse settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century. Norsemen are believed to have then set sail from Greenland and Iceland to become the first known Europeans to reach the North American mainland, nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean. The 1960s discovery of a Norse settlement dating to c. 1000 AD at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, partially corroborates accounts within the Icelandic sagas of Erik the Red's colonization of Greenland and his son Leif Erikson's subsequent exploration of a place he called Vinland.
In the 19th century, amid a revival of interest in Norse culture, Carl Christian Rafn and Benjamin Franklin DeCosta wrote works establishing that the Norse had preceded Columbus in colonizing the Americas. Following this, in 1874 Rasmus Bjørn Anderson argued that Columbus must have known of the North American continent before he started his voyage of discovery. Most modern scholars doubt Columbus had knowledge of the Norse settlements in America, with his arrival to the continent being most likely an independent discovery.
Europeans devised explanations for the origins of the Native Americans and their geographical distribution with narratives that often served to reinforce their own preconceptions built on ancient intellectual foundations. In modern Latin America, the non-Native populations of some countries often demonstrate an ambiguous attitude toward the perspectives of indigenous peoples regarding the so-called "discovery" by Columbus and the era of colonialism that followed. In his 1960 monograph, Mexican philosopher and historian Edmundo O'Gorman explicitly rejects the Columbus discovery myth, arguing that the idea that Columbus discovered America was a misleading legend fixed in the public mind through the works of American author Washington Irving during the 19th century. O'Gorman argues that to assert Columbus "discovered America" is to shape the facts concerning the events of 1492 to make them conform to an interpretation that arose many years later. For him, the Eurocentric view of the discovery of America sustains systems of domination in ways that favor Europeans. In a 1992 article for The UNESCO Courier, Félix Fernández-Shaw argues that the word "discovery" prioritizes European explorers as the "heroes" of the contact between the Old and New World. He suggests that the word "encounter" is more appropriate, being a more universal term which includes Native Americans in the narrative.
America as a distinct land
Historians have traditionally argued that Columbus remained convinced until his death that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia as he originally intended (excluding arguments such as Anderson's). On his third voyage he briefly referred to South America as a "hitherto unknown" continent,[f] while also rationalizing that it was the "Earthly Paradise" located "at the end of the Orient". Columbus continued to claim in his later writings that he had reached Asia; in a 1502 letter to Pope Alexander VI, he asserts that Cuba is the east coast of Asia. On the other hand, in a document in the Book of Privileges (1502), Columbus refers to the New World as the Indias Occidentales ('West Indies'), which he says "were unknown to all the world".
Shape of the Earth
Washington Irving's 1828 biography of Columbus popularized the idea that Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan because many Catholic theologians insisted that the Earth was flat, but this is a popular misconception which can be traced back to 17th-century Protestants campaigning against Catholicism. In fact, the spherical shape of the Earth had been known to scholars since antiquity, and was common knowledge among sailors, including Columbus. Coincidentally, the oldest surviving globe of the Earth, the Erdapfel, was made in 1492, just before Columbus's return to Europe from his first voyage. As such it contains no sign of the Americas and yet demonstrates the common belief in a spherical Earth.
Making observations with a quadrant on his third voyage, Columbus inaccurately measured the polar radius of the North Star's diurnal motion to be five degrees, which was double the value of another erroneous reading he had made from further north. This led him to describe the figure of the Earth as pear-shaped, with the "stalk" portion ascending towards Heaven. In fact, the Earth is ever so slightly pear-shaped, with its "stalk" pointing north.
Criticism and defense
Columbus has been criticized both for his brutality and for initiating the depopulation of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean, whether by imported diseases or intentional violence. According to scholars of Native American history, George Tinker and Mark Freedman, Columbus was responsible for creating a cycle of "murder, violence, and slavery" to maximize exploitation of the Caribbean islands' resources, and that Native deaths on the scale at which they occurred would not have been caused by new diseases alone. Further, they describe the proposition that disease and not genocide caused these deaths as "American holocaust denial". Historian Kris Lane disputes whether it is appropriate to use the term "genocide" when the atrocities were not Columbus's intent, but resulted from his decrees, family business goals, and negligence. Other scholars defend Columbus's actions or allege that the worst accusations against him are not based in fact while others claim that "he has been blamed for events far beyond his own reach or knowledge".
As a result of the protests and riots that followed the murder of George Floyd in 2020, many public monuments of Christopher Columbus have been removed.
Some historians have criticized Columbus for initiating the widespread colonization of the Americas and for abusing its native population. On St. Croix, Columbus's friend Michele da Cuneo—according to his own account—kept an indigenous woman he captured, whom Columbus "gave to [him]", then brutally raped her.[r][s]
According to some historians, the punishment for an indigenous person, aged 14 and older, failing to pay a hawk's bell, or cascabela, worth of gold dust every six months (based on Bartolomé de las Casas's account) was cutting off the hands of those without tokens, often leaving them to bleed to death. Other historians dispute such accounts. For example, a study of Spanish archival sources showed that the cascabela quotas were imposed by Guarionex, not Columbus, and that there is no mention, in the primary sources, of punishment by cutting off hands for failing to pay. Columbus had an economic interest in the enslavement of the Hispaniola natives and for that reason was not eager to baptize them, which attracted criticism from some churchmen. Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, stated that "Columbus's government was characterized by a form of tyranny. Even those who loved him had to admit the atrocities that had taken place." Other historians have argued that some of the accounts of the brutality of Columbus and his brothers have been exaggerated as part of the Black Legend, a historical tendency towards anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment in historical sources dating as far back as the 16th century, which they speculate may continue to taint scholarship into the present day.
According to historian Emily Berquist Soule, the immense Portuguese profits from the maritime trade in African slaves along the West African coast served as an inspiration for Columbus to create a counterpart of this apparatus in the New World using indigenous American slaves. Historian William J. Connell has argued that while Columbus "brought the entrepreneurial form of slavery to the New World," this "was a phenomenon of the times," further arguing that "we have to be very careful about applying 20th-century understandings of morality to the morality of the 15th century." In a less popular defense of colonization, Spanish ambassador María Jesús Figa López-Palop has argued, "Normally we melded with the cultures in America, we stayed there, we spread our language and culture and religion."
British historian Basil Davidson has dubbed Columbus the "father of the slave trade", citing the fact that the first license to ship enslaved Africans to the Caribbean was issued by the Catholic Monarchs in 1501 to the first royal governor of Hispaniola, Nicolás de Ovando.
Around the turn of the 21st century, estimates for the pre-Columbian population of Hispaniola ranged between 250,000 and two million,[t] but genetic analysis published in late 2020 suggests that smaller figures are more likely, perhaps as low as 10,000–50,000 for Hispaniola and Puerto Rico combined. Based on the previous figures of a few hundred thousand, some have estimated that a third or more of the natives in Haiti were dead within the first two years of Columbus's governorship. Contributors to depopulation included disease, warfare, and harsh enslavement. Indirect evidence suggests that some serious illness may have arrived with the 1,500 colonists who accompanied Columbus' second expedition in 1493. Charles C. Mann writes that "It was as if the suffering these diseases had caused in Eurasia over the past millennia were concentrated into the span of decades." A third of the natives forced to work in gold and silver mines died every six months. Within three to six decades, the surviving Arawak population numbered only in the hundreds. The indigenous population of the Americas overall is thought to have been reduced by about 90% in the century after Columbus's arrival. Among indigenous peoples, Columbus is often viewed as a key agent of genocide. Samuel Eliot Morison, a Harvard historian and author of a multivolume biography on Columbus, writes, "The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and pursued by his successors resulted in complete genocide."
According to Noble David Cook, "There were too few Spaniards to have killed the millions who were reported to have died in the first century after Old and New World contact." He instead estimates that the death toll was caused by smallpox, which may have caused a pandemic only after the arrival of Hernán Cortés in 1519. According to some estimates, smallpox had an 80–90% fatality rate in Native American populations. The natives had no acquired immunity to these new diseases and suffered high fatalities. There is also evidence that they had poor diets and were overworked. Historian Andrés Reséndez of University of California, Davis, says the available evidence suggests "slavery has emerged as major killer" of the indigenous populations of the Caribbean between 1492 and 1550 more so than diseases such as smallpox, influenza and malaria. He says that indigenous populations did not experience a rebound like European populations did following the Black Death because unlike the latter, a large portion of the former were subjected to deadly forced labor in the mines.
The diseases that devastated the Native Americans came in multiple waves at different times, sometimes as much as centuries apart, which would mean that survivors of one disease may have been killed by others, preventing the population from recovering. Historian David Stannard describes the depopulation of the indigenous Americans as "neither inadvertent nor inevitable," saying it was the result of both disease and intentional genocide.
Biographers and historians have a wide range of opinions about Columbus's expertise and experience navigating and captaining ships. One scholar lists some European works ranging from the 1890s to 1980s that support Columbus's experience and skill as among the best in Genoa, while listing some American works over a similar timeframe that portray the explorer as an untrained entrepreneur, having only minor crew or passenger experience prior to his noted journeys. According to Morison, Columbus's success in utilizing the trade winds might owe significantly to luck.
Contemporary descriptions of Columbus, including those by his son Fernando and Bartolomé de las Casas, describe him as taller than average, with light skin (often sunburnt), blue or hazel eyes, high cheekbones and freckled face, an aquiline nose, and blond to reddish hair and beard (until about the age of 30, when it began to whiten). One Spanish commentator described his eyes using the word garzos, now usually translated as "light blue", but it seems to have indicated light grey-green or hazel eyes to Columbus's contemporaries. The word rubios can mean "blond", "fair", or "ruddy". Although an abundance of artwork depicts Columbus, no authentic contemporary portrait is known.
A well-known image of Columbus is a portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo, which has been reproduced in many textbooks. It agrees with descriptions of Columbus in that it shows a large man with auburn hair, but the painting dates from 1519 so cannot have been painted from life. Furthermore, the inscription identifying the subject as Columbus was probably added later, and the face shown differs from that of other images.
Sometime between 1531 and 1536, Alejo Fernández painted an altarpiece, The Virgin of the Navigators, that includes a depiction of Columbus. The painting was commissioned for a chapel in Seville's Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in the Alcázar of Seville and remains there.
At the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, 71 alleged portraits of Columbus were displayed; most of them did not match contemporary descriptions.
- ^ There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
- ^ In other relevant languages:
- Italian: Cristoforo Colombo [kriˈstɔːforo koˈlombo]
- Ligurian: Cristoffa C(or)ombo [kɾiˈʃtɔffa kuˈɾuŋbu, - ˈkuŋbu]
- Spanish: Cristóbal Colón [kɾisˈtoβal koˈlon]
- Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo [kɾiʃˈtɔvɐ̃w kuˈlõbu]
- Catalan: Cristòfor (or Cristòfol) Colom [kɾisˈtɔfuɾ kuˈlom, -ful k-]
- Latin: Christophorus Columbus.
- ^ Though the modern state of Italy had yet to be established, the Latin equivalent of the term Italian had been in use for natives of the region since antiquity; most scholars believe Columbus was born in the Republic of Genoa.
- ^ In an account of his fourth voyage, Columbus wrote that "Jerusalem and Mount Sion must be rebuilt by Christian hands".
- ^ Ferdinand later claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered."
- ^ a b Felipe Fernández-Armesto points out that Columbus briefly described South America as an unknown continent after seeing the mainland for the first time. Vespucci seems to have modeled his naming of the "new world" after Columbus's description of this discovery. Further, mapmaker Martin Waldseemüller eventually retracted his naming of the continent after Vespucci, seemingly after it came to light that a claim that Vespucci visited the mainland before Columbus had been falsified. In his new map, Waldseemüller labelled the continent as Terra Incognita ('unknown land'), noting that it had been discovered by Columbus.
- ^ This map is based on the premise that Columbus first landed at Plana Cays. The island considered by Samuel Eliot Morison to be the most likely location of first contact is the easternmost land touching the top edge of this image.
- ^ According to Samuel Eliot Morison, San Salvador Island, renamed from Watling's Island in 1925 in the belief that it was Columbus's San Salvador, is the only island fitting the position indicated by Columbus's journal. Other candidates are the Grand Turk, Cat Island, Rum Cay, Samana Cay, or Mayaguana.
- ^ Torres spoke Hebrew and some Arabic; the latter was then believed to be the mother tongue of all languages.
- ^ Omitted from this image, Columbus returned to Guadeloupe at the end of his second voyage before sailing back to Spain.
- ^ The tribute system had all but collapsed by 1497.
- ^ Bobadilla's 48-page report, derived from the testimonies of 23 people who had seen or heard about the treatment meted out by Columbus and his brothers—had originally been lost for centuries, but was rediscovered in 2005 in the Spanish archives in Valladolid. It contained an account of Columbus's seven-year reign as the first governor of the Indies. Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place."
- ^ DNA from Columbus's presumed remains in Seville were to be used to conduct further ancestral studies, with results initially expected in 2021.
- ^ This same year, dust collected from these remains was placed in a locket, which was placed inside the stern of a silver model caravel. Two tiny portions of dust from the same source were placed in separate vials.
- ^ Osborne cited the bullet as evidence the remains belonged to Columbus, but its significance is unclear.
- ^ In his 2008 book, author Tony Horwitz recounts his attempt to see these remains, which are apparently briefly displayed in their crypt (behind a sheet of glass) once a year on Columbus Day.
- ^ See: Columbus Monument, Barcelona (1888), Monument to the Discoverers (1892), Monument to Columbus (Madrid) (1892), Monument to Isabella the Catholic (Granada) (1892), Monument to Columbus (Salamanca) (1893), Monument to Columbus (Valladolid) (inaugurated in 1905, but whose inception dates to an earlier date and a tentative location in Spanish Havana).
- ^ Cuneo wrote,
While I was in the boat, I captured a very beautiful Carib woman, whom the said Lord Admiral gave to me. When I had taken her to my cabin she was naked—as was their custom. I was filled with a desire to take my pleasure with her and attempted to satisfy my desire. She was unwilling, and so treated me with her nails that I wished I had never begun. But—to cut a long story short—I then took a piece of rope and whipped her soundly, and she let forth such incredible screams that you would not have believed your ears. Eventually we came to such terms, I assure you, that you would have thought that she had been brought up in a school for whores.
- ^ Author Tony Horwitz notes that this is the first recorded instance of sexuality between a European and Native American.
- ^ Bartolomé de las Casas estimated that there were three to four million Taínos in Hispaniola, and said 500,000 Lucayans were killed in the Bahamas. Most modern historians reject his figures.
- ^ Lester, Paul M. (January 1993). "Looks are deceiving: The portraits of Christopher Columbus". Visual Anthropology. 5 (3–4): 211–227. doi:10.1080/08949468.1993.9966590.
- ^ "Columbus" Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary
- ^ Flint, Valerie I.J. (16 May 2021). "Christopher Columbus". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
- ^ Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2010). Columbus on Himself. Hackett Publishing. p. 270. ISBN 978-1-60384-317-1.
The date of Fernando's birth, November 1488, gives a terminus ante quem early in that year for the start of Columbus's liaison with Beatriz Enríquez. She was of peasant parentage, but, when Columbus met her, was the ward of a well-to-do relative in Cordoba. A meat business gave her income of her own, mentioned in the only other record of Columbus's solicitude for her: a letter to Diego, written in 1502, just before departure on the fourth Atlantic crossing, in which the explorer enjoins his son to 'take Beatriz Enriquez in your care for love of me, as you your own mother'. Varela, Cristóbal Colón, p. 309.
- ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio (2016). "Beatriz de Arana". In Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
Columbus never married Beatriz. When he returned from the first voyage, he was given the greatest of honors and elevated to the highest position in Spain. Because of his discovery, he became one of the most illustrious persons at the Spanish court and had to submit, like all the great persons of the time, to customary legal restrictions on matters of marriage and extramarital relations. The Alphonsine laws forbade extramarital relations of concubinage for "illustrious people" (king, princes, dukes, counts, marquis) with plebeian women, if they themselves were or their forefathers had been of inferior social condition.
- ^ a b Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 126.
- ^ Caf Dowlah (2020). Cross-Border Labor Mobility: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9783030365066.
Most researchers however trace the beginning of the early modern era to Christopher Columbus's discovery of the Americas in the 1490s
- ^ Mills, Keneth and Taylor, William B., Colonial Spanish America: A Documentary History, p. 36, SR Books, 1998, ISBN 0-8420-2573-1
- ^ Praga, Corinna; Laura Monac (1992). Una Giornata nella Città [A Day in the City] (in Italian). Genoa: Sagep Editrice. p. 14.
- ^ Preste, Alfredo; Alessandro Torti; Remo Viazzi (1997). "Casa di Colombo". Sei itinerari in Portoria [Six itineraries in Portoria] (PDF) (in Italian). Genova: Grafiche Frassicomo. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- ^ Edwards, J. (2014). Ferdinand and Isabella. Routledge. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-317-89345-5.
- ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 91.
- ^ Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Columbus, Diego (brother)". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. – The names Giacomo and Diego are cognates, along with James, all sharing a common origin. See Behind the Name, Mike Campbell, pages Giacomo, Diego, and James. All retrieved 3 February 2017.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, p. 56.
- ^ King, Ross (2021). The Bookseller of Florence: The Story of the Manuscripts That Illuminated the Renaissance. Atlantic Monthly Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-8021-5853-6.
- ^ a b Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 96.
- ^ Galante, John Starosta (2022). On the Other Shore: The Atlantic Worlds of Italians in South America During the Great War. Univ of Nebraska Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4962-2958-8. Ligurian pronunciation: [kriˈʃtɔffa kuˈɹuŋbu] Consulta Ligure (1982). Vocabolario delle parlate liguri [Vocabulary of Ligurian Speech: Specialized Vocabulary]. Sage. ISBN 978-8-8705-8044-0.
- ^ Sánchez, Joseph P.; Gurulé, Jerry L.; Broughton, William H. (1990). Bibliografia Colombina, 1492-1990: Books, Articles and Other Publications on the Life and Times of Christopher Columbus. National Park Service, Spanish Colonial Research Center. p. ix.
- ^ Bedini, Silvio A. (2016). Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. p. viii. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ Wilgus, Alva Curtis (1973). Latin America, 1492-1942: A Guide to Historical and Cultural Development Before World War II. Scarecrow Reprint Corporation. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-8108-0595-8.
- ^ (in Portuguese) "Armas e Troféus." Revista de História, Heráldica, Genealogia e Arte. 1994, VI serie – Tomo VI, pp. 5–52. Retrieved 21 November 2011.[verification needed]
- ^ Davidson 1997, p. 3.
- ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 85.
- ^ Lyon, Eugene (1992). "Navigation and Ships in the Age of Columbus". In McGovern, James R. (ed.). The World of Columbus. Mercer University Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-86554-414-7.
- ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 93.
- ^ Vigneras, L. A. (2016). "Columbus in Portugal". In Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
It is most probable that Columbus visited Bristol, where he was introduced to English commerce with Iceland.
- ^ Ureland, P. Sture (2011). "Introduction". In Ureland, P. Sture; Clarkson, Iain (eds.). Language Contact across the North Atlantic: Proceedings of the Working Groups held at the University College, Galway (Ireland), 1992 and the University of Göteborg (Sweden), 1993. Walter de Gruyter. p. 14. ISBN 978-3-11-092965-2.
- ^ Graves, Charles (1949). Ireland Revisited. Hutchinson. p. 151.
- ^ a b Enterline, James Robert (2003). Erikson, Eskimos & Columbus: Medieval European Knowledge of America. Johns Hopkins University Press+ORM. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-8018-7547-2.
Some writers have suggested that it was during this visit to Iceland that Columbus heard of land in the west. Keeping the source of his information secret, they say, he concocted a plan to sail westward. Certainly the knowledge was generally available without attending any saga-telling parties. That this knowledge reached Columbus seems unlikely, however, for later, when trying to get backing for his project, he went to great lengths to unearth even the slightest scraps of information that would add to the plausibility of his scheme. Knowledge of the Norse explorations could have helped.
- ^ a b Paolucci, Anne; Paolucci, Henry (1992). Columbus, America, and the World. Council on National Literatures. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-918680-33-4.
Many Columbists ... have doubted that Columbus could ever have gone to Iceland.
- ^ a b c d Kolodny, Annette (2012). In Search of First Contact: The Vikings of Vinland, the Peoples of the Dawnland, and the Anglo-American Anxiety of Discovery. Duke University Press. pp. 226–227. ISBN 978-0-8223-5286-0.
- ^ a b Quinn, David B. (1992). "Columbus and the North: England, Iceland, and Ireland". The William and Mary Quarterly. 49 (2): 278–297. doi:10.2307/2947273. ISSN 0043-5597. JSTOR 2947273.
- ^ Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (1991). Columbus. Oxford University Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-19-215898-7.
- ^ Freitas, Antonio Maria de; Maney, Regina (1893). The Wife of Columbus: With Genealogical Tree of the Perestrello and Moniz Families. New York City: Stettinger, Lambert & Co. p. 32.
- ^ Alessandrini, Nunziatella (1 January 2012). "Os Perestrello: uma família de Piacenza no Império Português (século XVI)" [The Perestrellos: A Piacenza family in the Portuguese Empire (16th century)] (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Universidade NOVA de Lisboa. p. 90.
Finally, the most famous son of Filippone, Bartolomeu Perestrello (I), who participated in the rediscovery of the island of Madeira in 1418, and was captain and feitor [administrator] of Porto Santo until, by a letter of 1 November 1446 from Infante Henrique, he became the first donatary captain of the island, a privilege that continued until the 19th century, with the last donatary captain Manuel da Câmara Bettencourt Perestrello in 1814.
- ^ Suranyi, Anna (2015). The Atlantic Connection: A History of the Atlantic World, 1450-1900. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-317-50066-7.
- ^ Dyson 1991, p. 63.
- ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio (2016). "Beatriz Arana". In Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ Taviani, "Beatriz Arana" in The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia, vol. 1, pp. 24–25.
- ^ Morgan, Edmund S. (October 2009). "Columbus' Confusion About the New World". Smithsonian Magazine.
- ^ Davidann, Jon; Gilbert, Marc Jason (2019). Cross-Cultural Encounters in Modern World History, 1453-Present. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-429-75924-6.
- ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 108.
- ^ Boxer, Charles Ralph (1967). The Christian Century in Japan, 1549-1650. University of California Press.
- ^ a b Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 227.
- ^ a b c Murphy & Coye 2013.
- ^ Sheehan, Kevin Joseph (2008). Iberian Asia: the strategies of Spanish and Portuguese empire building, 1540–1700 (Thesis). OCLC 892835540. ProQuest 304693901.[page needed]
- ^ Delaney, Carol (8 March 2006). "Columbus's Ultimate Goal: Jerusalem" (PDF). Comparative Studies in Society and History. Cambridge University Press. 48 (2): 260–92. doi:10.1017/S0010417506000119. JSTOR 3879352. S2CID 144148903. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2020.
- ^ Hamdani, Abbas (1979). "Columbus and the Recovery of Jerusalem". Journal of the American Oriental Society. Ann Arbor, Michigan: American Oriental Society. 99 (1): 39–48. doi:10.2307/598947. JSTOR 598947.
- ^ Murphy & Coye 2013, p. 244.
- ^ Willoz-Egnor, Jeanne (2013). "Mariner's Astrolabe". Institute of Navigation. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- ^ Smith, Ben (1 January 2002). "An astrolabe from Passa Pau, Cape Verde Islands". International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 31 (1): 99–107. Bibcode:2002IJNAr..31...99S. doi:10.1006/ijna.2002.1021.
- ^ Ridpath, Ian (2001). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Universe. New York: Watson-Guptill. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-8230-2512-1.
- ^ Sagan, Carl (1980). Cosmos. New York City: Random House. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-3945-0294-6. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- ^ Freely, John (2013). Before Galileo: The Birth of Modern Science in Medieval Europe. New York City: Abrams Books. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4683-0850-1.
- ^ "Marco Polo et le Livre des Merveilles", p. 37. ISBN 978-2-35404-007-9
- ^ Randles, W. G. L. (January 1990). "The Evaluation of Columbus' 'India' Project by Portuguese and Spanish Cosmographers in the Light of the Geographical Science of the Period" (PDF). Imago Mundi. 42 (1): 50. doi:10.1080/03085699008592691. ISSN 0308-5694. S2CID 129588714. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- ^ Khairunnahar; Mahmud, Khandakar Hasan; Islam, Md Ariful (2017). "Error calculation of the selected maps used in the Great Voyage of Christopher Columbus". The Jahangirnagar Review, Part II. Jahangirnagar University. XLI: 67. ISSN 1682-7422. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
- ^ McCormick, Douglas (9 October 2012). "Columbus's Geographical Miscalculations". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
- ^ Gunn, Geoffrey C. (2018). Overcoming Ptolemy: The Revelation of an Asian World Region. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-1-4985-9014-3.
Constructed on a framework of latitude and longitude, the Ptolemy-revival map projections revealed the extent of the known world in relation to the whole. Typically, they displayed a Eurasian landmass extending through 180° of longitude from a prime meridian in the west (variously the Canary Islands or Cape Verde) to a location in the "Far East."
- ^ Zacher, Christian K. (2016). Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. pp. 676–677. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ Dilke, O. A. W. (2016). "Marinus of Tyre". In Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. p. 452. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1974). The European Discovery of America: The Southern Voyages A.D. 1492-1616. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-19-501377-1.
- ^ Butel, Paul (2002). The Atlantic. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-134-84305-3.
- ^ Morison 1991.
- ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 110.
- ^ Edson, Evelyn (2007). The World Map, 1300-1492: The Persistence of Tradition and Transformation. JHU Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-8018-8589-1.
- ^ Taylor, Alan (2002). American Colonies: The Settling of North America (The Penguin History of the United States, Volume 1). Penguin. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-14-200210-0.
- ^ Jensen, De Lamar (1992). Renaissance Europe (2nd ed.). Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company. p. 341. ISBN 9780669200072.
- ^ Gómez, Nicolás Wey (2008). The Tropics of Empire: Why Columbus Sailed South to the Indies. MIT Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-262-23264-7.
It is also known that wind patterns and water currents in the Atlantic were crucial factors for launching an outward passage from the Canaries: Columbus understood that his chance of crossing the ocean was significantly greater just beyond the Canary calms, where he expected to catch the northeastern trade winds—although, as some authors have pointed out, "westing" from the Canaries, instead of dipping farther south, was hardly an optimal sailing choice, since Columbus's fleet was bound to lose, as soon it did, the northeasterlies in the mid-Atlantic.
- ^ Morison 1991, p. 132.
- ^ Morison 1991, p. 314.
- ^ Rickey, V. Frederick (1992). "How Columbus Encountered America". Mathematics Magazine. 65 (4): 219–225. doi:10.2307/2691445. ISSN 0025-570X. JSTOR 2691445.
- ^ Morison 1991, pp. 198–99.
- ^ Rickey, V. Frederick (1992). "How Columbus Encountered America". Mathematics Magazine. 65 (4): 224. doi:10.2307/2691445. ISSN 0025-570X. JSTOR 2691445.
- ^ Morison 1991, pp. 68–70.
- ^ Pinheiro-Marques, Alfredo (2016). "Diogo Cão". In Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ Symcox, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Blair (2016). Christopher Columbus and the Enterprise of the Indies: A Brief History with Documents. Springer. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-1-137-08059-2.
in 1488 Columbus returned to Portugal and once again put his project to João II. Again it was rejected. In historical hindsight this looks like a fatally missed opportunity for the Portuguese crown, but the king had good reason not to accept Columbus's project. His panel of experts cast grave doubts on the assumptions behind it, noting that Columbus had underestimated the distance to China. And then in December 1488 Bartolomeu Dias returned from his voyage around the Cape of Good Hope. Certain now that they had found the sea route to India and the east, João II and his advisers had no further interest in what probably seemed to them a hare-brained and risky plan.
- ^ Dyson 1991, p. 84.
- ^ Durant, Will The Story of Civilization vol. vi, "The Reformation". Chapter XIII, p. 260.
- ^ Dyson 1991, pp. 86, 92.
- ^ Dyson 1991, p. 92.
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- ^ a b c Phillips & Phillips 1992, pp. 131–32.
- ^ Lantigua, David M. (2020). Infidels and Empires in a New World Order: Early Modern Spanish Contributions to International Legal Thought. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-108-49826-5.
The Capitulaciones de Santa Fe appointed Columbus as the official viceroy of the Crown, which entitled him, by virtue of royal concession, to all the honors and jurisdictions accorded the conquerors of the Canaries. Usage of the terms "to discover" (descubrir) and "to acquire" (ganar) were legal cues indicating the goals of Spanish possession through occupancy and conquest.
- ^ Morison 1991, p. 662.
- ^ a b González Sánchez, Carlos Alberto (2006). "Capitulations of Santa Fe". In Kaufman, Will; Francis, John Michael (eds.). Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: a Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 175–176. ISBN 978-1-85109-421-9.
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- ^ Márquez, Luis Arranz (1982). Don Diego Colón, almirante, virrey y gobernador de las Indias (in Spanish). Editorial CSIC - CSIC Press. p. 175, note 4. ISBN 978-84-00-05156-3.
- ^ a b McDonald, Mark P. (2005). Ferdinand Columbus: Renaissance Collector (1488-1539). British Museum Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7141-2644-9.
- ^ Specht, Joshua; Stockland, Etienne (2017). The Columbian Exchange. CRC Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-351-35121-8.
- ^ a b Morison 1991, p. 381.
- ^ Horodowich, Elizabeth (2017). "Italy and the New World". In Horodowich, Elizabeth; Markey, Lia (eds.). The New World in Early Modern Italy, 1492–1750. Cambridge University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-108-50923-7.
- ^ Cohen, Jonathan. "The Naming of America". Umc.sunysb.edu. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
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- ^ Pickering, Keith A. (August 1994). "Columbus's Plana landfall: Evidence for the Plana Cays as Columbus's 'San Salvador'" (PDF). DIO – the International Journal of Scientific History. 4 (1): 13–32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- ^ a b Morison 1991, p. 228.
- ^ a b Dyson 1991, p. 102.
- ^ "The Original Niña". The Niña & Pinta. British Virgin Islands: The Columbus Foundation. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, pp. 146–47.
- ^ Nicholls, Steve (2009). Paradise Found: Nature in America at the Time of Discovery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-0-226-58340-2.
- ^ Morison 1991, p. 226.
- ^ Lopez, (1990, p. 14); Columbus & Toscanelli (2010, p. 35)
- ^ Lopez, (1990, p. 15)
- ^ Bergreen 2011, p. 99.
- ^ William D. Phillips Jr., 'Columbus, Christopher', in David Buisseret (ed.), The Oxford Companion to World Exploration, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, online edition 2012).
- ^ Dunn, Oliver; Kelley, James E. Jr. (1989). The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 67–69. ISBN 978-0-8061-2384-4.
- ^ Hoxie, Frederick (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-395-66921-1.
- ^ Keegan, William F. (1 January 2015). "Mobility and Disdain: Columbus and Cannibals in the Land of Cotton". Ethnohistory. 62 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1215/00141801-2821644.
- ^ a b c d e f Zinn 2003, pp. 1–22
- ^ Columbus (1991, p. 87). Or "these people are very simple as regards the use of arms … for with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them." (Columbus & Toscanelli, 2010, p. 41)
- ^ Figueredo, D. H. (2008). A Brief History of the Caribbean. Infobase Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1438108315.
- ^ Deagan, Kathleen A. (2008). Columbus's Outpost Among the Taínos: Spain and America at La Isabela, 1493-1498. Yale University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0300133899.
- ^ Hunter, Douglas (2012). The Race to the New World: Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, and a Lost History of Discovery. Macmillan. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-230-34165-4.
- ^ Magasich-Airola, Jorge; Beer, Jean-Marc de (2007). America Magica (2nd edition): When Renaissance Europe Thought It Had Conquered Paradise. Anthem Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-84331-292-5.
- ^ Anderson-Córdova, Karen F. (2017). Surviving Spanish Conquest: Indian Fight, Flight, and Cultural Transformation in Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. University of Alabama Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8173-1946-5.
- ^ Murphy & Coye 2013, pp. 31–32.
- ^ a b Morison 1991, p. 145.
- ^ a b Deagan, Kathleen; Cruxent, José Maria (1993). "From Contact to Criollos: The Archaeology of Spanish Colonization in Hispaniola" (PDF). Proceedings of the British Academy. 81: 73. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- ^ Maclean, Frances (January 2008). "The Lost Fort of Columbus". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
- ^ Gužauskytė, Evelina (2014). Christopher Columbus's Naming in the 'diarios' of the Four Voyages (1492-1504): A Discourse of Negotiation. University of Toronto Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-4426-6825-6.
- ^ Fuson, Robert. The Log of Christopher Columbus (Camden, International Marine, 1987) 173.
- ^ Yewell, John; Chris Dodge (1992). Confronting Columbus: An Anthology. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-89950-696-8. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- ^ Markham, Clements R. (1893). The Journal of Christopher Columbus. London: Hakluyt Society. pp. 159–160. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- ^ Dunn, Oliver; Kelley, James E. Jr. (1989). The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-8061-2384-4.
- ^ Catz, Rebecca (1990). "Columbus in the Azores". Portuguese Studies. 6: 19–21. JSTOR 41104900.
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- ^ Veciana-Suarez, Ana (22 January 2017). "This college donation is truly historic. And it's not just the artifacts involved". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- ^ Morison 1991, pp. 498–501.
- ^ a b Deagan, Kathleen A.; Cruxent, José María (2008). Archaeology at La Isabela: America's First European Town. Yale University Press. p. xxxix (5). ISBN 978-0-300-13391-2.
- ^ a b Bedini, Silvio A. (2016). Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. p. 705. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ Morison 1991, pp. 423–27.
- ^ Antonio de la Cova. "The Spanish Conquest of the Tainos". Latin American Studies. Antonio Rafael de la Cova. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- ^ "Teeth Of Columbus's Crew Flesh Out Tale Of New World Discovery". ScienceDaily. 20 March 2009.
- ^ a b Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A Pest in the Land: New World Epidemics in a Global Perspective. University of New Mexico Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8263-2871-7. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
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- ^ Lyle N. McAlister (1984). Spain and Portugal in the New World, 1492–1700. University of Minnesota Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-8166-1218-8.
- ^ a b Lane, Kris (8 October 2015). "Five myths about Christopher Columbus". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- ^ Morison 1991, pp. 482–85.
- ^ Olson, Julius E. and Edward G. Bourne (editors). "The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, 985–1503", in The Voyages of the Northmen; The Voyages of Columbus and of John Cabot. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906), pp. 369–383.
- ^ a b Stannard, David E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-19-983898-1.
- ^ Koning, Hans. Columbus, His Enterprise: Exploding the Myth. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1976: 83-83.
- ^ Deagan, Kathleen A.; Cruxent, José María (2008). Columbus's Outpost Among the Taínos: Spain and America at La Isabela, 1493–1498. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-300-13389-9.
- ^ a b c d Dyson 1991, pp. 183, 190.
- ^ Cohen, Rhaina; Penman, Maggie; Boyle, Tara; Vedantam, Shankar (20 November 2017). "An American Secret: The Untold Story Of Native American Enslavement". NPR. Archived from the original on 21 November 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
- ^ Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2007). Amerigo: The Man Who Gave His Name to America. New York: Random House. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-4000-6281-2.
- ^ Morison 1991, p. 497.
- ^ Cook, Noble David (1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6.
- ^ a b Saunders, Nicholas J. (2005). The Peoples of the Caribbean: An Encyclopedia of Archaeology and Traditional Culture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-1-57607-701-6.
- ^ Flint, Valerie Irene Jane (2017). The Imaginative Landscape of Christopher Columbus. Princeton University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-4008-8717-0.
- ^ a b c d Fuson, Robert H. (1997). "The Columbian Voyages". In Allen, John Logan (ed.). North American Exploration. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 180–181. ISBN 978-0-8032-1015-8.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, p. 249.
- ^ a b Zerubavel, Eviatar (2003). Terra Cognita: The Mental Discovery of America. Transaction Publishers. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-7658-0987-2.
- ^ Cervantes, Fernando (2021). Conquistadores: A New History of Spanish Discovery and Conquest. Penguin. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-101-98128-3.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, p. 258.
- ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot; Obregón, Mauricio (1964). The Caribbean as Columbus Saw it. Little, Brown. p. 11.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, pp. 284–85.
- ^ Brink, Christopher (2019). Christopher Columbus: Controversial Explorer of the Americas. Cavendish Square Publishing. p. 78.
- ^ Hofmann, Heinz (1994). "Columbus in Neo-Latin Epic Poetry". In Haase, Wolfgang; Meyer, Reinhold (eds.). The Classical Tradition and the Americas: European Images of the Americas and the Classical Tradition (2 pts.). Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-011572-7.
- ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 125.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, pp. 276–77.
- ^ a b Tremlett, Giles (7 August 2006). "Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, pp. 283.
- ^ "Columbus Controversy". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- ^ a b Hale, Edward Everett (1 January 2021). The Life of Christopher Columbus. Prabhat Prakashan.
- ^ Columbus, Christopher (2010). Select Letters of Christopher Columbus : With Other Original Documents, Relating to his Four Voyages to the New World. Richard Henry Major, Diego Alvarez Chanca. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-511-70808-4. OCLC 889952068.
- ^ Felipe Fernández-Armesto (2010). Columbus on himself. Christopher Columbus. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-60384-317-1. OCLC 794493189.
Bobadilla was prejudiced in advance by what he heard, or what the monarchs relayed, from Columbus detractors. HIs brief was to conduct a judicial inquiry into Columbus' conduct, an unjust proceeding, in the Admiral's submission, since Bobadilla had a vested interest in an outcome that would keep him in power. [...] Motivated by self-interest or excessive zeal, Bobadilla clapped Columbus in irons with his brothers, gathered depositions against them, and shipped them back to Spain.
- ^ "National Association of Scholars - Remembering Columbus: Blinded by Politics by Robert Carle". www.nas.org. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- ^ Cervantes, Fernando (2021). Conquistadores: A New History of Spanish Discovery and Conquest. [New York, New York]: Penguin. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-1-101-98128-3.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, p. 276.
- ^ Gužauskytė, Evelina (2014). Christopher Columbus's Naming in the 'diarios' of the Four Voyages (1492-1504): A Discourse of Negotiation. University of Toronto Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-4426-6825-6.
- ^ Cervantes, Fernando (2021). Conquistadores : a new history of Spanish discovery and conquest (1 ed.). [New York, New York]. ISBN 978-1-101-98126-9. OCLC 1258043161.
- ^ Noble, David Cook. "Nicolás de Ovando" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol.4, p. 254. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
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- ^ Varela, Consuelo; Aguirre, Isabel (2006). La caída de Cristóbal Colón: el juicio de Bobadilla (in Spanish). Marcial Pons Historia. p. 175. ISBN 978-84-96467-28-6.
- ^ Some scholars, including Sauer, say the fleet sailed 11 May; Cook says 9 May.
- ^ a b Sauer, Carl Ortwin (2008). The Early Spanish Main. Cambridge University Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-0-521-08848-0.
- ^ Cook, Noble David (1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, pp. 288–89, 302–3.
- ^ Gužauskytė, Evelina (2014). Christopher Columbus's Naming in the 'diarios' of the Four Voyages (1492-1504): A Discourse of Negotiation. University of Toronto Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-4426-6825-6.
- ^ Bedini, Silvio A. (2016). Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ Armas, Antonio Rumeu de (1985). Nueva luz sobre las capitulaciones de Santa Fe de 1492 concertadas entre los Reyes Católicos y Cristóbal Colón: estudio institucional y diplomático (in Spanish). Editorial CSIC - CSIC Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-84-00-05961-3.
- ^ Colindres, Enrique Ortez (1975). Integración Política de Centroamérica (in Spanish). Editorial Universitaria Centroamericana. p. 20.
El 14 de agosto de 1502 Cristóbal Colón descubrió Punta Caxinas, hoy Punta Castilla o Cabo de Honduras.
- ^ Calvo, Alfredo Castillero (2004). Historia general de Panamá: Tomo 1. Las sociedades originarias; El orden colonial. Tomo 2. El orden colonial (in Spanish). Comité Nacional del Centenario de la República. p. 86. ISBN 978-9962-02-581-8.
- ^ Bedini, Silvio A. (2016). Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. pp. 720, 724. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ Stirling, Matthew Williams; Stirling, Marion (1964). Archeological Notes on Almirante Bay, Bocas Del Toro, Panama. U.S. Government Printing Office.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, p. 330.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, p. 330–332.
- ^ Méndez, Diego (2020). "VIII: Shipwrecked by Worms, Saved by Canoe: The Last Voyage of Columbus". In Roorda, Paul (ed.). The Ocean Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. p. 300. doi:10.1515/9781478007456-065. ISBN 978-1-4780-0745-6. S2CID 241132438.
- ^ a b Vigneras, Louis André (1 November 1978). "Diego Méndez, Secretary of Christopher Columbus and Alguacil Mayor of Santo Domingo: A Biographical Sketch". Hispanic American Historical Review. 58 (4): 680. doi:10.1215/00182168-58.4.676. ISSN 0018-2168. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
- ^ Hakim, Joy (2002). The First Americans. Oxford University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-19-515319-4.
- ^ Clayton J., Drees, The Late Medieval Age of Crisis and Renewal: 1300–1500 a Biographical Dictionary, 2001, p. 511
- ^ Kadir, Djelal (1992). "IV: Charting the Conquest". Columbus and the Ends of the Earth: Europe's Prophetic Rhetoric as Conquering Ideology. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 67.
- ^ Rivera, Luis N.; Pagán, Luis Rivera (1992). A Violent Evangelism: The Political and Religious Conquest of the Americas. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-664-25367-7.
- ^ Watts, Pauline Moffitt (1985). "Prophecy and Discovery: On the Spiritual Origins of Christopher Columbus's "Enterprise of the Indies"". The American Historical Review. 90 (1): 92. doi:10.2307/1860749. ISSN 0002-8762. JSTOR 1860749.
- ^ a b "Christopher Columbus Suffered From a Fatal Form of Arthritis" (Press release). University of Maryland School of Medicine. 6 May 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018.
- ^ Hoenig, Leonard J. (1 February 1992). "The Arthritis of Christopher Columbus". Archives of Internal Medicine. 152 (2): 274–277. doi:10.1001/archinte.1992.00400140028008. PMID 1472175.
- ^ Arnett, F.; Merrill, C.; Albardaner, Francesc; Mackowiak, P. (September 2006). "A Mariner with Crippling Arthritis and Bleeding Eyes". The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 332 (3): 125. doi:10.1097/00000441-200609000-00005. PMID 16969141. S2CID 6358022.
- ^ Tarver, H. Micheal; Slape, Emily (2016). Tarver, H. Micheal; Slape, Emily (eds.). The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-61069-422-3.
- ^ "Esclarecen causas de muerte de Cristóbal Colón". El Universal (in Spanish). 25 February 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
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- ^ Cuartero y Huerta 1988, p. 74.
- ^ Kadir, Djelal (1992). "Chapter VII Making Ends Meet: The Dire Unction of Prophecy". Columbus and the Ends of the Earth: Europe's Prophetic Rhetoric as Conquering Ideology. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. pp. 193–194.
- ^ Cuartero y Huerta, Baltasar (1988). "Los Colón en la Cartuja" (PDF). Boletín de la Real Academia Sevillana de Buenas Letras: Minervae Baeticae. 16: 74. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- ^ Dyson 1991, p. 194.
- ^ a b Dyson 1991, p. 196.
- ^ Nash, Elizabeth (2005). Seville, Cordoba, and Granada: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-19-518204-0.
- ^ a b "'Columbus bones' for DNA tests". The Guardian. 3 June 2003. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
- ^ Olaya, Vicente G. (24 May 2021). "Study of Christopher Columbus' DNA set to reveal his true origins". El País. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ Captain George Farquar of Lord Stanley brought the news to Liverpool in 1796 that while he had been at Havana, the Spanish ship of the line San Lorenzo had arrived there carrying the "coffin, bones and fetters of Christopher Columbus" from San Domingo to be re-interred at Havana with "the highest military honours."
- ^ a b c Associated Press (20 May 2006). "DNA verifies Columbus' remains in Spain". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ Tremlett, Giles (11 August 2004). "Young bones lay Columbus myth to rest". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- ^ Álvarez-Cubero, M.J.; Martinez-Gonzalez, L.J.; Saiz, M.; Álvarez, J.C.; Lorente, J.A. (June 2010). "Nuevas aplicaciones en identificación genética" [New applications in genetic identification]. Cuadernos de Medicina Forense (in Spanish). 16 (1–2). doi:10.4321/S1135-76062010000100002.
- ^ "Countdown begins to discover where Columbus came from". AP News. 19 May 2021. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
- ^ a b Bergreen 2011, pp. 363–64.
- ^ Thacher, John Boyd (1904). Christopher Columbus: his life, his works, his remains: as revealed by original printed and manuscript records, together with an essay on Peter Martyr of Anghera and Bartolomé de las Casas, the first historians of America. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 570–73.
- ^ a b "Columbus Buried In San Domingo?". Evening Star. 17 July 1913. p. 11. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- ^ Álvarez-Cubero, M.J.; Mtnez.-Gonzalez, L.J.; Saiz, M.; Álvarez, J.C.; Lorente, J.A. (June 2010). "Nuevas aplicaciones en identificación genética" [New applications in genetic identification]. Cuadernos de Medicina Forense (in Spanish). 16 (1–2). doi:10.4321/S1135-76062010000100002.
- ^ Horwitz 2008, pp. 89–90, 92.
- ^ West, Delno (April 1992). "Christopher Columbus and His Enterprise to the Indies: Scholarship of the Last Quarter Century". The William and Mary Quarterly. 49 (2): 254–277. doi:10.2307/2947272. ISSN 0043-5597. JSTOR 2947272.
Christopher Columbus did not discover a new world, nor did he ever set foot on the North American continent. Rather, he established continuous contact between two continents, each with major populations. But he became a national hero for the United States, and, as such, he has frequently been placed on the same level with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln by Americans who prefer mythology to facts. Early in our history, he became a unifying symbol to the struggling English colonies when Puritan preachers began to use his life as an exemplum of the developing American spirit. On the eve of the American Revolution, poems, songs, sermons, and polemic essays in which Columbus was idealized as the discoverer of a new land for a new people flowed from New England. Such veneration culminated in a movement to name the nation "Columbia."
- ^ Bercovitch, Sacvan (2014). The Rites of Assent: Transformations in the Symbolic Construction of America. Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-317-79619-0.
Thinking back in spring 1692 to "the antiquities of New England," Cotton Mather came upon a crucial connection, as he saw it, between the voyage of Columbus two centuries before and the Puritans' Great Migration. Considered together, the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the landing at San Salvador held the key to a great design. To begin with, Columbus's voyage was one of three shaping events of the modern age, all of which occurred in rapid succession at the turn of the sixteenth century: (1) "the Resurrection of Literature",... (2) the discovery of America, ... and (3) the Protestant Reformation.
- ^ Bushman, Claudia L. (1992). America Discovers Columbus: How an Italian Explorer Became an American Hero. University Press of New England. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-87451-576-3.
- ^ Bartosik-Vélez, Elise (2014). "The Incorporation of Columbus into the Story of Western Empire". The Legacy of Christopher Columbus in the Americas. New Nations and a Transatlantic Discourse of Empire (PDF). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8265-1953-5.
- ^ a b Burmila, Edward (9 October 2017). "The Invention of Christopher Columbus, American Hero". The Nation.
- ^ Dewey, Donald (2007). The Art of Ill Will: The Story of American Political Cartoons. NYU Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-8147-1985-5.
- ^ Stanford, Jack A.; Hauer, F. Richard; Gregory, Stanley V.; Snyder, Eric B. (2011). "Columbia River Basin". In Benke, Arthur C.; Cushing, Colbert E. (eds.). Rivers of North America. Elsevier. p. 501. ISBN 978-0-08-045418-4.
- ^ Zeuske, Michael; Otálvaro, Andrés (2017). "La construcción de Colombeia: Francisco de Miranda y su paso por el Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, 1785-1789". Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura. 44: 177. doi:10.15446/achsc.v44n1.61224. ISSN 0120-2456.
- ^ "Bird's-Eye View of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893". World Digital Library. 1893. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- ^ Bolotin, Norm; Laing, Christine (2002). The World's Columbian Exposition: The Chicago World's Fair of 1893. University of Illinois Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-252-07081-5.
- ^ Handler, Richard (June 2016). "Mining the time-space matrix: Commemorative postage stamps and US world's fairs, 1893–1915". HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory. 6 (1): 296–300. doi:10.14318/hau6.1.017. S2CID 159668550.
- ^ West, Chris (2014). A History of America in Thirty-six Postage Stamps. Macmillan. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-250-04368-9.
- ^ Marcilhacy 2011, pp. 135–138.
- ^ Marcilhacy, David (2011). "Las fiestas del 12 de octubre y las conmemoraciones americanistas bajo la restauración borbónica: España frente a su pasado colonial" (PDF). Jerónimo Zurita. 86: 135–138. ISSN 0044-5517. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- ^ "Columbian Exposition Souvenir Sheets", Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum online, viewed 18 April 2014.
- ^ Bedini, Silvio A. (2016). Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. p. 489. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9.
- ^ "Columbus Day". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
- ^ Bello, Manuel; Shaver, Annis N. (2011). "Representation of Columbus in History Textbboks". In Provenzo, Eugene F. Jr.; Shaver, Annis N; Bello, Manuel (eds.). The Textbook as Discourse: Sociocultural Dimensions of American Schoolbooks. Routledge. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-136-86063-8.
- ^ Boivin, Nicole; Fuller, Dorian Q; Crowther, Alison (September 2012). "Old World globalization and the Columbian exchange: comparison and contrast". World Archaeology. 44 (3): 452–469. doi:10.1080/00438243.2012.729404. JSTOR 42003541. S2CID 3285807.
- ^ McFarlane, Anthony (2004). "Pre-Columbian and colonial Latin America". In King, John (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Modern Latin American Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-63651-3.
- ^ Nunn, Nathan; Qian, Nancy (Spring 2010), "The Columbian Exchange: A History of Disease, Food, and Ideas" (PDF), Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24 (2): 163–188, doi:10.1257/jep.24.2.163
- ^ Wilford, John Noble (1991). "Columbus and the Labyrinth of History" (PDF). The Wilson Quarterly. 15 (4): 79–80. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- ^ Bartosik-Vélez, Elise (2014). "The Incorporation of Columbus into the Story of Western Empire". The Legacy of Christopher Columbus in the Americas. New Nations and a Transatlantic Discourse of Empire (PDF). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-8265-1953-5.
- ^ a b Paul, Heike (2014). "Christopher Columbus and the Myth of Discovery'". The Myths That Made America (PDF). pp. 53, 59. ISBN 978-3-8394-1485-9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- ^ Paul 2014, pp. 58, 60.
- ^ Fryd, Vivienne (2001). Art and Empire: The Politics of Ethnicity in the United States Capitol, 1815–1860. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. pp. 37, 89, 91, 94, 99, 100, 105.
- ^ "Persico's Columbus". The United States Magazine and Democratic Review. 15: 95–97. November 1844 – via Google Books.
- ^ Out West. University of Nebraska Press. 2000. p. 96.
- ^ Congressional Globe, 28 April 1836, p. 1316.
- ^ Paul 2014, pp. 63–64.
- ^ Dennis, Matthew (2018). Red, White, and Blue Letter Days: An American Calendar. Cornell University Press. pp. 119–120. ISBN 978-1-5017-2370-4.
- ^ Wilford 1991, p. 80.
- ^ Connell, William J. (2013). "Who's Afraid of Columbus?". Italian Americana. 31 (2): 136–147. JSTOR 41933001.
- ^ Armitage, David (1992). "Christopher Columbus" (PDF). History Today. 42 (5): 55. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- ^ Axtell, James (1992). "Moral Reflections on the Columbian Legacy". The History Teacher. 25 (4): 407–425. doi:10.2307/494350. ISSN 0018-2745. JSTOR 494350.
... Alfred Crosby, a scholar with the mind of a scientist and the heart of a humanist. He writes that "the major initial effect of the Columbian voyages was the transformation of America into a charnel house." The cataclysmic loss of native life, largely to imported diseases, "was surely the greatest tragedy in the history of the human species.
- ^ Houbert, Jean (2003). "Creolisation and Decolonisation". In Jayasuriya, Shihan de S.; Pankhurst, Richard (eds.). The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Africa World Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-86543-980-1.
- ^ Phillips, William D. (2000). Testimonies from the Columbian Lawsuits. Brepols. p. 25. ISBN 978-2-503-51028-6.
When we speak today of the "legacy" of Christopher Columbus, we usually refer to the broadly historic consequences of his famous voyages, meaning the subsequent European conquest and colonization of the Americas.
- ^ Nedkvitne, Arnved (2018). Norse Greenland: Viking Peasants in the Arctic. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-351-25958-3.
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- ^ "Rafn, Carl Christian, 1795-1864". Wisconsin Historical Society. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
- ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "De Costa, Benjamin Franklin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 915.
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- ^ Coronil, Fernando (1989). "Discovering America Again: The Politics of Selfhood in the Age of Post-Colonial Empires". Dispositio. Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 14 (36/38): 315–331. ISSN 0734-0591. JSTOR 41491365.
When referring to the conquest, Venezuelans tend to side with the original "Indians" inhabiting the territory, even though "we" are generally careful to distinguish ourselves from them, and above all from their contemporary descendants. This tactical identification suggests that the force of this rejoinder comes not just from the hold of the familiar — Columbus already discovered America, so what's new — but from the appeal of a more exclusive familiarity evoked by a shift of location — he only "discovered" it for Europe, not for "us". It is as if we viewed Columbus's arrival from two perspectives, his own, and that of the natives. When we want to privilege "our" special viewpoint, we claim as ours the standpoint of the original Americans, the view not from the foreign ship but from our "native" land.
- ^ Nuccetelli, Susana (31 October 2020). "Setting the Scene: The Iberian Conquest". An Introduction to Latin American Philosophy. pp. 16–17. doi:10.1017/9781107705562.002. ISBN 9781107705562. S2CID 234937836.
- ^ Lazo, Rodrigo (1 December 2013). "The Invention of America Again: On the Impossibility of an Archive". American Literary History. 25 (4): 755. doi:10.1093/alh/ajt049.
- ^ Fernández-Shaw, Félix (May 1992). "Five hundred years from now | From Discovery to Encounter". The UNESCO Courier. UNESCO Digital Library. 45 (5, Rediscovering 1492): 45. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
The encounter between two worlds is a fact that cannot be denied... The word discovery gives prominence to the heroes of the enterprise; the word encounter gives more emphasis to the peoples who actually "encountered" each other and gave substance to a New World. Whereas discovery marks a happening, an event, encounter conveys better the idea of the political journey that has brought us to the reality of today, spanning the five hundred years since 1492... These historical and political milestones are valuable because they relate the present to both the past and the future. It was inevitable that history written from a Eurocentric standpoint should speak in terms of discovery and it is equally inevitable that, as history has now come to be seen in universal terms, we should have adopted so evocative a term as encounter.
- ^ Thomas F. McIlwraith; Edward K. Muller (2001). North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7425-0019-8.
- ^ Sale, Kirkpatrick (1991) . The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy. New York: Plume. pp. 204–209. ISBN 0-452-26669-6. OCLC 23940970.
- ^ Boller, Paul F. (1995). Not So!: Popular Myths about America from Columbus to Clinton. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509186-1.
- ^ Hannam, James (18 May 2010). "Science Versus Christianity?". Patheos.com. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- ^ Bergreen 2011, p. 244.
- ^ Russell, Jeffrey Burton (1991). Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and modern historians. New York City: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95904-3.
- ^ Morison 1991, p. 557.
- ^ Tyson, Neil deGrasse (2014) . Death By Black Hole: And Other Cosmic Quandaries (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-393-06224-3. OCLC 70265574.
- ^ a b Tinker, George E.; Freeland, Mark (2008). "Thief, Slave Trader, Murderer: Christopher Columbus and Caribbean Population Decline" (PDF). Wíčazo Ša Review. 23 (1): 37. doi:10.1353/wic.2008.0002. S2CID 159481939. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
Colón was directly responsible for instituting this cycle of violence, murder, and slavery... This cycle of violence, intentionally created to maximize the extraction of wealth from the islands, in combination with the epidemic diseases that were running rampant through the Taino population, together promoted the genocide of the Taino people... Disease, only in combination with this cycle of brutal colonial violence, could produce the death toll that we see on the island of Española. Therefore, at best, the theory that disease did the business of killing and not the invaders can only be seen as a gratuitous colonizer apologetic designed to absolve the guilt of the continued occupation and exploitation of the indigenous people of this continent. However, the truth of the matter is much worse and should be called by its appropriate name: American holocaust denial.
- ^ Flint, Valerie I.J. (26 July 1999). "Legacy of Christopher Columbus". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
- ^ Brito, Christopher (25 September 2020). "Dozens of Christopher Columbus statues have been removed since June". CBS News. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
- ^ Bigelow, Bill (1992). "Once upon a Genocide: Christopher Columbus in Children's Literature". Social Justice. 19 (2): 106–121. JSTOR 29766680..
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- ^ Morison 1991, p. 417.
- ^ Cohen, J.M. (1969). The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus. NY: Penguin. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-14-044217-5.
- ^ Horwitz 2008, p. 69.
- ^ Deagan, Kathleen A.; Cruxent, José María (2002). Archaeology at La Isabela: America's First European Town. Yale University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-300-09041-3.
- ^ Koning, Hans (1976). Columbus. Monthly Review Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-85345-600-1. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- ^ Lynch, Lawrence Dixson (1993). "Columbus in Myth and History". In McCrank, Lawrence J. (ed.). Discovery in the Archives of Spain and Portugal: Quincentenary Essays, 1492-1992. Primary Sources & Original Works. Vol. 2. Haworth Press. p. 265. doi:10.1300/J269v02n01_09. ISBN 9781560246435.
- ^ Varela, Consuelo; Aguirre, Isabel (2006). "La venta de esclavos" [The sale of slaves]. La caída de Cristóbal Colón: el juicio de Bobadilla [The fall of Christopher Columbus: the Bobadilla trial] (in Spanish). Marcial Pons Historia. pp. 111–118. ISBN 978-84-96467-28-6.
- ^ Hanke, Lewis (1 February 1971). "A Modest Proposal for a Moratorium on Grand Generalizations: Some Thoughts on the Black Legend". Hispanic American Historical Review. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. 51 (1): 112–127. doi:10.1215/00182168-51.1.112. JSTOR 2512616.
- ^ Keen, Benjamin (1 November 1969). "The Black Legend Revisited: Assumptions and Realities". Hispanic American Historical Review. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. 49 (4): 703–719. doi:10.1215/00182168-49.4.703. JSTOR 2511162.
- ^ Keen, Benjamin (1 May 1971). "The White Legend Revisited: A Reply to Professor Hanke's 'Modest Proposal'". Hispanic American Historical Review. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. 51 (2): 336–355. doi:10.1215/00182168-51.2.336. JSTOR 2512479.
- ^ Soule, Emily Berquist (23 April 2017). "From Africa to the Ocean Sea: Atlantic slavery in the origins of the Spanish Empire". Atlantic Studies. 15 (1): 16–39. doi:10.1080/14788810.2017.1315514. S2CID 218620874. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ Fusco, Mary Ann Castronovo (8 October 2000). "In Person; In Defense Of Columbus". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- ^ Horwitz 2008, p. 84.
- ^ Davidson, Basil (January 1992). "Columbus: the bones and blood of racism". Race & Class. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publishers. 33 (3): 17–25. doi:10.1177/030639689203300303. S2CID 145462012.
- ^ Bigelow, Bill (10 October 2015). "Columbus Day must be abolished". The Ottawa Herald. Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
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- ^ Zinn 2003, p. 5.
- ^ a b Keegan, William F., "Destruction of the Taino" in Archaeology. January/February 1992, pp. 51–56.
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- ^ a b Horwitz 2008.
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- ^ Mann, Charles C. (2011). 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created. New York City: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 12. ISBN 978-0307278241.
- ^ a b Hickel, Jason (2018). The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and its Solutions. London, England: Windmill Books. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-78609-003-4.
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- ^ Crosby (1972) p. 45.
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- ^ Schuman, H.; Schwartz, B.; D'Arcy, H. (28 February 2005). "Elite Revisionists and Popular Beliefs: Christopher Columbus, Hero or Villain?" (PDF). Public Opinion Quarterly. 69 (1): 2–29. doi:10.1093/poq/nfi001. S2CID 145447081. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2020.
- ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1955). Christopher Columbus, Mariner. New York City: Little Brown & Co (T); First edition. ISBN 978-0-316-58356-5.
- ^ Cook, Noble David (1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6.
- ^ Fenner F, Henderson DA, Arita I, Ježek Z, Ladnyi ID (1988). "The History of Smallpox and its Spread Around the World" (PDF). Smallpox and its eradication. History of International Public Health. Vol. 6. Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 236. hdl:10665/39485. ISBN 978-92-4-156110-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
- ^ Oliver, José R. (2009). Caciques and Cemí idols: the web spun by Taíno rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-8173-5515-9. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
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- ^ Aufderheide, Arthur C.; Rodríguez-Martín, Conrado; Langsjoen, Odin (1998). The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-521-55203-6.
- ^ Crosby (1972) pp. 39, 47
- ^ Martin, Debra L.; Goodman, Alan H. (2002). "Health conditions before Columbus: paleopathology of native North Americans". Western Journal of Medicine. London, England: BMJ. 176 (1): 65–68. doi:10.1136/ewjm.176.1.65. PMC 1071659. PMID 11788545.
- ^ Reséndez, Andrés (2016). The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-547-64098-3.
- ^ Koch, Alexander; Brierley, Chris; Maslin, Mark; Lewis, Simon (1 March 2019). "Earth system impacts of the European arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492". Quaternary Science Reviews. Wollongong, New South Wales: Elsevier. 207: 13–36. Bibcode:2019QSRv..207...13K. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.12.004.
While most of the other epidemics in history however were confined to a single pathogen and typically lasted for less than a decade, the Americas differed in that multiple pathogens caused multiple waves of virgin soil epidemics over more than a century. Those who survived influenza, may later have succumbed to smallpox, while those who survived both, may then have caught a later wave of measles. Hence, there were documented disease outbreaks in the Americas that killed 30% of the remaining indigenous population over 50 years after initial contact, i.e. between 1568 CE and 1605 CE
- ^ Stannard, David E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-19-983898-1.
- ^ Peck, Douglas T. (2009). "The Controversial Skill of Columbus as a Navigator: An Enduring Historical Enigma" (PDF). The Journal of Navigation. 62 (3): 417–425. Bibcode:2009JNav...62..417P. doi:10.1017/S0373463309005359. S2CID 59570444. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
- ^ Morison 1991, pp. 59, 198–199.
- ^ Morison 1991, pp. 43–45.
- ^ Bartolomé de Las Casas, Historia de las Indias, ed. Agustín Millares Carlo, 3 vols. (Mexico City, 1951), book 1, chapter 2, 1:29.
- ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, pp. 85–86.
- ^ Wilson, Ian (1991). The Columbus Myth: Did Men of Bristol Reach America Before Columbus?. Simon & Schuster. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-671-71067-5.
Of Columbus, too, none of the familiarly reproduced portraits is thought to have been made in his lifetime.
- ^ "Portrait of a Man, Said to be Christopher Columbus (born about 1446, died 1506)"
- ^ Hall, Linda B. (2004). Mary, Mother and Warrior: The Virgin in Spain and the Americas. University of Texas Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-292-70595-1.
- ^ Phillips, Carla Rahn (20 November 2018). "Visualizing Imperium: The Virgin of the Seafarers and Spain's Self-Image in the Early Sixteenth Century *". Renaissance Quarterly. 58 (3): 816. doi:10.1353/ren.2008.0864. ISSN 0034-4338. S2CID 233339652.
- ^ Morison 1991, pp. 47–48.
- Bergreen, Lawrence (2011). Columbus: The Four Voyages, 1493–1504. Penguin Group US. ISBN 978-1-101-54432-7.
- Columbus, Christopher (1847). Major, Richard Henry (ed.). Select Letters of Christopher Columbus: With Other Original Documents, Relating to His Four Voyages to the New World. London: The Hakluyt Society.
- Columbus, Christopher; Toscanelli, Paolo (2010) . Markham, Clements R. (ed.). The Journal of Christopher Columbus (During His First Voyage). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-01284-3.
- Columbus, Christopher (1991) . First Voyage to America: From the log of the "Santa Maria". Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-26844-6.
- Columbus, Ferdinand (1571). A History of the Life and Actions of Adm. Christopher Columbus. in Churchill, Awnsham (1732). A Collection of voyages and travels. Vol. 2. London : Printed by assignment from Messrs. Churchill for John Walthoe ..., Tho. Wotton ..., Samuel Birt ..., Daniel Browne ..., Thomas Osborn ..., John Shuckburgh ... and Henry Lintot ... pp. 501–624.
- Crosby, A.W. (1987) The Columbian Voyages: the Columbian Exchange, and their Historians. Washington, DC: American Historical Association.
- Davidson, Miles H. (1997). Columbus then and now: a life reexamined. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2934-1.
- Dyson, John (1991). Columbus: For Gold, God and Glory. Madison Press Books. ISBN 978-0-670-83725-0.
- Fuson, Robert H. (1992) The Log of Christopher Columbus. International Marine Publishing
- Horwitz, Tony (2008). A Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World (1st ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-0-8050-7603-5. OCLC 180989602.
- Joseph, Edward Lanzar (1838). History of Trinidad. A.K. Newman & Co.
- Lopez, Barry (1990). The Rediscovery of North America. Lexicon, KY: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-1742-3.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot (1991) . Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-58478-4. OCLC 1154365097.
- Murphy, Patrick J.; Coye, Ray W. (2013). Mutiny and Its Bounty: Leadership Lessons from the Age of Discovery. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17028-3.
- Phillips, William D. Jr.; Phillips, Carla Rahn (1992). The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35097-6.
- Zinn, Howard (2003) . A People's History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-052837-9.
- The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by His Son Ferdinand. Translated by Keen, Benjamin. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 1978 . ISBN 978-0-313-20175-2.
- Beazley, Charles Raymond (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). pp. 741–746.
- Smith, Walter George (1906). "Christopher Columbus: An Address Delivered Before the American Catholic Historical Society". Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. 17 (4): 374–398. JSTOR 44208924.
- Wey, Gómez Nicolás (2008). The tropics of empire: Why Columbus sailed south to the Indies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-23264-7
- Wilford, John Noble (1991), The Mysterious History of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
- Winsor, Justin (1891). Christopher Columbus and How He Received and Imparted the Spirit of Discovery. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
- Works by Christopher Columbus at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Christopher Columbus at Internet Archive
- Works by Christopher Columbus at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Journals and Other Documents on the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, translated and edited by Samuel Eliot Morison in PDF format
- Excerpts from the log of Christopher Columbus's first voyage
- The Letter of Columbus to Luis de Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery
- Columbus Monuments Pages (overview of monuments for Columbus all over the world)
- "But for Columbus There Would Be No America", Tiziano Thomas Dossena, Bridgepugliausa.it, 2012.