In Greek mythology, Clio (traditionally /ˈklaɪoʊ/, but now more frequently /ˈkliːoʊ/; Greek: Κλειώ), also spelled Kleio, is the muse of history, or in a few mythological accounts, the muse of lyre playing.
Goddess of history and lyre playing
|Member of The Muses|
|Parents||Zeus and Mnemosyne|
|Siblings||Euterpe, Polyhymnia, Urania, Calliope, Erato, Thalia, Terpsichore, Melpomene, Aeacus, Angelos, Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Dionysus, Eileithyia, Enyo, Eris, Ersa, Hebe, Helen, Hephaestus, Heracles, Hermes, Minos, Pandia, Persephone, Perseus, Rhadamanthus, the Graces, the Horae, the Litae, the Moirai|
Clio's name is etymologically derived from the Greek root κλέω/κλείω (meaning "to recount", "to make famous" or "to celebrate"). The name's traditional Latinisation is Clio, but some modern systems such as the American Library Association-Library of Congress system use K to represent the original Greek kappa, and ei to represent the diphthong ει (epsilon iota), thus Kleio.
Clio, sometimes referred to as "the Proclaimer", is often represented with an open parchment scroll, a book, or a set of tablets. She is also shown with the heroic trumpet and the clepsydra (water clock). Cesere Ripa's Iconologia, an important source book for artists of the Baroque period, stated that Clio should be depicted with a crown of laurels, a trumpet and an open book.
Like all the muses, Clio is a daughter of Zeus and the Titaness Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. Along with her sister Muses, she is considered to dwell at either Mount Helicon or Mount Parnassos. Other common locations for the Muses are Pieria in Thessaly, near to Mount Olympus.
She had one son, Hyacinth, with one of several kings, in various myths—with Pierus or with king Oebalus of Sparta, or with king Amyclas, progenitor of the people of Amyclae, dwellers about Sparta. Some sources say she is also the mother of Hymenaios. According to Apollodorus, Clio was made to fall in love with Pierus by Aphrodite, for Clio had derided her for her love affair with Adonis. Other accounts credit her as the mother of Linus, a poet who was buried at Argos, although Linus has a number of differing parents depending upon the account, including several accounts in which he is the son of Clio's sisters Urania or Calliope.
In her capacity as "the proclaimer, glorifier and celebrator of history, great deeds and accomplishments,"
Clio is used in the name of various modern brands, including the Clio Awards for excellence in advertising. The Cambridge University History Society is informally referred to as Clio; the Cleo of Alpha Chi society at Trinity College, Connecticut is named after the muse. Likewise, the undergraduate student outreach group for the Penn Museum at the University of Pennsylvania is known as the Clio Society and Geneseo College’s oldest society is 'Clio'. 'Clio' also represents history in some coined words in academic usage: cliometrics, cliodynamics.
Clio Bay in Antarctica is named after the muse.
Statue of Clio by Albert Wolff in Berlin
Clio, Muse of History by Johannes Moreelse
Clio, the Muse of History (1632) by Artemisia Gentileschi.
The Muse Clio (c. 1689) by Pierre Mignard
The Muse Clio by Bernhard Rode
Car of History, a chariot clock depicting Clio, by Carlo Franzoni, 1819, in National Statuary Hall
Sculpture of Clio by Alexander Stirling Calder on the tomb of historian Henry Charles Lea
- ^ "Clio". lib.ugent.be. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
- ^ Avery, Catherine B., ed. (1962). New Century Classical Handbook. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. p. 304.
- ^ Harvey, Paul (1984). "Clio/Kleio". The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (Revised 1984 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-19-281490-7.
- ^ a b Leeming, David (2005). "Muses". The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.
- ^ a b Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J. (1971). Classical Mythology. New York: David McKay Company. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-679-30028-7.
- ^ D. S. Levene, Damien P. Nelis (2002). Clio and the Poets: Augustan Poetry and the Traditions of Ancient Historiography. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11782-2.
- ^ Κλειώ. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
- ^ κλειώ. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
- ^ Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary: Founded on Andrews' Edition of Freund's Latin Dictionary: Revised, Enlarged, and in Great Part Rewritten by Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and Charles Short, LL.D. The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1879, s.v.
- ^ "Clio, Greek Muse". Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
- ^ Ripa, Cesare (1611). Iconologia (in Italian).
- ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.3
- ^ Pausanias, 3.1.3 & 3.19.4
- ^ Apollodorus, 1.3.3
- ^ Graves, Robert (1960). The Greek Myths. Vol. 2 (1960 revised ed.). London: Penguin. pp. 212–213.
- ^ Carder, Sheri: "Clio Awards" The Guide to United States popular culture, pages 180–181, ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2
General and cited referencesEdit
- Pausanias, Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918. ISBN 0-674-99328-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio. 3 vols. Leipzig, Teubner. 1903. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website.
- Bartelink, Dr. G. J. M. (1988). Prisma van de mythologie. Utrecht: Het Spectrum.
- van Aken, Dr. A. R. A. (1961). Elseviers Mythologische Encyclopedie. Amsterdam: Elsevier.