Hermes (/ˈhɜːrmiːz/; Greek: Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian deity in ancient Greek religion and mythology. Hermes is considered the herald of the gods. He is also considered the protector of human heralds, travellers, thieves, merchants, and orators. He is able to move quickly and freely between the worlds of the mortal and the divine, aided by his winged sandals. Hermes plays the role of the psychopomp or "soul guide"—a conductor of souls into the afterlife.
God of boundaries, roads and travelers, thieves, athletes, shepherds, commerce, speed, cunning, wit, and sleep.
Psychopomp and divine messenger
|Member of the Twelve Olympians|
|Symbol||Talaria, caduceus, tortoise, lyre, rooster, Petasos (Winged helmet)|
|Day||Wednesday (hēméra Hermoû)|
|Parents||Zeus and Maia|
Uranus and Hemera (Cicero and Hyginus)
|Siblings||Aeacus, Angelos, Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Dionysus, Eileithyia, Enyo, Eris, Ersa, Hebe, Helen of Troy, Hephaestus, Heracles, Minos, Pandia, Persephone, Perseus, Rhadamanthus, the Charites, the Horae, the Litae, the Muses, the Moirai|
|Children||Evander, Pan, Hermaphroditus, Abderus, Autolycus, Eudoros, Angelia, Myrtilus, Palaestra|
|Egyptian equivalent||Thoth, Anubis|
In myth, Hermes functions as the emissary and messenger of the gods, and is often presented as the son of Zeus and Maia, the Pleiad. Hermes is regarded as "the divine trickster," about which the Homeric Hymn to Hermes offers the most well-known account.
His attributes and symbols include the herma, the rooster, the tortoise, satchel or pouch, talaria (winged sandals), and winged helmet or simple petasos, as well as the palm tree, goat, the number four, several kinds of fish, and incense. However, his main symbol is the caduceus, a winged staff intertwined with two snakes copulating and carvings of the other gods. His attributes had previously influenced the earlier Etruscan god Turms, a name borrowed from the Greek "herma".
In Roman mythology and religion many of Hermes' characteristics belong to Mercury, a name derived from the Latin merx, meaning "merchandise," and the origin of the words "merchant" and "commerce."
Name and originEdit
The earliest form of the name Hermes is the Mycenaean Greek *hermāhās, written 𐀁𐀔𐁀 e-ma-a2 (e-ma-ha) in the Linear B syllabic script. Most scholars derive "Hermes" from Greek ἕρμα (herma), "stone heap."
The etymology of ἕρμα itself is unknown, but is probably not a Proto-Indo-European word. R. S. P. Beekes rejects the connection with herma and suggests a Pre-Greek origin. However, the stone etymology is also linked to Indo-European *ser- ("to bind, put together"). Scholarly speculation that "Hermes" derives from a more primitive form meaning "one cairn" is disputed. Other scholars have suggested that Hermes may be a cognate of the Vedic Sarama.
It is likely that Hermes is a pre-Hellenic god, though the exact origins of his worship, and its original nature, remain unclear. Frothingham thought the god to have existed as a Mesopotamian snake-god, similar or identical to Ningishzida, a god who served as mediator between humans and the divine, especially Ishtar, and who was depicted in art as a Caduceus. Angelo (1997) thinks Hermes to be based on the Thoth archetype. The absorbing ("combining") of the attributes of Hermes to Thoth developed after the time of Homer amongst Greeks and Romans; Herodotus was the first to identify the Greek god with the Egyptian (Hermopolis) (Plutarch and Diodorus also did so), although Plato thought the gods were dissimilar (Friedlander 1992).
His cult was established in Greece in remote regions, likely making him originally a god of nature, farmers, and shepherds. It is also possible that since the beginning he has been a deity with shamanic attributes linked to divination, reconciliation, magic, sacrifices, and initiation and contact with other planes of existence, a role of mediator between the worlds of the visible and invisible. According to a theory that has received considerable scholarly acceptance, Hermes originated as a form of the god Pan, who has been identified as a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European pastoral god *Péh2usōn,[original research?] in his aspect as the god of boundary markers. Later, the epithet supplanted the original name itself and Hermes took over the roles as god of messengers, travelers, and boundaries, which had originally belonged to Pan, while Pan himself continued to be venerated by his original name in his more rustic aspect as the god of the wild in the relatively isolated mountainous region of Arcadia. In later myths, after the cult of Pan was reintroduced to Attica, Pan was said to be Hermes's son.
The image of Hermes evolved and varied along with Greek art and culture. In Archaic Greece he was usually depicted as a mature man, bearded, and dressed as a traveler, herald, or shepherd. This image remained common on the Hermai, which served as boundary markers, roadside markers, and grave markers, as well as votive offerings.
In Classical and Hellenistic Greece, Hermes was usually depicted as a young, athletic man lacking a beard. When represented as Logios (Greek: Λόγιος, speaker), his attitude is consistent with the attribute. Phidias left a statue of a famous Hermes Logios and Praxiteles another, also well known, showing him with the baby Dionysus in his arms.
At all times, however, through the Hellenistic periods, Roman, and throughout Western history into the present day, several of his characteristic objects are present as identification, but not always all together.[better source needed] Among these objects is a wide-brimmed hat, the petasos, widely used by rural people of antiquity to protect themselves from the sun, and that in later times was adorned with a pair of small wings; sometimes this hat is not present, and may have been replaced with wings rising from the hair.
Another object is the caduceus, a staff with two intertwined snakes, sometimes crowned with a pair of wings and a sphere. The caduceus, historically, appeared with Hermes, and is documented among the Babylonians from about 3500 BC. Two snakes coiled around a staff was also a symbol of the god Ningishzida, who, like Hermes, served as a mediator between humans and the divine (specifically, the goddess Ishtar or the supreme Ningirsu). In Greece, other gods have been depicted holding a caduceus, but it was mainly associated with Hermes. It was said to have the power to make people fall asleep or wake up, and also made peace between litigants, and is a visible sign of his authority, being used as a sceptre.[better source needed] A similar-appearing but distinct symbol is the Rod of Asclepius, associated with the patron of medicine and son of Apollo, Asclepius, which bears only one snake. The Rod of Asclepius, occasionally conflated with the caduceus in modern times, is used by most Western physicians as a badge of their profession. After the Renaissance, the caduceus also appeared in the heraldic crests of several, and currently is a symbol of commerce.[better source needed]
Hermes' sandals, called pédila by the Greeks and talaria by the Romans, were made of palm and myrtle branches but were described as beautiful, golden and immortal, made a sublime art, able to take the roads with the speed of wind. Originally, they had no wings, but late in the artistic representations, they are depicted. In certain images, the wings spring directly from the ankles. Hermes has also been depicted with a purse or a bag in his hands, wearing a robe or cloak, which had the power to confer invisibility. His weapon was a sword of gold, which killed Argos; it was also lent to Perseus to kill Medusa.
Hermes began as a god with strong chthonic, or underworld, associations. He was a psychopomp, leader of souls along the road between "the Under and the Upper world". This function gradually expanded to encompass roads in general, and from there to boundaries, travelers, sailors, and commerce.
As a chthonic and fertility godEdit
This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (May 2021)
Beginning with the earliest records of his worship, Hermes has been understood as a chthonic deity (heavily associated with the earth and/or underworld). As a chthonic deity, the worship of Hermes also included an aspect relating to fertility, with the phallus being included among his major symbols. The inclusion of phallic imagery associated with Hermes and placed, in the form of herma, at the entrances to households may reflect a belief in ancient times that Hermes was a symbol of the household's fertility, specifically the potency of the male head of the household in producing children.
The association between Hermes and the underworld is related to his function as a god of boundaries (the boundary between life and death), but he is considered a psychopomp, a deity who helps guide souls of the deceased to the afterlife, and his image was commonly depicted on gravestones in classical Greece.
As a god of boundariesEdit
In Ancient Greece, Hermes was a phallic god of boundaries. His name, in the form herma, was applied to a wayside marker pile of stones and each traveler added a stone to the pile. In the 6th century BC, Hipparchus, the son of Pisistratus, replaced the cairns that marked the midway point between each village deme at the central agora of Athens with a square or rectangular pillar of stone or bronze topped by a bust of a bearded Hermes. An erect phallus rose from the base. In the more primitive Mount Kyllini or Cyllenian herms, the standing stone or wooden pillar was simply a carved phallus. "That a monument of this kind could be transformed into an Olympian god is astounding," Walter Burkert remarked. In Athens, herms were placed outside houses, both as a form of protection for the home, a symbol of male fertility, and as a link between the household and its gods with the gods of the wider community.
In 415 BC, on the night when the Athenian fleet was about to set sail for Syracuse during the Peloponnesian War, all of the Athenian hermai were vandalized. The Athenians at the time believed it was the work of saboteurs, either from Syracuse or from the anti-war faction within Athens itself. Socrates' pupil Alcibiades was suspected of involvement, and one of the charges eventually made against Socrates which led to his execution 16 years later was that he had either corrupted Alcibiades or failed to guide him away from his moral corruption.
As a messenger godEdit
In association with his role as a psychopomp and god who is able to easily cross boundaries, Hermes is prominently worshiped as a messenger, often described as the messenger of the gods (since he can convey messages between the divine realms, the underworld, and the world of mortals).[better source needed] As a messenger and divine herald, he wears winged sandals (or, in Roman art influenced by Etruscan depictions of Turms, a winged cap).
As a shepherd godEdit
Hermes was known as the patron god of flocks, herds, and shepherds, an attribute possibly tied to his early origin as an aspect of Pan. In Boeotia, Hermes was worshiped for having saved the town from a plague by carrying a ram or calf around the city walls. A yearly festival commemorated this event, during which a lamb would be carried around the city by "the most handsome boy" and then sacrificed, in order to purify and protect the city from disease, drought, and famine. Numerous depictions of Hermes as a shepherd god carrying a lamb on his shoulders (Hermes kriophoros) have been found throughout the Mediterranean world, and it is possible that the iconography of Hermes as "The Good Shepherd" had an influence on early Christianity, specifically in the description of Christ as "the Good Shepherd" in the Gospel of John.
Historical and literary sourcesEdit
In the Mycenaean periodEdit
The earliest written record of Hermes comes from Linear B inscriptions from Pylos, Thebes, and Knossos dating to the Bronze Age Mycenaean period. Here, Hermes' name is rendered as e‐ma‐a (Ἑρμάhας). This name is always recorded alongside those of several goddesses, including Potnija, Posidaeja, Diwja, Hera, Pere, and Ipemedeja, indicating that his worship was strongly connected to theirs. This is a pattern that would continue in later periods, as worship of Hermes almost always took place within temples and sanctuaries primarily dedicated to goddesses, including Hera, Demeter, Hecate, and Despoina.
In the Archaic periodEdit
In literary works of Archaic Greece, Hermes is depicted both as a protector and a trickster. In Homer's Iliad, Hermes is called "the bringer of good luck", "guide and guardian", and "excellent in all the tricks". In Hesiod's The Works and Days, Hermes' is depicted giving Pandora the gifts of lies, seductive words, and a dubious character.
The earliest known theological or spiritual documents concerning Hermes are found in the c. 7th century BC Homeric Hymns. In Homeric Hymn 4 to Hermes describes the god's birth and his theft of Apollo's sacred cattle. In this hymn, Hermes is invoked as a god "of many shifts" (polytropos), associated with cunning and thievery, but also a bringer of dreams and a night guardian. He is said to have invented the chelys lyre, as well as racing and the sport of wrestling.
In the Classical periodEdit
The cult of Hermes flourished in Attica, and many scholars writing before the discovery of the Linear B evidence considered Hermes to be a uniquely Athenian god. This region had numerous Hermai, or pillar-like icons, dedicated to the god marking boundaries, crossroads, and entryways. These were initially stone piles, later pillars made of wood, stone, or bronze, with carved images of Hermes, a phallus, or both. In the context of these herms, by the Classical period Hermes had come to be worshiped as the patron god of travelers and sailors. By the 5th century BC, Hermai were also in common use as grave monuments, emphasizing Hermes' role as a chthonic deity and psychopomp. This was probably his original function, and he may have been a late inclusion in the Olympic pantheon; Hermes is described as the "youngest" Olympian, and some myths, including his theft of Apollo's cows, describe his initial coming into contact with celestial deities. Hermes therefore came to be worshiped as a mediator between celestial and chthonic realms, as well as the one who facilitates interactions between mortals and the divine, often being depicted on libation vessels.
Due to his mobility and his liminal nature, mediating between opposites (such as merchant/customer), he was considered the god of commerce and social intercourse, the wealth brought in business, especially sudden or unexpected enrichment, travel, roads and crossroads, borders and boundary conditions or transient, the changes from the threshold, agreements and contracts, friendship, hospitality, sexual intercourse, games, data, the draw, good luck, the sacrifices and the sacrificial animals, flocks and shepherds and the fertility of land and cattle.
In Athens, Hermes Eion came to represent the Athenian naval superiority in their defeat of the Persians, under the command of Cimon, in 475 BC. In this context, Hermes became a god associated with the Athenian empire and its expansion, and of democracy itself, as well as all of those closely associated with it, from the sailors in the navy, to the merchants who drove the economy. A section of the agora in Athens became known as the Hermai, because it was filled with a large number of herms, placed there as votive offerings by merchants and others who wished to commemorate a personal success in commerce or other public affair. The Hermai was probably destroyed in the Siege of Athens and Piraeus (87–86 BC).
In the Hellenistic periodEdit
As Greek culture and influence spread following the conquests of Alexander the Great, a period of syncretism or interpretatio graeca saw many traditional Greek deities identified with foreign counterparts. In Ptolemaic Egypt, for example, the Egyptian god Thoth was identified by Greek speakers as the Egyptian form of Hermes. The two gods were worshiped as one at the Temple of Thoth in Khemenu, a city which became known in Greek as Hermopolis. This led to Hermes gaining the attributes of a god of translation and interpretation, or more generally, a god of knowledge and learning. This is illustrated by a 3rd-century BC example of a letter sent by the priest Petosiris to King Nechopso, probably written in Alexandria c. 150 BC, stating that Hermes is the teacher of all secret wisdoms, which are accessible by the experience of religious ecstasy.
An epithet of Thoth found in the temple at Esna, "Thoth the great, the great, the great", became applied to Hermes beginning in at least 172 BC. This lent Hermes one of his most famous later titles, Hermes Trismegistus (Ἑρμῆς ὁ Τρισμέγιστος), "thrice-greatest Hermes". The figure of Hermes Trismegistus would later absorb a variety of other esoteric wisdom traditions and become a major component of Hermeticism, alchemy, and related traditions.
In the Roman periodEdit
As early as the 4th century BC, Romans had adopted Hermes into their own religion, combining his attributes and worship with the earlier Etruscan god Turms under the name Mercury. According to St. Augustin, the Latin name "Mercury" may be a title derived from "medio currens", in reference to Hermes' role as a mediator and messenger who moves between worlds. Mercury became one of the most popular Roman gods, as attested by the numerous shrines and depictions in artwork found in Pompeii. In art, the Roman Mercury continued the style of depictions found in earlier representations of both Hermes and Turms, a young, beardless god with winged shoes and/or hat, carrying the caduceus. His role as a god of boundaries, a messenger, and a psychopomp also remained unchanged following his adoption into the Roman religion (these attributes were also similar to those in the Etruscan's worship of Turms).
The Romans identified the Germanic god Odin with Mercury, and there is evidence that Germanic peoples who had contact with Roman culture also accepted this identification. Odin and Mercury/Hermes share several attributes in common. For example, both are depicted carrying a staff and wearing a wide-brimmed hat, and both are travelers or wanderers. However, the reasons for this interpretation appear to go beyond superficial similarities: Both gods are connected to the dead (Mercury as psychopomp and Odin as lord of the dead in Valhalla), both were connected to eloquent speech, and both were associated with secret knowledge. The identification of Odin as Mercury was probably also influenced by a previous association of a more Odin-like Celtic god as the "Celtic Mercurius".
A further Roman Imperial-era syncretism came in the form of Hermanubis, the result of the identification of Hermes with the Egyptian god of the dead, Anubis. Hermes and Anubis were both psychopomps the primary attribute leading to their conflation as the same god. Hermanubis depicted with a human body and a jackal head, holding the caduceus. In addition to his function of guiding souls to the afterlife, Hermanubis represented the Egyptian priesthood the investigation of truth.
Beginning around the turn of the 1st century AD, a process began by which, in certain traditions Hermes became euhemerised – that is, interpreted as a historical, mortal figure who had become divine or elevated to godlike status in legend. Numerous books of wisdom and magic (including astrology, theosophy, and alchemy) were attributed to this "historical" Hermes, usually identified in his Alexandrian form of Hermes Trismegistus. As a collection, these works are referred to as the Hermetica.
In the Middle AgesEdit
Though worship of Hermes had been almost fully suppressed in the Roman Empire following the Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius I in the 4th century AD, Hermes continued to be recognized as a mystical or prophetic figure, though a mortal one, by Christian scholars. Early medieval Christians such as Augustine believed that a euhemerised Hermes Trismegistus had been an ancient pagan prophet who predicted the emergence of Christianity in his writings. Some Christian philosophers in the medieval and Renaissance periods believed in the existence of a "prisca theologia", a single thread of true theology that could be found uniting all religions. Christian philosophers used Hermetic writings and other ancient philosophical literature to support their belief in the prisca theologia, arguing that Hermes Trismegistus was a contemporary of Moses, or that he was the third in a line of important prophets after Enoch and Noah.
The 10th-century Suda attempted to further Christianize the figure of Hermes, claiming that "He was called Trismegistus on account of his praise of the trinity, saying there is one divine nature in the trinity."
Temples and sacred placesEdit
There are only three temples known to have been specifically dedicated to Hermes during the Classical Greek period, all of them in Arcadia. Though there are a few references in ancient literature to "numerous" temples of Hermes, this may be poetic license describing the ubiquitous herms, or other, smaller shrines to Hermes located in the temples of other deities. One of the oldest places of worship for Hermes was Mount Cyllene in Arcadia, where some myths say he was born. Tradition holds that his first temple was built by Lycaon. From there, the Hermes cult would have been taken to Athens, from which it radiated to the whole of Greece. In the Roman period, additional temples to Hermes (Mercury) were constructed across the Empire, including several in modern-day Tunisia. Mercury's temple in Rome was situated in the Circus Maximus, between the Aventine and Palatine hills, and was built in 495 BC.
In most places, temples were consecrated to Hermes in conjunction with Aphrodite, as in Attica, Arcadia, Crete, Samos and in Magna Graecia. Several ex-votos found in his temples revealed his role as initiator of young adulthood, among them soldiers and hunters, since war and certain forms of hunting were seen as ceremonial initiatory ordeals. This function of Hermes explains why some images in temples and other vessels show him as a teenager.
As a patron of the gym and fighting, Hermes had statues in gyms and he was also worshiped in the sanctuary of the Twelve Gods in Olympia where Greeks celebrated the Olympic Games. His statue was held there on an altar dedicated to him and Apollo together. A temple within the Aventine was consecrated in 495 BC.
Pausanias wrote that during his time, at Megalopolis people could see the ruins of the temple of Hermes Acacesius. In addition, the Tricrena (Τρίκρηνα, meaning Three Springs) mountains at Pheneus were sacred to Hermes, because three springs were there and according to the legend, Hermes was washed in them, after birth, by the nymphs of the mountain. Furthermore, at Pharae there was a water sacred to Hermes. The name of the spring was Hermes' stream and the fish in it were not caught, being considered sacred to the god.
Sacrifices to Hermes involved honey, cakes, pigs, goats, and lambs. In the city of Tanagra, it was believed that Hermes had been nursed under a wild strawberry tree, the remains of which were held there in the shrine of Hermes Promachus, and in the hills Phene ran three waterways that were sacred to him, because he was believed to have been bathed there at birth.
Hermes' feast was the Hermaea, which was celebrated with sacrifices to the god and with athletics and gymnastics, possibly having been established in the 6th century BC, but no documentation on the festival before the 4th century BC survives. However, Plato said that Socrates attended a Hermaea. Of all the festivals involving Greek games, these were the most like initiations because participation in them was restricted to young boys and excluded adults.
Hermes was also called Atlantiades (Greek: Ατλαντιάδης), because his mother, Maia was the daughter of Atlas.
Hermes' epithet Argeïphontes (Ancient Greek: Ἀργειφόντης; Latin: Argicida), meaning "slayer of Argus", recalls the slaying of the hundred-eyed giant Argus Panoptes by the messenger god. Argus was watching over the heifer-nymph Io in the sanctuary of Queen Hera, herself in Argos. Hermes placed a charm on Argus' eyes with the caduceus to cause the giant to sleep, after which he slew the giant. The eyes were then put into the tail of the peacock, a symbol of the goddess Hera.
Hermes was called Cyllenian (Greek: Κυλλήνιος), because according to some myths he was born at the Mount Cyllene, and nursed by the Oread nymph Cyllene.
In ancient Greek culture, kriophoros (Greek: κριοφόρος) or criophorus, the "ram-bearer," is a figure that commemorates the solemn sacrifice of a ram. It becomes an epithet of Hermes.
Messenger and guideEdit
The chief office of the god was as messenger. Explicitly, at least in sources of classical writings, of Euripides' Electra and Iphigenia in Aulis and in Epictetus' Discourses. Hermes (Diactoros, Angelos) the messenger, is in fact only seen in this role, for Zeus, from within the pages of the Odyssey. The messenger divine and herald of the Gods, he wears the gifts from his father, the petasos and talaria.
Oh mighty messenger of the gods of the upper and lower worlds... (Aeschylus).
- Hodios, patron of travelers and wayfarers.
- Oneiropompus, conductor of dreams.
- Poimandres, shepherd of men.
- Psychopompos, conveyor or conductor of souls, and psychogogue, conductor or leader of souls in (or through) the underworld.
- Sokos Eriounios, a Homeric epithet with a much-debated meaning – probably "swift, good-running." But in the Hymn to Hermes Eriounios is etymologized as "very beneficial."
- Chrysorappis, "with golden wand," a Homeric epithet.
- Agoraeus, of the agora; belonging to the market (Aristophanes)
- Empolaios, "engaged in traffic and commerce"
Hermes is sometimes depicted in art works holding a purse.
No cult to Hermes Dolios existed in Attica, and so this form of Hermes seems to have existed in speech only.
Hermes Dolio is ambiguous. According to prominent folklorist Yeleazar Meletinsky, Hermes is a deified trickster and master of thieves ("a plunderer, a cattle-raider, a night-watching" in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes) and deception (Euripides) and (possibly evil) tricks and trickeries, crafty (from lit. god of craft), the cheat, the god of stealth. He is also known as the friendliest to man, cunning, treacherous, and a schemer.
Hermes Dolios was worshipped at Pellene and invoked through Odysseus.
(As the ways of gain are not always the ways of honesty and straightforwardness, Hermes obtains a bad character and an in-moral (amoral [ed.]) cult as Dolios)
Hermes is amoral like a baby. Zeus sent Hermes as a teacher to humanity to teach them knowledge of and value of justice and to improve inter-personal relationships ("bonding between mortals").
Considered to have a mastery of rhetorical persuasion and special pleading, the god typically has nocturnal modus operandi. Hermes knows the boundaries and crosses the borders of them to confuse their definition.
In the Lang translation of the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, the god after being born is described as a robber, a captain of raiders, and a thief of the gates.
According to the late Jungian psychotherapist López-Pedraza, everything Hermes thieves, he later sacrifices to the gods.
Patron of thievesEdit
Autolycus received his skills as the greatest of thieves due to sacrificing to Hermes as his patron.
Other epithets included:
- chthonius – at the festival Athenia Chytri sacrifices are made to this visage of the god only.
- cyllenius, born on Mount Kyllini
- epimelios, guardian of flocks
- ploutodotes, giver of wealth (as inventor of fire)
- proopylaios, "before the gate", "guardian of the gate"; Pylaios, "doorkeeper"
- strophaios, "standing at the door post"
- Stropheus, "the socket in which the pivot of the door moves" (Kerényi in Edwardson) or "door-hinge". Protector of the door (that is the boundary), to the temple
- Agoraios, the patron of gymnasia
- Akaketos "without guile," "gracious," a Homeric epithet.
- Dotor Eaon "giver of good things," a Homeric epithet.
Early Greek sourcesEdit
Homer and HesiodEdit
Homer and Hesiod portrayed Hermes as the author of skilled or deceptive acts and also as a benefactor of mortals. In the Iliad, he is called "the bringer of good luck", "guide and guardian", and "excellent in all the tricks". He was a divine ally of the Greeks against the Trojans. However, he did protect Priam when he went to the Greek camp to retrieve the body of his son Hector and accompanied them back to Troy.
He also rescued Ares from a brazen vessel where he had been imprisoned by Otus and Ephialtes. In the Odyssey, Hermes helps his great-grand son, the protagonist Odysseus, by informing him about the fate of his companions, who were turned into animals by the power of Circe. Hermes instructed Odysseus to protect himself by chewing a magic herb; he also told Calypso of Zeus' order to free Odysseus from her island to allow him to continue his journey back home. When Odysseus killed the suitors of his wife, Hermes led their souls to Hades. In The Works and Days, when Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create Pandora to disgrace humanity by punishing Prometheus's act of giving fire to man, every god gave her a gift, and Hermes' gifts were lies, seductive words, and a dubious character. Hermes was then instructed to take her as wife to Epimetheus.
The Homeric Hymn 4 to Hermes, which tells the story of the god's birth and his subsequent theft of Apollo's sacred cattle, invokes him as the one "of many shifts (polytropos), blandly cunning, a robber, a cattle driver, a bringer of dreams, a watcher by night, a thief at the gates, one who was soon to show forth wonderful deeds among the deathless gods." The word polutropos ("of many shifts, turning many ways, of many devices, ingenious, or much wandering") is also used to describe Odysseus in the first line of the Odyssey. In addition to the chelys lyre, Hermes was believed to have invented many types of racing and the sport of wrestling, and therefore was a patron of athletes.
Athenian tragic playwrightsEdit
Aeschylus wrote in The Eumenides that Hermes helped Orestes kill Clytemnestra under a false identity and other stratagems, and also said that he was the god of searches, and those who seek things lost or stolen. In Philoctetes, Sophocles invokes Hermes when Odysseus needs to convince Philoctetes to join the Trojan War on the side of the Greeks, and in Euripides' Rhesus Hermes helps Dolon spy on the Greek navy.
Aesop featured him in several of his fables, as ruler of the gate of prophetic dreams, as the god of athletes, of edible roots, and of hospitality. He also said that Hermes had assigned each person his share of intelligence.
Hellenistic Greek sourcesEdit
Several writers of the Hellenistic period expanded the list of Hermes's achievements. Callimachus said that Hermes disguised himself as a Cyclops to scare the Oceanids and was disobedient to his mother. One of the Orphic Hymns Khthonios is dedicated to Hermes, indicating that he was also a god of the underworld. Aeschylus had called him by this epithet several times. Another is the Orphic Hymn to Hermes, where his association with the athletic games held is mystic in tone.
Phlegon of Tralles said he was invoked to ward off ghosts, and Apollodorus reports several events involving Hermes. According to Apollodorus, Hermes participated in the Gigantomachy in defense of Olympus; was given the task of bringing baby Dionysus to be cared for by Ino and Athamas and later took him to be cared for by the Nysan nymphs, later called the Hyades; lead Hera, Athena and Aphrodite to Paris to be judged by him in a beauty contest; favored the young Hercules by giving him a sword when he finished his education; and aided Perseus in fetching the head of the Gorgon Medusa.
Anyte of Tegea of the 3rd century BC, in the translation by Richard Aldington, wrote, I Hermes stand here at the crossroads by the wind beaten orchard, near the hoary grey coast; and I keep a resting place for weary men. And the cool stainless spring gushes out.
Lovers, victims and childrenEdit
- Peitho, the goddess of seduction and persuasion, was said by Nonnus to be the wife of Hermes.
- Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty, was wooed by Hermes. After she had rejected him, Hermes sought the help of Zeus to seduce her. Zeus, out of pity, sent his eagle to take away Aphrodite's sandal when she was bathing, and gave it to Hermes. When Aphrodite came looking for the sandal, Hermes seduced her. They a son, Hermaphroditus.
- Daeira, an Oceanid and an underworld goddess, mated with Hermes and gave birth to a son named Eleusis.
- Apemosyne, a princess of Crete, was travelling to Rhodes one day with her brother Althaemenes. Hermes saw her and fell in love with her, but Apemosyne fled from him. Hermes could not catch her because she ran faster than him. The god then devised a plan and laid some freshly skinned hides across her path. Later, on her way back from a spring, Apemosyne slipped on those hides and fell. At that moment, Hermes caught her and raped her. When Apemosyne told her brother what had happened, he became angry, thinking that she was lying about being molested by the god. In his anger, he kicked her to death.
- Chione, a princess of Phokis, attracted the attention of Hermes. He used his wand to put her to sleep and slept with her. To Hermes she bore a son, Autolycus.
- Herse, an Athenian princess was loved by Hermes and bore a son named Cephalus to him.
- Iphthime, a princess of Doros was loved by Hermes. They had three Satyroi – named Pherespondos, Lykos and Pronomos.
- Penelopeia, an Arcadian nymph, was loved by Hermes. It is said that Hermes had sex with her in the form of a goat, which resulted in their son, the god Pan, having goat legs. She has been confused or conflated with Penelope, the wife of Odysseus.
- The Oreads, the nymphs of the mountains were said to mate with Hermes in the highlands, breeding more of their kind.
- Tanagra was a nymph for whom the gods Ares and Hermes competed in a boxing match. Hermes won and carried her off to Tanagra in Boeotia.
According to Hyginus' Fabula, Pan, the Greek god of nature, shepherds and flocks, is the son of Hermes through the nymph Dryope. It is likely that the worship of Hermes himself actually originated as an aspect of Pan as the god of boundaries, which could explain their association as parent and child in Hyginus. In other sources, the god Priapus is understood as a son of Hermes.
According to the mythographer Apollodorus, Autolycus, the Prince of Thieves, was a son of Hermes and Chione, making Hermes a great-grandfather of Odysseus.
Once, Hermes chased either Persephone or Hecate with the aim to rape her; but the goddess snored or roared in anger, frightening him off so that he desisted, hence her earning the name "Brimo" ("angry").
Hermes also loved young men in pederastic relationships where he bestowed and/or taught something related to combat, athletics, herding, poetry and music. Photius wrote that Polydeuces (Pollux), one of the Dioscuri, was a lover of Hermes, to whom he gifted the Thessalian horse Dotor. Amphion became a great singer and musician after his lover Hermes taught him to play and gave him a golden lyre. Crocus was said to be a beloved of Hermes and was accidentally killed by the god in a game of discus when he unexpectedly stood up; as the unfortunate youth's blood dripped on the soil, the saffron flower came to be. Perseus received the divine items (talaria, petasos, and the helm of darkness) from Hermes because he loved him. And Daphnis, a Sicilian shepherd who was said to be the inventor of pastoral poetry, is said to be a son or sometimes eromenos of Hermes.
|Echion, Eurytus||Antianeira or Laothoe|
|Hermaphroditus, Tyche (possibly)||Aphrodite|
|Autolycus||Chione or Stilbe or Telauge|
|Myrtilus||Cleobule or Clymene or Clytie or Myrto or Phaethusa or Theobula|
|Pan||Dryope or Penelope (dryad)|
|Daphnis||unknown Sicilian nymph|
|Cephalus, Ceryx (possibly)||Herse|
|Evander||Carmentis or Themis|
|Lycus, Abderus, Angelia||Iphthime|
|Dolops, Eurymachus, Palaestra, Pherespondus, Pronomus||unknown mothers|
|Hermes's family tree|
In Jungian psychologyEdit
For Carl Jung, Hermes's role as messenger between realms and as guide to the underworld made him the god of the unconscious, the mediator between the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind, and the guide for inner journeys. Jung considered the gods Thoth and Hermes to be counterparts. In Jungian psychology especially, Hermes is seen as relevant to study of the phenomenon of synchronicity (together with Pan and Dionysus):
Hermes is ... the archetypal core of Jung's psyche, theories ...— DL Merritt
He is identified by some with the archetype of healer, as the ancient Greeks ascribed healing magic to him.
In the context of abnormal psychology Samuels (1986) states that Jung considers Hermes the archetype for narcissistic disorder; however, he lends the disorder a "positive" (beneficious) aspect, and represents both the good and bad of narcissism.
For López-Pedraza, Hermes is the protector of psychotherapy. For McNeely, Hermes is a god of the healing arts.
According to Christopher Booker, all the roles Hermes held in ancient Greek thought all considered reveals Hermes to be a guide or observer of transition.
For Jung, Hermes's role as trickster made him a guide through the psychotherapeutic process.
Hermes in popular cultureEdit
- ^ Evans, James (1998). The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford University Press. pp. 296–7. ISBN 978-0-19-509539-5. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.56; also Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 4.14.
- ^ Burkert, p. 158.
- ^ Powell, Barry B. (2015). Classical Myth (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson. pp. 177–190. ISBN 978-0-321-96704-6.
- ^ Lay, p. 3.
- ^ Powell, pp. 179, 295
- ^ Burkert, pp. 157–158.
- ^ Burkert, p. 158. Iris has a similar role as divine messenger.
- ^ Burkert, p. 156.
- ^ Homer, 1–512, as cited in Powell, pp. 179–189
- ^ Austin, M. Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest: a selection of ancient sources in translation. Cambridge University Press, 2006. p. 137.
- ^ The Latin word cādūceus is an adaptation of the Greek κηρύκειον kērykeion, meaning "herald's wand (or staff)", deriving from κῆρυξ kēryx, meaning "messenger, herald, envoy". Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon; Stuart L. Tyson, "The Caduceus", The Scientific Monthly, 34.6 (1932:492–98), p. 493.
- ^ Combet-Farnoux, Bernard (1980). "Turms étrusque et la fonction de « minister » de l'Hermès italique". Mercure romain : Le culte public de Mercure et la fonction mercantile à Rome de la République archaïque à l'époque augustéenne. École française de Rome. pp. 171–217.
- ^ Bullfinch's Mythology (1978), Crown Publishers, p. 926.
- ^ Powell, p. 178
- ^ a b c Beekes, R.S.P. (2010). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. With the assistance of Lucien van Beek. Leiden, Boston: Brill. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-90-04-17418-4.
- ^ Joann Gulizio, Hermes and e-m-a2 (PDF), University of Texas, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2013, retrieved 26 November 2011
- ^ a b Greek History and the Gods. Grand Valley State University (Michigan).
- ^ Powell, p.177
- ^ Davies, Anna Morpurgo & Duhoux, Yves. Linear B: a 1984 survey. Peeters Publishers, 1985, p. 136.
- ^ Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, ed. Félix Guirand & Robert Graves, Hamlyn, 1968, p. 123.
- ^ Debroy, Bibek (2008). Sarama and her Children: The Dog in the Indian Myth. Penguin Books India. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-14-306470-1.
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- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r RADULOVI, IFIGENIJA; VUKADINOVI, SNEŽANA; SMIRNOVBRKI, ALEKSANDRA – Hermes the Transformer Ágora. Estudos Clássicos em debate, núm. 17, 2015, pp. 45–62 Universidade de Aveiro. Aveiro, Portugal.  (PDF link)
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- ^ a b Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 411 and 434. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2.
- ^ West, Martin Litchfield (2007). Indo-European Poetry and Myth (PDF). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 281–283. ISBN 978-0-19-928075-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- ^ a b c d e f g Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1867. pp. 411–413.
- ^ Müller, Karl Otfried. Ancient art and its remains: or, A manual of the archæology of art. B. Quaritch, 1852. pp. 483–488.
- ^ Brown, Norman Oliver (1990). Hermes the Thief. ISBN 978-0-940262-26-3.
- ^ Walter Burkert, 1985. Greek Religion (Harvard University Press)
- ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 6.27.
- ^ a b W. Blackwood Ltd. (Edinburgh). Blackwood's Edinburgh magazine, Volume 22; Volume 28. Leonard Scott & Co. 1849.
- ^ a b Rochester Institute of Technology. "Greek Gods". Rochester Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013.
- ^ Freeman, J. A., Jefferson, L. M., & Jensen, R. M. (2015). The Good Shepherd and the Enthroned Ruler: A Reconsideration of Imperial Iconography in the Early Church. The Art of Empire. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress.
- ^ a b Homer. The Iliad. The Project Gutenberg Etext. Trans. Samuel Butler.
- ^ a b Hesiod. Works And Days. ll. 60–68. Trans. Hugh G. Evelyn-White, 1914.
- ^ a b Hymn to Hermes 13.
- ^ a b Homeric hymn to Hermes
- ^ a b "First Inventors... Mercurius [Hermes] first taught wrestling to mortals." – Hyginus, Fabulae 277.
- ^ Neville, Bernie. Taking Care of Business in the Age of Hermes. Trinity University, 2003. pp. 2–5.
- ^ Padel, Ruth. In and Out of the Mind: Greek Images of the Tragic Self. Princeton University Press, 1994. pp. 6–9.
- ^ Bailey, Donald, "Classical Architecture" in Riggs, Christina (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt (Oxford University Press, 2012), p. 192.
- ^ a b M-L von Franz (1980). Projection and Re-Collection in Jungian Psychology: Reflections of the Soul. Open Court Publishing, 1985. ISBN 0-87548-417-4.
- ^ Jacobi, M. (1907). Catholic Encyclopedia: "Astrology", New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- ^ Hart, G., The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, 2005, Routledge, second edition, Oxon, p 158
- ^ Copenhaver, B. P., "Hermetica", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992, p xiv.
- ^ Fowden, G., "The Egyptian Hermes", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987, p 216
- ^ Beard, Pompeii: The Life of a Roman Town at 295–298
- ^ Combet-Farnoux, Bernard (1980). "Turms étrusque et la fonction de « minister » de l'Hermès italique". Mercure romain : Le culte public de Mercure et la fonction mercantile à Rome de la République archaïque à l'époque augustéenne. École française de Rome. pp. 171–217.
- ^ Schjødt, J. P. Mercury–Wotan–Óðinn: One or Many?. Myth, Materiality, and Lived Religion, 59.
- ^ Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride 61
- ^ Diodorus, Bibliotheca historica i.18, 87
- ^ Faivre, A. (1995). The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus. Red Wheel/Weiser.
- ^ Heiser, James D. (2011). Prisci Theologi and the Hermetic Reformation in the Fifteenth Century (1st ed.). Malone, Tex.: Repristination Press. ISBN 978-1-4610-9382-4.
- ^ Jafar, Imad (2015). "Enoch in the Islamic Tradition". Sacred Web: A Journal of Tradition and Modernity. XXXVI.
- ^ Yates, F., "Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition", Routledge, London, 1964, pp 14–18 and pp 433–434
- ^ Hanegraaff, W. J., "New Age Religion and Western Culture", SUNY, 1998, p 360
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- ^ Yates, F., "Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition", Routledge, London, 1964, p52
- ^ Copenhaver, B.P., "Hermetica", Cambridge University Press, 1992, p xlviii
- ^ Copenhaver, Hermetica, p. xli
- ^ Lucian of Samosata. The Works of Lucian of Samosata. BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008. Volume 1, p. 107.
- ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 2:21
- ^ Johnston, Sarah Iles. Initiation in Myth, Initiation in Practice. IN Dodd, David Brooks & Faraone, Christopher A. Initiation in ancient Greek rituals and narratives: new critical perspectives. Routledge, 2003. pp. 162, 169.
- ^ FG Moore, The Roman's World, Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1936, ISBN 0-8196-0155-1.
- ^ "Aventine" in V Neskow, The Little Black Book of Rome: The Timeless Guide to the Eternal City, Peter Pauper Press, Inc., 2012, ISBN 1-4413-0665-X.
- ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.30.6
- ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.16.1
- ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.22.4
- ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.22.2
- ^ Scanlon, Thomas Francis. Eros and Greek athletics. Oxford University Press, 2002. pp. 92–93.
- ^ Mike Dixon-Kennedy (1998). Encyclopedia of Greco-Roman Mythology. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-57607-094-9.
- ^ a b c d The Facts on File: Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend.
- ^ Homeric Hymn 29 to Hestia.
- ^ Suda, kappa.2660
- ^ Ormand, Kirk (2012). A Companion to Sophocles. Wiley Blackwell. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-119-02553-5.
- ^ MA De La Torre, A Hernández, The Quest for the Historical Satan, Fortress Press, 2011, ISBN 0-8006-6324-1.
- ^ Euripides, Iphigenia in Aulis 1301.
- ^ Perseus – Tufts University
- ^ R Davis-Floyd; P Sven Arvidson (1997). Intuition: The Inside Story : Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Psychology Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-91594-6.
- ^ a b New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology (New (fifth impression) ed.). Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. 1972 . p. 123. ISBN 0-600-02351-6.
- ^ a b c Norman Oliver Brown (1990). Hermes the Thief: The Evolution of a Myth. Steiner Books. pp. 3–10. ISBN 978-0-940262-26-3.
- ^ Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin (1976). Études mithriaques: actes du 2e Congrès International, Téhéran, du 1er au 8 september 1975. BRILL, 1978. ISBN 90-04-03902-3.
- ^ Krell, Jonathan F. "Mythical patterns in the art of Gustave Moreau: The primacy of Dionysus" (PDF). Crisolenguas. Vol. 2, no. 2.
- ^ The Chambers Dictionary. Allied Publishers. 1998. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8.
- ^ Reece, Steve, "Σῶκος Ἐριούνιος Ἑρμῆς (Iliad 20.72): The Modification of a Traditional Formula," Glotta: Zeitschrift für griechische und lateinische Sprache 75 (1999–2000) 259–280, understands Sokos as a metanalysis of a word ending in -s plus Okus "swift," and Eriounios as related to Cyprian "good-running." 
- ^ Wrongly, according to Reece, Steve, "A Figura Etymologica in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes," Classical Journal 93.1 (1997) 29–39. https://www.academia.edu/30641338/A_Figura_Etymologica_in_the_Homeric_Hymn_to_Hermes
- ^ a b Lang, Mabel (1988). Graffiti in the Athenian Agora (PDF). Excavations of the Athenian Agora (rev. ed.). Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. p. 7. ISBN 0-87661-633-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2004. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
- ^ Ehrenberg, Victor (1951). The People of Aristophanes: A Sociology of Old Attic Comedy. B. Blackwell.
- ^ a b c Aristophanes[clarification needed]
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- ^ I Polinskaya, citing Robert Parker (2003): I Polinskaya, A Local History of Greek Polytheism: Gods, People and the Land of Aigina, 800–400 BCE (p. 103), BRILL, 2013, ISBN 90-04-26208-3.
- ^ An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time – Volume 5 (p. 34), 1779.
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- ^ Meletinsky, Introduzione (1993), p. 131.
- ^ N. O. Brown, Hermes the Thief: The Evolution of a Myth
- ^ NW Slater, Spectator Politics: Metatheatre and Performance in Aristophanes, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8122-3652-1.
- ^ "[T]he thief praying...": W Kingdon Clifford, L Stephen, F Pollock
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- ^ Athenaeus, The learned banqueters, Harvard University Press, 2008.
- ^ I Ember, Music in painting: music as symbol in Renaissance and baroque painting, Corvina, 1984.
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- ^ J Pòrtulas, C Miralles, Archilochus and the Iambic Poetry (page 24).
- ^ John H. Riker (1991). Human Excellence and an Ecological Conception of the Psyche. SUNY Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4384-1736-3.
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- ^ Homerus (2010). Three Homeric Hymns: To Apollo, Hermes, and Aphrodite. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45158-1.
- ^ L Hyde, Trickster Makes this World: Mischief, Myth and Art, Canongate Books, 2008.
- ^ Andrew Lang, THE HOMERIC HYMNS A NEW PROSE TRANSLATION AND ESSAYS, LITERARY AND MYTHOLOGICAL. Transcribed from the 1899 George Allen edition.
- ^ a b R López-Pedraza, Hermes and His Children, Daimon, 2003, p. 25, ISBN 3-85630-630-7.
- ^ The Homeric Hymns (pp. 76–77), edited by AN Athanassakis, JHU Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8018-7983-3.
- ^ Aristophanes, The Frogs of Aristophanes, with Notes and Critical and Explanatory, Adapted to the Use of Schools and Universities, by T. Mitchell, John Murray, 1839.
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- ^ Fiske 1865.
- ^ CO Edwardson (2011), Women and Philanthropy, tricksters and soul: re-storying otherness into crossroads of change, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010, p. 60.
- ^ The Jungian Society for Scholarly Studies: Ithaca August 2009, Conference Paper, page 12 .
- ^ The Jungian Society for Scholarly Studies: Ithaca August 2009, p. 12.
- ^ Luke Roman; Monica Roman (2010). Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology. Infobase Publishing. pp. 232ff. ISBN 978-1-4381-2639-5.
- ^ Sourced originally in R Davis-Floyd, P Sven Arvidson (1997).
- ^ Raffaele Pettazzoni (1956). The All-knowing God. Arno Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-405-10559-3.
- ^ CS Wright, J Bolton Holloway, RJ Schoeck – Tales within tales: Apuleius through time, AMS Press, 2000, p. 23.
- ^ John Fiske (1865). Myths and Myth-makers: Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology. Houghton, Mifflin. p. 67.
- ^ "Circular Pyxis". The Walters Art Museum.
- ^ Homer. The Odyssey. Plain Label Books, 1990. Trans. Samuel Butler. pp. 40, 81–82, 192–195.
- ^ "The conventional attribution of the Hymns to Homer, in spite of linguistic objections, and of many allusions to things unknown or unfamiliar in the Epics, is merely the result of the tendency to set down "masterless" compositions to a well-known name...": Andrew Lang, THE HOMERIC HYMNS A NEW PROSE TRANSLATION AND ESSAYS, LITERARY AND MYTHOLOGICAL. Transcribed from the 1899 George Allen edition. Project Gutenberg.
- ^ Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 919. Quoted in God of Searchers. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
- ^ Aesop. Fables 474, 479, 520, 522, 563, 564. Quoted in God of Dreams of Omen; God of Contests, Athletics, Gymnasiums, The Games, Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
- ^ Orphic Hymn 57 to Chthonian Hermes Aeschylus. Libation Bearers. Cited in Guide of the Dead. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
- ^ Orphic Hymn 28 to Hermes. Quoted in God of Contests, Athletics, Gymnasiums, The Games. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
- ^ Phlegon of Tralles. Book of Marvels, 2.1. Quoted in Guide of the Dead. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
- ^ Apollodorus, 1.6.2.
- ^ Apollodorus, 3.4.3.
- ^ Apollodorus, E.3.2.
- ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.12.
- ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.2.
- ^ Yao, Steven G. (2002). Translation and the Languages of Modernism: Gender, Politics, Language. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-312-29519-6.
- ^ Benstock, Shari (2010). Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940. University of Texas Press. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-292-78298-3.
- ^ Nonnus. Dionysiaca. pp. 8. 220 ff.
- ^ Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 16
- ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.38.7.
- ^ Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 2
- ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 11. 301; Pausanias, Description of Greece 4. 8. 6
- ^ Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods 2
- ^ Homeric Hymn 5 to Aphrodite 256
- ^ Hyginus, Fabula 160, makes Hermes the father of Pan.
- ^ Karl Kerényi, Gods of the Greeks, 1951, p. 175, citing G. Kaibel, Epigrammata graeca ex lapidibus collecta, 817, where the other god's name, both father and son of Hermes, is obscured; according to other sources, Priapus was a son of Dionysus and Aphrodite.
- ^ Apollodorus 1.9.16.
- ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophron 1176, 1211; Heslin, p. 39
- ^ Photius, Bibliotheca excerpts, 190.50
- ^ Photius, Bibliotheca excerpts - GR
- ^ Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 10
- ^ Miller & Strauss Clay 2019, p. 133.
- ^ Pseudo-Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.12.
- ^ Aelian, Varia Historia 10.18
- ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.53.4; Tripp, s.v. Acacallis.
- ^ Pausanias, 2.3.10.
- ^ daughter of Peneus
- ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad, 10. 266
- ^ Eustathius on Homer, 804
- ^ Pausanias, 1.38.7.
- ^ Pausanias, 10.17.5
- ^ Most, p. 173, [= fr. 150.25-35 Merkelbach-West]
- ^ This Gigas was the father of Ischenus, who was said to have been sacrificed during an outbreak of famine in Olympia; Tzetzes on Lycophron 42.
- ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.1
- ^ a local nymph of the Arcadians
- ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 160.
- ^ called the daughter of Palamedes but corrected by later sources as Epaphus
- ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 21.1.
- ^ Homer, Iliad 16.183–186.
- ^ Saon could also have been the son of Zeus and a local nymph; both versions in Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5.48.2.
- ^ Köppen, Johann Heinrich Just; Heinrich, Karl Friedrich; Krause, Johann Christian Heinrich (1818). Erklärende Anmerkungen zu Homers Ilias. Vol. 2. pp. 72.
- ^ According to Hesiod's Theogony 507–509, Atlas' mother was the Oceanid Clymene, later accounts have the Oceanid Asia as his mother, see Apollodorus, 1.2.3.
- ^ According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
- ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
- ^ According to Hesiod's Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
- ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
- ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
- ^ A Stevens, On Jung, Taylor & Francis, 1990.
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- Media related to Hermes at Wikimedia Commons
- Theoi Project, Hermes stories from original sources & images from classical art
- Cult of Hermes
- The Myths of Hermes Archived 19 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Ventris and Chadwick: Gods found in Mycenaean Greece: a table drawn up from Michael Ventris and John Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek second edition (Cambridge 1973)