Hindu–Islamic relations

Interactions between the followers of Hinduism and Islam began in the 7th century, after the advent of the latter in the Arabian Peninsula. These interactions were mainly by trade throughout the Indian Ocean. Historically, these interactions formed contrasting patterns in northern and southern India. In the north, there is a long-standing historical influence from Muslim rulers and Christian rulers dating back to the Delhi Sultanate of the 13th century. The patterns of relationship between Hindus and Muslims have been different between north and south India. While there is a history of conquest and domination in the north, Hindu-Muslim relations in Kerala and Tamil Nadu have been peaceful.[1] However, historical evidence has shown that violence had existed by the year 1700 A.D.[2]

In the 16th century, the Mughal Empire was established. Under the Mughals, India experienced a period of relative stability and prosperity.[3] The Mughals were known for their religious tolerance, and they actively patronized the arts and literature. During the Mughal era, Indian art and culture thrived, with the construction of grand monuments such as the Taj Mahal and the Red Fort. While the Mughals fostered religious harmony and cultural advancements and nurtured Hindu scholars, poets, and artists, facilitating a dynamic cultural interchange that enriched both Islamic and Hindu traditions, there were instances of religious conflicts between the Mughals and the Rajput over control of territories. Aurangzeb was criticized for his policies of religious intolerance towards Hindus.[4][5]

During the 17th to 19th centuries, India was ruled by the British, who introduced a policy of divide and rule to maintain their control over the country.[6][7][8] The British also introduced a system of separate electorates, which further exacerbated the divide between the Hindu and Muslim communities.[9][10] The Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the First War of Independence, was a major uprising against British rule in India. The rebellion was fueled by a range of grievances, including economic exploitation, social and religious discrimination, and political oppression.[11][12][13] While the rebellion was not solely based on religious tensions between Hindus and Muslims, these tensions did play a role in fueling the conflict. During the rebellion, there were instances of both Hindu and Muslim soldiers and civilians fighting together against the British, as well as instances of conflict between the two communities.[14][15][16]

Hinduism and Islam share some ritual practices, such as fasting and pilgrimage, but their views differ on various aspects. There are also hundreds of shared ritual spaces, called dargahs (literally, “doorway” or “threshold”), for Hindus and Muslims. These mark shrines for revered Muslim (frequently Sufi) leaders and are visited by both Muslims and Hindus. Their interaction has witnessed periods of cooperation and syncretism, and periods of religious discrimination, intolerance, and violence. As a religious minority in India, Muslims are part of the Indian culture and have lived with Hindus for over 13 centuries. Despite the longtime assertion that the origins of Muslim-Hindu tensions were greatly attributed to 19th Century British colonial rule in India, it has been argued that Britain had little influence on constructing the religious identities of Islam and Hinduism in the region and that divisions existed beforehand as well.[17] For example, 18th-century Mughal–Maratha Wars. Ajay Verghese argues that the Hindu-Muslim conflict in India can be better understood by analyzing the historical relationship between the two communities. He contends that precolonial India was marked by a fluidity of religious identity and that religious boundaries were not always clear-cut. This led to a degree of intermingling between Hindus and Muslims, but also created conditions for tension and conflict.[2]

The ReligionsEdit

Hinduism is an Indian religion and a way of life[18] of the Hindu people primarily practiced in the Indian subcontinent and other regions which have experienced Hindu influence since ancient and medieval times. Hinduism mostly shares common terms with the Dhārmic religions that it influenced, including Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism.[19] The central scriptures of Hinduism are the Śruti, which consist of the four Vedas (which comprise the original Vedic Hymns, or Samhitas) and three tiers of commentaries upon the Samhitas, namely the Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas, and Upanishads.[20] These texts are considered to be authentic knowledge and wisdom of the past, collated, compiled and codified into written form for future generations. Furthermore, Hinduism is also based on the Smṛti literature, which includes the Rāmāyana, Mahābhārata, Bhagavad Gītā, and Purānas, which are also considered to be sacred Hindu texts.

Islam is a monotheistic religion in which God is called Allah, and the final Islamic prophet is Muhammad, whom Muslims believe delivered the central Islamic scripture, the Qurān.[21] Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal faith of a primordial faith that was revealed many times through earlier prophets such as Adam (believed to be the first man), Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, among others; these earlier revelations are attributed to Judaism and Christianity, which are regarded in Islam as spiritual predecessor faiths.[22][23] The Quran and the Ḥadīth literature are the primary Islamic scriptures, while the sunnah consists of the Islamic traditional customs and practices which all Muslims are expected to follow. Throughout its rich history, Islamic civilization has made notable scientific achievements which encompassed a wide range of subject areas especially medicine, mathematics, astronomy, agriculture as well as physics, economics, engineering and optics.[24][25][26]

Comparison between Islam and HinduismEdit

Concepts of God and deitiesEdit


Hinduism is a system of thought in which the concept of God varies according to its diverse traditions.[27][28][29][30] Hinduism spans a wide range of beliefs such as henotheism, monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, pandeism, monism, atheism and nontheism.[27][28][31][32] One popular theological interpretation is the Advaita Vedanta tradition, which relies mainly on the Upanishads and declares absolute monism, exemplified in the concept of Brahman (the ultimate reality).[33][34] When a person is devoid of ignorance (Avidyā), they find the truth by realizing that their true nature, pure soul, or inner Self (Ātman) is identical to Brahman.[35] Until then, they are usually ignorant of the ultimate reality and therefore believe that the material world around them is real and indulges in it, when the world is actually an illusion (Māyā).[35] The Brahman, which is absolute and pure, and the Ātman, which is also absolute and pure, are the same in this school of Hindu thought, which exemplifies the Hindu concept of God.[33][35]

Islam is a system of thought that believes in the concept of the unity and uniqueness of God (Tawḥīd), which declares monotheism, and is considered to be the defining doctrine of the Islamic religion.[36] God in Islam is conceived as the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence.[21][37][38] According to Islam, God is transcendent, so Muslims do not attribute human forms to God. God is described and referred to by several names or attributes.[39] One of the five pillars of Islam is that Muslims affirm the Shahada in the five canonical daily prayers, which declares that "There is no other god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."[40][41]

Although there are a number of diverse conceptions of God and deities within Hinduism, most fuqaha (Muslim jurists), such as Muslim heresiographer al-Shahrastani, consider all of them to be polytheistic and blasphemous. Most agree that Hindus should be considered dhimmi. Some Muslim thinkers living in India, such as, Diya' al-Din Barani (1285?-1357?), disagree with that, demanding that a Muslim ruler should slaughter the leaders of Hinduism (Brahmanists) to fight infidelity.[42]

Despite the obvious discrepancy between Islamic monotheism and Hindu polytheism, some Muslim authors showed approval of the Hindu religion:

Al-Biruni famously recorded the beliefs of Hindus in a descriptive manner. He notes that although the common people would worship idols, the educated people would be "entirely free from worshipping anything but God alone and would never dream of worshipping an image manufactured to represent him." He doesn't blame idolatry on Hinduism, but to a lack of proper education. The difference between monotheistic religions and Hinduism wouldn't be that strong, since all uneducated people, even among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, would need concrete objects to worship.[43]

Amir Khusrau (1253-1325) writes that Hindus have gone astray, but so have other religions and Hinduism would still consist of beliefs shared by Muslims: They would believe in the oneness and eternity of God as creator and sustainer. For that reason, he favors Hinduism before materialists (dahriyya), dualists (thanawiyya), Christianity who attribute to God spirit and progeny, and the star-worshippers (akhtariyyan) who acknowledge seven deities. The Hindu (precisely Brahmanist) would worship animals, stones, and the sun, but the Brahmanist accepts that they don't really bear likeness to God and are God's creation, they are only worshipped due to tradition.[44]


Divine spirits in Hindu-lore were integrated into the monotheistic Islamic worldview by Muslim authors writing about Hinduism. They acknowledged that these spirits would exude a mesmerizing fascination on people, even Muslims couldn't withstand. Arab Muslim geographer al-Maqdisī (c. 945/946–991 CE) wrote about Indian deities, that they have the power to enchant people, even Muslims, to worship them. A Muslim is said to have visited them and abandoned Islam. Besides their power to distract even Muslims from worshiping Allah, they may have real magical powers and even grand their worshippers wishes.[45]

In al-Tabasi's (d. 1089) compendium about magic and sorcery Mahakal, an epiphet for the Hindu deity Shiva, is mentioned. Abu Sa'id al Gardizi (fl. 1049) further elaborates that this deva (dīv) would have the power to teach incantations ('aza'im) and how to perform wonders ('aja'ib).[46]

To harmonize the existence of such spirits with the monotheistic worldview of Islam, it was assumed that the Indian deities were created by Allah, however, prior to the beings revealed in the Quran. Abu Ali Bal'ami (d. 992–997) asserts that the deva (div) were created long before the angels and jinn.[47]: 40  Unlike jinn, the div would have refused to obey the Prophet Solomon.[48]

Scriptures and messengersEdit

The sacred scriptures of Islam are the Qurān and the Ḥadīths, which report what Muhammad said and did. Ḥadīths are varied and have many versions. According to Islamic doctrine, Jesus Christ was also one of the messengers from God.[49] Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last messenger and the Qurān was the last revelation from God, delivered to him through the angel Jibrīl.[50] The Ḥadīths contain the sunnah, the reports of Muhammad's life, sayings, actions, and examples he set. The Qurān and the reliable Ḥadīths are considered in Islam as the sources of Islamic law or Sharīʿah.[51]

Unlike Islam, Hinduism doesn't have centralized religious authorities, or governing bodies. It has some defining historical and religious texts, the sacred Hindu scriptures, traditional ecclesiastical order, incarnations, and the legal code Manusmṛti.[52][53] Spiritual knowledge of Hinduism is contained in texts called Śruti ("what is heard") and Smṛti ("what is remembered"). These sacred texts discuss diverse topics, including theology, cosmology, mythology, philosophy, rituals and rites of passage, and many others. Major scriptures in Hinduism include the Vedas and Upanishads (both Śruti), the Epics (Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata), Purāṇas, Dharmaśāstras, Āgamas, and the Bhagavad Gītā (all Smṛti).[54][55]


According to Islam, after death, one either enters Paradise (Jannah) or Hell (Jahannam), depending on their deeds. Unlike Muslims, Hindus believe in a cycle of reincarnation.[56] However, the concept of higher and lower realms of existence can be found in Hinduism, though the realms are temporary places.[57]

Both Muslims and Hindus acknowledge demons (Shaitan/Asura), who are constantly inciting war between the desires of humans and the Divine.[clarification needed][58] Asuras are part of Hindu mythology along with Devas, Yakshas and Rakshasas, and are featured in one of many cosmological theories in Hinduism.[59][60] Asuras are sometimes considered nature spirits. They constantly battle with the devas.[61]

Both believe in the existence of an entirety supreme power, either called Brahman or Allah. Brahman is a metaphysical concept that is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe.[62][63] Allah is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions. Assimilated in local lore, the Islamic concept of God became comparable to the notion of the ultimate reality expressing itself through different names as the creator, the maintainer, and the destroyer.[64] Some Islamic scholars believe that the worlds created by God will perish and be created anew, resembling the Hindu notion of an endless process of generation and decay.[further explanation needed] [65][66]

Pilgrimage is found in both religions: Hajj & Umrah to Mecca in Islam and Kumbh Mela and Tirtha Yatra in Hinduism.[67] Muslims walk seven times around the Kaaba during Hajj, which is called Tawaf.[68] Hindus walk one or more times around the center (Garbhagriya) of a temple (one to twenty-one[69]),[70][71][72] called Parikrama (known in Sanskrit as pradakśiṇā). Both of them are commonly called circumambulation.[73][74]

According to some members of the Ahmadiya Muslim Community, The Islamic prophet Muhammad is believed to be the Hindu Avatar Kalki. Some Muslim scholars and a few Hindu scholars[75][76] also argue that mentions of Kalki refer to Muhammad in some Hindu scriptures.[76][77]


The 10th-century Persian polymath Al-Biruni in his book Tahaqeeq Ma Lilhind Min Makulat Makulat Fi Aliaqbal Am Marzula (Critical Study of Indian Speech: Rationally Acceptable or Rejected) discusses the similarity of some Sufism concepts with aspects of Hinduism, such as: Atman with ruh, tanasukh with reincarnation, Moksha with Fanaa, Ittihad with Nirvana: union between Paramatman in Jivatma, Avatar or Incarnation with Hulul, Vedanta with Wahdat al-Wujud, Mujahadah with Sadhana.[citation needed]

Other scholars have likewise compared the Sufi concept of Waḥdat al-Wujūd with Advaita Vedanta,[78] Fanaa to Samadhi,[66] Muraqaba to Dhyana and tariqa to the Noble Eightfold Path.[79]

Sufi theologian Martin Lings says,

Prince Dara Shikoh (d.1619), the Sufi son of the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan, was able to affirm that Sufism and Advaita Vedantism [Hinduism] are essentially the same, with a surface difference of terminology.[80]

Al-Biruni observed in his history of India that the fundamental ideas behind metempsychosis or reincarnation in Hinduism are not very different from the concept of the immanence of God in all things and the idea of a universal soul in some Sufi doctrines, and that for Sufis who believe in such things, "the course of metempsychosis is of no consequence".[81]

The Sufi poet Jalaluddin Rumi wrote verse that played on such themes:

I died as mineral and became a plant,

I died as plant and rose to animal. I died as animal and I was man.

Why should I fear?

When was I less by dying? Yet once more I shall die as man

To soar with angels blest;

But even from angelhood I must pass on..

— Jaladuddin Rumi (Translation by Arberry, A.J. Classical Persian Literature. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1958.)

The 9th-century Iranian mystic Bayazid Bostami is alleged to have imported certain concepts from Hindusim into his version of Sufism under the conceptual umbrella of baqaa, meaning perfection.[82] Ibn al-Arabi and Mansur al-Hallaj both referred to Muhammad as having attained perfection and titled him as Al-Insān al-Kāmil.[83][84][85][86][87][88] The Sufism concept of hulul has similarly been compared with the idea of Ishvaratva, that God dwells in some creatures in Hinduism and Buddhism, and godhood of Jesus in Christianity.[89]

Ziaur Rahman Azmi says that the reason behind Hindus' negative perception of Islam is mostly the spread of Sufism in India, as he believes Sufism "distorts" the Islamic ideas of Risalat and Tawheed. He claims Sufism includes idolatry, pointing to Sufi mausoleums and the practices of Tawaf and Sijda that occur at them.[90]



Apostasy, defined in Islam as the conscious act by a Muslim of leaving Islam or blaspheming against it, is a religious crime according of some Islamic schools of law.[91][92][93]

Hinduism does not have a "unified system of belief encoded in a declaration of faith or a creed" and is thus more tolerant to apostasy.[28][30] Some Hindu sects believe that ethical conversion, without force or reward, is completely acceptable.[94] However, the Vashistha Dharmasastra, the Apastamba Dharmasutra, and Yajnavalkya state that a son of an apostate is also considered an apostate.[95] Smr̥ticandrikā lists apostates as a group of people upon touching whom, one should take a bath.[96] Nāradasmṛti and Parasara-samhita state that a wife can remarry if her husband becomes an apostate.[97] The Saint Parashara commented that religious rites are disturbed if an apostate witnesses them.[98] He also comments that those who forgo the Rig Veda, Samaveda, and Yajurveda are "nagna" (naked) or an apostate.[99]

Both religions state that there should be no compulsion in religion, although Islamic scholars may call for punishments against Muslims who have blasphemed.[100]


Blasphemy against God and against Muhammad is a religious crime in Islam.[101] The Quran in verse and many Hadiths discuss blasphemy and its punishment.[101] A variety of actions, speeches, or behavior can constitute blasphemy in Islam.[102] Some examples include insulting or cursing Allah or the Prophets.

Drawing offensive cartoons, tearing or burning holy literature of Islam, and creating or using music, painting, video, or novels to mock or criticize prophet Muhammad are some examples of blasphemous acts. Punishment can range from imprisonment or flogging to execution.[102][103]

Open discussion and criticism of spiritual thoughts, ideas, and deities are allowed in Hinduism.[104] The concept of "divine blasphemy" or "heresy" does not exist in Hinduism, and ancient Hindu texts make no provisions for blasphemy.[105][106]

Caste and creedEdit

Hindu texts such as the Manusmriti segregate people through social stratification and class, i.e. Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras.[107] While Hinduism texts do not list thousands of castes, in practice, the Hindu caste system has been described as four Varnas or as thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called jātis.[107][108][109][110][111]

Islam requires egalitarianism and is against discrimination based on caste, creed or race[112][113][114] Islamic texts do not segregate Muslims. Hadīth, however, mentions the prophecy of the Muslim Ummah being separated into 73 sects based on practices of Islam, not class. There are differences in practices within Muslim communities as traditions differ according to geography, but spiritually all Muslims are equal.[115][116][117]


Khitan, the religious rite of circumcision, is considered obligatory or recommendable for male Muslims.[118] The Qur'an does not mention circumcision explicitly in any verse, but it is noted in the Hadiths of Islam. Circumcision is not compulsory in Islam, but is an important ritual aimed at improving cleanliness. It is strongly encouraged but not enforced.[119]

Circumcision is not a religious requirement in Hinduism. Hinduism discourages non-medical circumcision, as, according to them, the body is made by the almighty God, and nobody has the right to alter it.[120]

Consanguineous marriageEdit

Consanguineous marriages are those where the bride and groom share a grandparent or near ancestor.[121] Islam prohibits marriage due to consanguinity with ancestors, descendants, siblings, siblings of ancestors and descendants of siblings.[122] However, marriage with first-cousins (3rd degree consanguinity) and farther removed consanguineous relatives is allowed. Hinduism forbids consanguineous marriage of parallel cousins, and strongly recommends seven degrees of biological separation between bride and groom.[123] However, for many communities in South India, especially in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, it is common for Hindu cross cousins to marry, with matrilateral cross cousin (mother's brother's daughter) marriages being especially favored. In the region, "uncle-niece and first-cousin unions are preferential and jointly account for some 30% of marriages." These practices are particularly followed in landed communities such as the Vellalars, who wish to keep wealth within the family. Also, unlike North India, this practice is also common in Brahmins in the region. Arranged endogamous consanguineous marriages are common in Pakistan for economic, religious and cultural reasons.[124]


Islamic scriptures compel the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, who are not liable to pay Zaka'at, the non-Muslims who live in a Muslim state.[125][126] Historically, the jizya tax has been understood in Islam as a fee for protection provided by the Muslim ruler to non-Muslims, for the exemption from military service for non-Muslims, for the permission to practice a non-Muslim faith with communal autonomy in a Muslim state.[127][128][129] If anyone could not afford this tax, they would not have to pay anything.[130] There is no jizya tax upon women, children, elders as well as the poor and the ill.[131] Also those who joined the military service were also not liable to pay the tax.[132] Islamic stipulation that Muslims must "do battle to guard" the dhimmis and "put no burden on them greater than they can bear" remained a cornerstone of Islamic policy.[133][134]

There is no such concept of "Jizya" in Hindu texts.[citation needed]


Muslim and Hindus societies have practiced slavery many times in history

The practice of slavery in early and late Vedic era of Hinduism is documented. However, some Hindu texts use the term dasa. Some scholars translate this as slave,[135] while other scholars have translated it as servant and religious devotee.[136][137] Arthashastra text of Hinduism dedicates a chapter to dasa where a financially bankrupt individual may become a servant of another. Arthashastra grants a dasa legal rights, and declares abusing, hurting and raping a dasa as a crime.[135][138]

Islam's approach to slavery added the idea that freedom was the natural state of affairs for human beings and in line with this it limited the opportunities to enslave people, commended the freeing of slaves and regulated the way slaves were treated:

  • Islam greatly limited those who could be enslaved and under what circumstances (although these restrictions were often evaded)
  • Islam treated slaves as human beings as well as property
  • Islam banned the mistreatment of slaves – indeed the tradition repeatedly stresses the importance of treating slaves with kindness and compassion
  • Islam allowed slaves to achieve their freedom and made freeing slaves a virtuous act
  • Islam barred Muslims from enslaving other Muslims

The Quran and the Hadiths strongly discourage the institution of slaves.[139][140] Islam, in many cases, encouraged freeing of slave act of benevolence, and expiation of sins. Islam only allows slavery through certain means and many Islamic scholars claim Islam blocked many ways through which people used to own slaves.[141][142] Most interpretations of the Quran agree that the Quran envisions an ideal society as one in which slavery no longer exists.[143][144][145][146]

Food-related issuesEdit

Islam has restrictions on food, such as how meat is prepared.[147] Halal meat is prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of an animal with a sharp knife. This leads to death via bleeding.[148] Meat from animals that die of natural causes or by accident is not allowed.

In Hinduism, food habits are left as a choice for Hindus, and both meat and alcohol consumption is accepted. However, some Hindu communities prefer vegetarianism or lacto-vegetarianism due to their belief in ahimsa or non-violence.[149] There are varied opinions regarding the permissibility of eating meat in Hinduism, depending upon the interpretation of the Hindu scriptures. Some Hindu sects emphasize vegetarianism. Some Hindus avoid eating cow-based beef, but they may eat water buffalo-based beef or pork as an alternative.[150]

Slaughtering a cow is considered to be a religious taboo by all Hindus, who consider the cow to be a sacred animal.

Mutual viewsEdit

Common Muslim views of HinduismEdit

Ziaur Rahman Azmi in his "Fusulun fi Adianil Hindi, al-Hindusiatu, Wal Buziatu, Wal Zainiatu, Was Sikhiatu and Alakatut Tasawwfi Biha" (Surveys of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism as well as Indian Religions and their relationship with Sufism Relation') says that the kol race lived in Mohenjodaro in India in the third century BC, when the Turanians came and defeated them and mixed with them, the Dravidian race arose, who lived in Mohenjodaro in Sindh. They settled in the Harappan city and then spread into South India, and they divided into four groups according to their language, Kannada Malay, Tamil and Telugu. During this time they continued to clash with the Aryans from the east of the Indus for several centuries. At one point when the Aryans won, the local inhabitants including the Dravidians accepted their allegiance, then the Aryans began to shape the social system and the inhabitants of India entered the Vedic society. Azmi cites archeological similarities as well as linguistic similarities between Sanskrit and Persian, suggesting that the Aryans were of European Persian origin, and he cites linguistics to suggest that the Sanskrit-speaking Aryans and Persian-speaking peoples inhabited the same territory, and that they came from Persia. The Aryans then divided the natives of India into four classes in order of status, these being Brahmins (Arya priests or clerics Purohit), Kshatriyas (Rajput warriors or Marathas), Vaishya (Turani Dravidian traders or traders and farmers Vyapari) and Shudra (Turani Dravidian laborers or Majdoor), the first two being the Aryan upper caste and the latter two the Dravidian lower caste. According to Azmi, the Shudras among them were subjected to severe persecution and humiliation by the Aryans, and in the 20th century they converted en masse and a large number of the population converted to Islam, especially the Dalit community, whose voluntary conversions to Islam are reported in the Indian press. Azmi cites a number of sources. Hindus then concentrated on writing texts which were divided into five eras. Respectively:[90]

  1. The four Vedas were composed in the first age.
  2. In the second period Hindu philosophers composed the Upanishads, incorporating the basic concepts of Sufism or Tasawwuf, associated with al-Hallaj, Ibn Arabi and Sarmad Kashani, who Nirvana and composed Wahdat al-Wujud in association with Om, also Ibn Habit, Ahmad Ibn Namus, Abu Muslim Khorasani and Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Raji propagated the concept of reincarnation of Hinduism in the name of Islam. Also at this time, an Upanishad called Allopanishad was written during the reign of the Emperor of India Jalal Uddin Akbar, where the concept of God in Islam is discussed.
  3. Compendium of religious rules was prepared in the third period. Memoirs were written during this time, among which Manusmriti is the most notable.
  4. In the fourth age the Aryan gods started to disappear as a result of the intermingling of the Aryans with the inhabitants of India. The Aryas worshiped Indra as the god of thunder, Agni as the god of fire, Aruna as the god of the sky and Usha as the morning god. But later Vishnu as the god of sustenance and Shiva as the god of destruction took their place and the Puranic books were written praising these gods. At different places in the books, the story of creation, resurrection and the time between the two Manus and the time between the two destructions of the universe have been described. According to Hindu belief, this universe is indestructible. It is destroyed and re-created countless times.
  5. In the fifth age, the Mahabharata, the Gita and the Ramayana were composed, which contain accounts of the battles of the Aryan leaders and their victories in war.[90]

Also, regarding the various Islamic good news including the arrival of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Azmi said, according to the consensus of Muslims, even if the Hindu scriptures are not heavenly books, it may be that, the religion of Prophet Ibrahim appeared in Iraq when the Aryans left their homeland, and then the Aryans adopted these from the Torah and the sahifahs of Abraham when they passed through the region, or when the Hindus revised their texts, to satisfy the Muslim rulers during Islamic rule. However, Azmi claims more support for the second view.[90]

Azmi says about the religious beliefs of Hinduism,

Every modern and ancient race and religion of the world has some basic beliefs and philosophies on which the followers of that religion believe. In light of this, they solve their problems. Improve their personal and social life. Researchers can gain a better understanding of the reality of an organization or religion by studying these principles. If an organization or religion does not preserve such fundamental principles or creeds, it can be compared to a lifeless body. Considering this aspect, it can be said about Hinduism that this religion does not have its own basic principles or religious beliefs. Hindu devotees also realize that their religion lacks basic tenets. They even take pride in it. The Hindu guru Gandhi said, “The absence of fundamental tenets of Hinduism is a proof of its greatness. If I am asked in this regard, I will say - freedom from dogma and search for truth is the basic principle of this religion. In this case, believing in the existence of God or not is the same. It is not necessary for a Hindu to believe in the existence of God. Whether one believes in it or not, he is considered a Hindu.' He said in his book Hindudharma, 'The peculiarity of Hinduism is that it does not cherish any particular religion. But it includes the beliefs and basic concepts of other religions.' That is why Hindu scholars consider all new things sacred. They think this is their goal and purpose. They consider all saints to be men sent by God—creators in human form. Even if he cherishes Hinduism and opposes them in some beliefs, they do not hesitate to regard him as an avatar until he renounces Hinduism and claims to be a Muslim or a Christian. The main reason for this is that there is no separate measure of the religious faith of the followers of Hinduism - a follower of Hinduism is considered to be a holder of Hinduism forever.[90]

Azmi says that the reason behind Hindus' negative perception about Islam is,

In my view, Hindus' lack of understanding of the reality of Risalah (messengerhood) and the essence of Tawheed is the root cause of their conflict and enmity with Muslims. For, those among Muslims who have pursued Hinduism-influenced Sufism have distorted the correct creeds of Islam—the creeds cherished by the Sahaba and the Tabees in the light of the Qur'an and Sunnah. And Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal who struggled to establish the Aqeedah and Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah followed his path and the Imams of Ahlus Sunnat Wal Jamaat followed him. Furthermore, these Sufis mixed Islamic Aqeeda with Idolatry beliefs. The great proof of this is the mausoleums built on many graves across India and the Kufr activities like Tawaf, Sijda and prayers for help are performed around them. These works are mainly done by Hindus around their temple. Apart from this, lies and propaganda by Hindu writers about Islam and Islamic religion are equally responsible for this. They have spread massive lies about our history and the life of Rasool ﷺ. An elementary student of Hindu scriptures begins his studies with an antipathy toward Islam and Muslims. Therefore, for the Muslims of India, efforts should be made to extensively translate their religious texts into local languages. On the other hand, Muslims ruled India for about eight centuries. But there were generally not many rulers among them, except those specially favored by Allah, who took any initiative to spread the light of Islam among the Hindu masses under them. Rather, the situation became more dangerous when Hindu scriptures like the Vedas, Gita and Ramayana were translated into Arabic and Persian at their initiative; Where they have shown indifference towards the translation of Quran, Hadith, Sirat and original and pure books containing details of Islamic religion into other local languages including Sanskrit. Even till today no reliable pure translation of Quran has been written in Hindi language. I have found Hindi translation of the Quran in few libraries and read it with such precision. Not translated. So these should be re-examined. It would be best to have it translated anew under the supervision of an alim well-known in the field of Aqeedah and Self-Purification.[90]

Common Hindu views of IslamEdit

Radheshyam Brahmachari in his book "Islamic Theology: It's Time to Go Home" called the Muslims of India as forced converts and urged them to return to Hinduism as their original religion.[151]

It is not uncommon for a sailor to deviate from his course or to stray from his target on the night of a disaster, and it is normal for a sailor to return or attempt to return to his intended destination after the disaster has passed. But if, even after disaster, he continues to proudly claim that deviant path as the true path, and to proceed in that direction, he is no longer, in any case, a wise sailor. Needless to say, following the right path, he will arrive at a wrong address. This statement applies exclusively to the entire Muslim community in the Indian subcontinent today. Before the conquest of India by foreign Muslim invaders, all Muslims in this country were either Hindus or Buddhists, and since Buddhism was only a branch of Hinduism, all were Hindus. It is a fact of history that their forefathers became Muslims after being persecuted or seduced by Muslim rulers. In addition, this incident is not long ago. Especially in the case of Bengal it can never be more than 700 years. Because although the Muslim rule of Bengal began with the conquest of Naudiyah by Bakhtiyar Khilji in 1204 AD, in the words of Sri Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, "Muslims could not conquer any region of East Bengal before the last decade of the 11th century. No region of South Bengal was conquered by the Muslims in the thirteenth century.” (History of Bangladesh, Middle Ages, p. 2). About 100 years later, the conversion process accelerated in today's Muslim-dominated East Bengal during the reign of Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah, the converted son of King Ganesh. But thousands of years before that, all today's Muslim converts were Hindus and were brought up in Hindu culture and traditions. So no doubt that is their main target. Today they are making no effort to deny the innate Hindu culture and imitate Arab culture by adopting Arabic or Persian names, eating beef and so on. But the point is, is it possible to deny Matrisama Hindu culture only through these external means? Hindu culture and Indian culture are identical. Therefore whoever will be born on this Indian soil is the one who will be born in this Indian soil without his knowledge, willingly or unwillingly while commenting on this, the poet Rabindranath says, "Nowadays some of us have started to think about this, a doubt has arisen in our minds about what we are." . We are nothing else, we are Brahman. But it was a new identity. The roots of that identity do not go far. I do not have the basis of a mature identity than this? Is there not a constant symptom flowing from the past in me at all? ..Therefore, if there is any shame at all in saying that I am a Hindu, I will have to digest that shame in silence.” (Essay: Self-Introduction). He also says, “But can you remain a Hindu even if you join the Muslim or Christian community? Of course I can. There is not only an argument of transcendence in it. .....It is true that Kalicharan Bandujje Mashai was a Hindu-Christian. Before him Gnanendranath Tagore Mahasaya was a Hindu-Christian, before him Krishnamohan Banerjee was a Hindu-Christian. In other words, they were Hindus by race and Christians by religion. Christian is their color, Hindu is their object. There are thousands of Muslims in Bangladesh, the Hindus have called them Hindus or Hindus and they have also heard themselves as Hindus or Hindus. But in spite of that they are really Hindu-Muslims” (up). "..Muslim is a special religion, but Hinduism is not a special religion. A racial outcome of Indian history." (up). Sri Aurobindo also said exactly the same thing. Hinduism is not just a religion like Islam or Christianity, Hinduism is the nationalism of India. So he says in his famous "Uttarpara speech, "I say that is the Sanatana Dharma which for us is nationalism. This Hindu nation was born with the Sanatana Dharma, with it it moves and with it it grows."- That is, Sanatan Dai is our nationalism. This Hindu nation was born with Sanatan Dharma, it is advancing and growing by adopting Sanatan Dharma.”

— Islamic Theology: Now is the time to return home, (ইসলামী ধর্মতত্ত্বঃ এবার ঘরে ফেরার পালা), [151]

In popular cultureEdit


There have been instances of syncretic cooperation on music with Islamic and Hindu themes. For example, the national poet of Bangladesh, Kazi Nazrul Islam, wrote many Islamic devotional songs for mainstream Bengali folk music.[152] He also explored Hindu devotional music by composing Shyama Sangeet, Durga Vandana, Sarswati Vandana, bhajans and kirtans, often merging Islamic and Hindu values. Nazrul's poetry and songs explored the philosophy of Islam and Hinduism.[153]

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Islam in South Asia
  • Holt, Peter M. (1977), Peter Malcolm Holt; Ann K. S. Lambton; Bernard Lewis (eds.), The Cambridge History of Islam (New ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521291378
  • Khalidi, Omar (2009), Shiping Hua (ed.), Islam and democratization in Asia, Cambria Press, ISBN 978-1604976328
  • Metcalf, Barbara D. (2009), Barbara D. Metcalf (ed.), Islam in South Asia in Practice, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691044200
Communal violence
  • Wilkinson, Steven I. (2006), Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521536059
  • Reference, Blackwell (1999). Townson, Duncan (ed.). "Indian communal massacres (1946–7)". Blackwell Reference. doi:10.1111/b.9780631209379.1999.x. ISBN 9780631209379.
  • Markovits, Claude. "India from 1900 to 1947". Mass Violence.Org.
  • D'Costa, Bina (2010), Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415565660
  • Ghosh, Partha S. (2004), Ranabir Samaddar (ed.), Peace Studies: An Introduction To the Concept, Scope, and Themes, SAGE, ISBN 978-0761996606
  • Hussain, Monirul (2009), Sibaji Pratim Basu (ed.), The Fleeing People of South Asia: Selections from Refugee Watch, Anthem, p. 261, ISBN 978-8190583572
  • Berglund, Henrik (2011), Galina Lindquist; Don Handelman (eds.), Religion, Politics, and Globalization: Anthropological Approaches, Berghahn, p. 105, ISBN 978-1845457716
  • Smith, Glenn (2005), Asvi Warman Adam; Dewi Fortuna Anwar (eds.), Violent Internal Conflicts in Asia Pacific: Histories, Political Economies, and Policies, Yayasan Obor, ISBN 9789794615140
  • Pandey, Gyanendra (2005), Routine violence: nations, fragments, histories, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804752640
  • Ghassem-Fachandi, Parvis (2012), Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India, Princeton University Press, p. 2, ISBN 978-0691151779
  • Metcalf, Barbara (2013), Deana Heath; Chandana Mathur (eds.), Communalism and Globalization in South Asia and its Diaspora, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415857857