Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ʿĪd al-ʾAḍḥā [ˈʕiːd æl ˈʔɑdˤħæː], "Feast of the Sacrifice") or the Feast of Sacrifice is the second of the two main holidays celebrated in Islam (the other being Eid al-Fitr). Part of their meat is consumed by the family which offers the animal, while the rest of the meat is distributed to the poor and the needy. Sweets and gifts are given, and extended family members are typically visited and welcomed.
|Official name||Eid al-Adha|
Commemoration of Abraham (Ibrahim)'s willingness to sacrifice his son in obedience to a command from God
|Observances||Eid prayers, animal slaughter, charity, social gatherings, festive meals, gift-giving|
|Begins||10 Dhu al-Hijjah|
|Ends||13 Dhu al-Hijjah|
|Date||10 Dhu al-Hijjah|
|2023 date||28 June – 2 July |
|2024 date||16 June – 20 June |
|First time||622 AD|
|Related to||Hajj; Eid al-Fitr|
In the Islamic lunar calendar, Eid al-Adha falls on the tenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah and lasts for four days. In the international (Gregorian) calendar, the dates vary from year to year, shifting approximately 11 days earlier each year.
Eid al-Adha is also pronounced Eid al-Azha and Eidul Azha, primarily in Iran and regions influenced by the Persian language like the Indian subcontinent; /ˌiːd əl ˈɑːdə, - ˈɑːdhɑː/ EED əl AH-də, - AHD-hah; Arabic: عيد الأضحى, romanized: ʿĪd al-ʾAḍḥā, IPA: [ʕiːd al ˈʔadˤħaː].
The Arabic word عيد (ʿīd) means 'festival', 'celebration', 'feast day', or 'holiday'. It itself is a triliteral root عيد (ʕ-y-d) with associated root meanings of "to go back, to rescind, to accrue, to be accustomed, habits, to repeat, to be experienced; appointed time or place, anniversary, feast day". Arthur Jeffery contests this etymology, and believes the term to have been borrowed into Arabic from Syriac, or less likely Targumic Aramaic.
The holiday is called عيد الأضحى (Eid-al-Adha) or العيد الكبير (Eid-al-Kabir) in Arabic. The words أضحى (aḍḥā) and قربان (qurbān) are synonymous in meaning 'sacrifice' (animal sacrifice), 'offering' or 'oblation'. The first word comes from the triliteral root ضحى (ḍaḥḥā) with associated meanings of "immolate ; offer up ; sacrifice ; victimize". No occurrence of this root with a meaning related to sacrifice occurs in the Qur'an but in the Hadith literature. Arab Christians use the term to mean the Eucharistic host. The second word derives from the triliteral root قرب (qaraba) with associated meanings of "closeness, proximity... to moderate; kinship...; to hurry; ...to seek, to seek water sources...; scabbard, sheath; small boat; sacrifice". Arthur Jeffery recognizes the same Semitic root, but believes the sense of the term to have entered Arabic through Aramaic. The word is still used by Aramaic Christians for the Communion service, see Eucharist above. Compare Hebrew korban קָרבן (qorbān).
Slaughter on Eid al-AdhaEdit
The tradition for Eid al-Adha involves slaughtering an animal and sharing the meat in three equal parts – for family, for relatives and friends, and for poor people. The goal is to make sure every Muslim gets to eat meat.
Devotees offer the Eid al-Adha prayers at the mosque. The Eid al-Adha prayer is performed any time after the sun completely rises up to just before the entering of Zuhr time, on the tenth of Dhu al-Hijjah. In the event of a force majeure (e.g. natural disaster), the prayer may be delayed to the 11th of Dhu al-Hijjah and then to the 12th of Dhu al-Hijjah.
Eid prayers must be offered in congregation. Participation of women in the prayer congregation varies from community to community. It consists of two rakats (units) with seven takbirs in the first Raka'ah and five Takbirs in the second Raka'ah. For Shia Muslims, Salat al-Eid differs from the five daily canonical prayers in that no adhan (call to prayer) or iqama (call) is pronounced for the two Eid prayers. The salat (prayer) is then followed by the khutbah, or sermon, by the Imam.
At the conclusion of the prayers and sermon, Muslims embrace and exchange greetings with one another (Eid Mubarak), give gifts and visit one another. Many Muslims also take this opportunity to invite their friends, neighbours, co-workers and classmates to their Eid festivities to better acquaint them about Islam and Muslim culture.
Traditions and practicesEdit
During Eid al-Adha, distributing meat amongst the people, chanting the takbir out loud before the Eid prayers on the first day and after prayers throughout the four days of Eid, are considered essential parts of this important Islamic festival.
The takbir consists of:
الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر
Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar
Adults and children are expected to dress in their finest clothing to perform Eid prayer in a large congregation in an open waqf ("stopping") field called Eidgah or mosque. Affluent Muslims who can afford it sacrifice their best halal domestic animals (usually a camel, goat, sheep, or ram depending on the region) as a symbol of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his only son. The sacrificed animals, called aḍḥiya (Arabic: أضحية), known also by the Perso-Arabic term qurbāni, have to meet certain age and quality standards or else the animal is considered an unacceptable sacrifice. In Pakistan alone nearly ten million animals are sacrificed on Eid days, costing over $2 billion.
The meat from the sacrificed animal is preferred to be divided into three parts. The family retains one-third of the share; another third is given to relatives, friends, and neighbors; and the remaining third is given to the poor and needy.
Muslims wear their new or best clothes. People cook special sweets, including ma'amoul (filled shortbread cookies) and samosas. They gather with family and friends.
Eid al-Adha in the Gregorian calendarEdit
While Eid al-Adha is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. The lunar calendar is approximately eleven days shorter than the solar calendar. Each year, Eid al-Adha (like other Islamic holidays) falls on one of about two to four Gregorian dates in parts of the world, because the boundary of crescent visibility is different from the International Date Line.
The following list shows the official dates of Eid al-Adha for Saudi Arabia as announced by the Supreme Judicial Council. Future dates are estimated according to the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia. The Umm al-Qura calendar is just a guide for planning purposes and not the absolute determinant or fixer of dates. Confirmations of actual dates by moon sighting are applied on the 29th day of the lunar month prior to Dhu al-Hijjah to announce the specific dates for both Hajj rituals and the subsequent Eid festival. The three days after the listed date are also part of the festival. The time before the listed date the pilgrims visit Mount Arafat and descend from it after sunrise of the listed day.
In many countries, the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on the observation of new moon by local religious authorities, so the exact day of celebration varies by locality.
|Islamic year||Gregorian date|
|1401||8 October 1981|
|1402||27 September 1982|
|1403||17 September 1983|
|1404||5 September 1984|
|1405||26 August 1985|
|1406||15 August 1986|
|1407||4 August 1987|
|1408||25 July 1988|
|1409||13 July 1989|
|1410||2 July 1990|
|1411||22 June 1991|
|1412||11 June 1992|
|1413||31 May 1993|
|1414||20 May 1994|
|1415||9 May 1995|
|1416||29 April 1996|
|1417||17 April 1997|
|1418||7 April 1998|
|1419||27 March 1999|
|1420||16 March 2000|
|1421||5 March 2001|
|1422||22 February 2002|
|1423||11 February 2003|
|1424||1 February 2004|
|1425||20 January 2005|
|1426||10 January 2006|
|1427||30 December 2006|
|1428||20 December 2007|
|1429||8 December 2008|
|1430||27 November 2009|
|1431||16 November 2010|
|1432||6 November 2011|
|1433||26 October 2012|
|1434||14 October 2013|
|1435||5 October 2014|
|1436||24 September 2015|
|1437||12 September 2016|
|1438||2 September 2017|
|1439||20 August 2018|
|1440||11 August 2019|
|1441||31 July 2020|
|1442||20 July 2021|
|1443||9 July 2022|
|1444||28 June 2023 (calculated)|
|1445||16 June 2024 (calculated)|
|1446||6 June 2025 (calculated)|
|1447||26 May 2026 (calculated)|
|1448||16 May 2027 (calculated)|
|1449||4 May 2028 (calculated)|
|1450||23 April 2029 (calculated)|
|1451||13 April 2030 (calculated)|
|1452||2 April 2031 (calculated)|
|1453||21 March 2032 (calculated)|
|1454||11 March 2033 (calculated)|
|1455||28 February 2034 (calculated)|
|1456||17 February 2035 (calculated)|
|1457||7 February 2036 (calculated)|
|1458||26 January 2037 (calculated)|
|1459||16 January 2038 (calculated)|
|1460||5 January 2039 (calculated)|
- Note: Because the Hijri year differs by about 11 days from the AD year, Eid al-Adha can occur twice a year, in the year 1029, 1062, 1094, 1127, 1159, 1192, 1224, 1257, 1290, 1322, 1355, 1387, 1420, 1452, 1485, 1518, 1550, 1583, 1615, 1648, 1681, 1713, 1746, 1778, 1811, 1844, 1876, 1909, 1941, 1974, 2007, 2039, 2072, 2104, 2137, 2169, 2202, 2235, 2267 and 2300 (will continue to occur every 32 or 33 years).
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- Media related to Eid al-Adha at Wikimedia Commons
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