Hamadan[4] (pronounced [hæmedɒːn]) or Hamedan (Persian: همدان, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2019 census, its population was 783,300 in 230,775 families.[5][6] The majority of people living in Hamadan identify as ethnic Kurds and Persians.

Ancient names: Ecbatana, Hangmatana
Hamedan 13971219000404636878130198589248 82460 PhotoT.jpg
Hamedan 13971219000404636878130263434367 98600 PhotoT.jpg
Hamedan 13971219000404636878130276247129 59039 PhotoT.jpg
Hamedan 13971219000404636878130214058827 93283 PhotoT.jpg
Hamedan 13971219000404636878130233590008 91471 PhotoT.jpg
Hamedan 13971219000404636878130159170499 73041 PhotoT.jpg
Central square, Nazari Museum garden, Monument, Abbasabad Spa, Quranic and International Convention Center, Tomb of Avicenna
Hamadan is located in Iran
Hamedan in Iran
Coordinates: 34°47′54″N 48°30′54″E / 34.79833°N 48.51500°E / 34.79833; 48.51500
 • MayorMajeed Shakiri (since 2021)[1][2]
1,850 m (6,069 ft)
 (2016 Census)
 • Rank13th in Iran
 • Urban
673,405 [3]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)

Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE.

Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level.

The old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran. The major sights of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The main language in the city is Persian.[7][8][9]


16th century map of Hamadan by Matrakçı Nasuh

According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Hamadan is a very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."[10]

Hamadan was established by the Medes. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty.

Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra (Ezra 6:2) as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.

During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan was the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in this city. In 642 the Battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.

During the rule of the Buyid dynasty, the city suffered much damage. However, the city regained its former glory under the rule of the Buyid ruler Fanna Khusraw. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan. In 1220, Hamadan was destroyed by the Mongols[11] during the Mongol invasions of Georgia before the Battle of Khunan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasions, but later thrived during the Safavid era.

Silver drachma of Parthian king Mithridates II made in Ecbatan mint

Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work of Nader Shah, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Iran. In the late 19th century, American missionaries, including James W. Hawkes and Belle Sherwood Hawke,[12][13] established schools in Hamadan.

The Ganjnameh, a cuneiform inscription in Hamadan

During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to the control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.


Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year.

The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region.

Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a hot-summer mediterranean continental climate (Köppen: Dsa, Trewartha: Dc), in transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk), with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C (−22 °F) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.

Climate data for Hamedan (1976-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.4
Average high °C (°F) 2.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.6
Average low °C (°F) −7.9
Record low °C (°F) −34
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.1
Average rainy days 11.6 11.1 12.4 12.1 9.5 2.0 1.3 1.6 1.0 5.6 6.8 10.1 85.1
Average snowy days 8.8 8.2 4.2 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.9 6.9 29.8
Average relative humidity (%) 77 73 63 53 50 40 36 35 36 49 63 73 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.8 137.1 174.5 199.6 258.5 341.8 342.7 322.2 295.6 234.3 183.1 135.3 2,756.5
Source: [14]

Panoramic viewEdit

Hamadan at night. Hamadan was redesigned in 1928 by German architects and urban planners to resemble the spokes of a hexagram.[15][self-published source?]


According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan was 1,677,957.[16] Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people.[17]

A majority of the population speaks the Hamadani dialect of Persian and standard Persian, with a Turkic minority.[18]

Hamadan linguistic composition
Language Percent
Hamadani Persian
Standart Persian


Saint Stephen and Gregory the Illuminator Church
The Saint Mary Church of Hamadan
A church in Ekbatan Hospital in Hamadan

Hamadan is home to many poets and writers. Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, author of the Maqamat, was born here and the 11th-century Iranian poet Baba Taher was interred here. Avicenna, the scientist and writer once lived and worked in Hamadan, he is also buried in the city; the Avicenna Mausoleum was constructed in his honor in 1952.

Hamadan is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in Hamadan. The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai in Hamadan is believed by some to hold the remains of the biblical Esther and her uncle Mordechai.

Hamadan is also well-known for handicrafts like leather, ceramics, and carpets.



PAS Hamedan F.C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran F.C. The team, along with Alvand Hamedan F.C., is in the Azadegan League.

Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium, Shahid Mofatteh Stadium, Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of Hamadan.


Hamadan University of Technology, in Hamadan

Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution, education in Hamadan was limited to some Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, which was built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were also the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan.

Some of the popular universities in Hamadan include:

Notable residentsEdit

Hamedan celebrities are divided into 3 categories: pre-Islamic, post-Islamic and contemporary people.

Pre-Islamic celebritiesEdit

Among the pre-Islamic celebrities in Hamedan, we can name Mandana, the mother of Cyrus the Great and the daughter of the last king of Media, Ishtovigo.

Famous names after IslamEdit

Famous people of Hamedan after Islam are great people such as:

  • Baba Taher, Famous poets of the fourth century AH.
  • Badi'alzaman Hamedani, author of the oldest book in the art of maqam writing.
  • Abul Ali Hassan Attar, a great literature and famous syntax, vocabulary and hadith in the fourth century AH.
  • Ibn Salah Hamedani, physician and mathematician of the fifth and sixth centuries AH.
  • Khajeh Rashid al-Din Fazlullah, minister, scientist and expert physician of the sixth and seventh centuries AH.
  • Mir Seyyed Ali Hamedani Mystics and followers of Sirusluk of the seventh century AH.
  • Mirzadeh Eshghi is one of the shining stars of poetry and prose of the play during the Constitutional Revolution.
  • Bu Ali Sina, one of the rare scientists and geniuses of the time, was born in 370 AH in Khoramisin, Bukhara. He entered this city in 406 AH when Hamedan was the capital of the buyid, and after a while, Shams al-Dawla Dailami made him his minister. During his stay in Hamedan, Bu Ali Sina taught at the city's large school and had the opportunity to complete many of his writings.
  • The tomb of Bu Ali Sina is now located in a square of the same name in Hamedan.

Contemporary peopleEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit

Hamadan is twinned with:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ معارفه سرپرست شهرداري همدان. Municipality.hamadan.ir (in Persian). Hamedan Municipality. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013.
  2. ^ "مجید شاکری" سرپرست شهرداری همدان شد. Irna.ir/news/ (in Persian). Islamic Republic News Agency. Archived from the original on August 26, 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  3. ^ "Statistical Center of Iran > Home". www.amar.org.ir.
  4. ^ Multiple Authors (April 18, 2012). "HAMADĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  5. ^ "The population of the counties in Hamadan (Hamadān) Province by census years". www.citypopulation.de.
  6. ^ "کاهش جمعیت استان همدان در سرشماری 95". www.isna.ir. 9 April 2017.
  7. ^ "Introduction". www.hamedan.rmto.ir. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2015-12-20.
  8. ^ Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is 'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Yazd and Tehran..."
  9. ^ (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in Encyclopædia Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamedān has been a crossroads of civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and dialects live there side by side. The main language spoken, especially in the provincial capital and its surroundings, is Persian, which is also the lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the province, however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while in the northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)."
  10. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2.
  11. ^ "Hamadan | Iran | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-01-16.
  12. ^ James W. Hawkes Collection, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, Indiana State Library.
  13. ^ Zirinsky, Michael P. (1992). "Harbingers of Change: Presbyterian Women in Iran, 1883—1949". American Presbyterians. 70 (3): 173–186. ISSN 0886-5159. JSTOR 23333052.
  14. ^ "آمار 166 ايستگاه سينوپتيك كشور تا پایان سال 2010 میلادی + 37 ایستگاه تا پایان سال 2005". Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  15. ^ Subani, Hamad (2013). The Secret History of Iran. Lulu.com. p. 19. ISBN 9781304082893.[self-published source]
  16. ^ Official statistics from 1997 (1375) - Hamadan provinces - Population and ethnicities - "جمعيت و قوميت ها". Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) accessed on March 12, 2006. Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010.
  17. ^ "Hamadan - Iran". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  18. ^ "Language distribution: Hamadan Province - Qurwa". Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  19. ^ "صفحه اصلی - دانشگاه بوعلی سینا". basu.ac.ir.
  20. ^ "Hamadan Medical University Website". www.umsha.ac.ir.
  21. ^ "Hamedan University of Technology Website".
  22. ^ "Welcome to Website Islamic Azad University of Hamedan Branch". 11 March 2005. Archived from the original on 11 March 2005. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  23. ^ "خبرگزاری فارس - "بخارا" زادگاه و "همدان" مدفن بوعلی‌سینا خواهرخوانده می‌شوند". خبرگزاری فارس. 23 November 2011.


External linksEdit

  Media related to Hamadan at Wikimedia Commons

Preceded by
Capital of Median Empire
As "Ecbatana"

678–549 BCE
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Capital of Achaemenid Empire (Persia)
As "Ecbatana"
Served as Summer Capital

550–330 BCE
Succeeded by
Preceded by Capital of Seljuq Empire (Persia)
(Western capital)

Succeeded by
Preceded by Capital of Iran (Persia)
Succeeded by