House of Representatives (Thailand)

The House of Representatives (Thai: สภาผู้แทนราษฎร, RTGSSapha Phuthaen Ratsadon, pronounced [sā.pʰāː pʰûː.tʰɛ̄ːn râːt.sā.dɔ̄ːn]) is the lower house of the National Assembly of Thailand, the legislative branch of the Thai government. The system of government of Thailand is that of a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. The system of the Thai legislative branch is modelled after the Westminster system. The House of Representatives has 500 members, of which 400 are elected through single member constituency elections, while the other 100 are chosen through party lists parallel voting.

House of Representatives


Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon
26th House of Representatives
Coat of arms or logo
Office vacant
since 20 March 2023
First Deputy Speaker
Office vacant
since 20 March 2023
Second Deputy Speaker
Office vacant
since 20 March 2023
Government Chief Whip
Office vacant
since 20 March 2023
Leader of the Opposition
Office vacant
since 20 March 2023
Opposition Chief Whip
Office vacant
since 20 March 2023
26th Thailand House of Representatives composition.svg
Committees35 committees
Length of term
Up to 4 years
SalarySpeaker: ฿125,590/m
Deputy Speaker: ฿115,740/m
Leader of the Opposition: ฿115,740/m
Members: ฿113,560/m
Parallel voting:
First past the post (400 seats)
Party-list proportional representation (100 seats)
First election
15 November 1933
Last election
14 May 2023
Next election
By 27 June 2027
Meeting place
Phra Suriyan Chamber
Dusit District
Bangkok, Thailand

The House of Representatives was temporarily abolished as a result of the 2014 Thai coup d'état and replaced with the unicameral National Legislative Assembly, a body of 250 members, selected by the National Council for Peace and Order. After the 2017 Constitution was promulgated in April 2017, the House of Representatives was reestablished. [1]


Bill ConsiderationEdit

The Cabinet, no less than 20 members of parliament, or 10,000 eligible voters through a petition may introduce a bill. However, if it is a money bill (a bill that has provisions concerning taxes, budgetary affairs or currency), it may be introduced only with the endorsement of the Prime Minister.

Where a bill's status as a money bill may be in question, a session between the speaker and all house committee chairs maybe convened to consider the status of the bill. The decision is made by a simple majority vote. If the vote is tied, the speaker must cast a tie-breaking vote.

When the process of consideration ends in the House and the bill is agreed to, the bill is sent to the senate for further deliberations; of which the process must be done within 60 days. The deadline for money bills is 30 days. If the senate is not able to deliberate within the time limit, the bill is considered to be agreed to by the senate.

If the bill is agreed to by the whole of the National Assembly, the prime minister must wait 5 days in order to give people the opportunity to challenge the bill's constitutionality. After which, the prime minister has 20 days to present the bill to the monarch for royal assent.

Any emergency act passed by the cabinet must be sent to the house for consideration without delay to be examined. If the house approves of the emergency act, it becomes an ordinary act. If not, the emergency act ceases to have effect after the decision has been published in the government gazette for one day.

Budget ConsiderationEdit

The 2017 Thai Constitution stipulates that the budget must be written in the form of an act, and in the introduction of a budget bill the government must show sources of income and estimates of further income, standards and measures of outcome and relevance to the 20 Year National Strategy and other national development plans. The budget must also adhere to guidelines outlined in the State Fiscal and Financial Disciplines Act.

The process of considering the budget is almost the same as considering a bill, although the deliberation deadline is extended to 105 days, and the senate is not able to amend the budget and must vote on it within 20 days.

Scrutiny of the governmentEdit

Questioning a ministerEdit

A member of parliament may submit a question to a minister both in writing and orally. Questions to a minister may be asked without the question being submitted in advance. A minister may refuse to answer the question if the answer would risk national security or if they consider it not to be in the national interest.

Ministers assigning civil servants or other people to answer in their place is commonplace practice rather than the exception.

Motion of no confidenceEdit

No less than one fifth of all the members of parliament may introduce a motion to debate about a vote of no confidence in individual ministers or the entire cabinet. A simple majority is required for the motion to pass, and subsequently for the minister or the entire cabinet to cease.

Creation of committeesEdit

Committees may be set up by the house to carry out affairs or investigate matters, or to study matters and report to the house according to a set time frame. A minister may be held accountable to the committee, and it is within their duty to aid the committee in the course of an investigation or to find facts by ordering civil servants within their ministry for them to testify in the committee or to comply with information requests.

Considering prime ministerial candidatesEdit

In order for a candidate to stand, they must receive at least one tenth of the house's vote and must be named in the party list.


The House of Representatives was established after the Revolution of 1932, when the Khana Ratsadon (the "People's Party"), overthrew the absolute monarchy and replaced it with a system of constitutional monarchy. When King Prajadhipok signed the temporary constitution of 1932, he established the first legislative assembly in Thailand, It was an entirely royally-appointed chamber. The first session of the People's Assembly was held on June 28, 1932, in the Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall. From then on, the House existed in various forms until it was abolished in 2014:

See more at: Constitutions of Thailand

  • 1946 – The 1946 constitution established a fully elected House of Representatives.
  • 1949 – On June 5, 1949, Orapin Chaiyakan became the first woman to be elected to hold a post in the National Assembly of Thailand (specifically, the House of Representatives).[2][3]
  • 1952 – Establishment of the unicameral National Assembly with 123 members.
  • 1959 – The House was banned by Sarit Dhanarajata.
  • 1968 – The House was re-established with 219 members.
  • 1972 – The House was banned by Thanom Kittikachorn.
  • 1974 – Establishment of the House of Representatives.
  • 1976 – Establishment of a unicameral National Assembly with 360 royally-appointed members.
  • 1978 – Return of an elected House with 301 members.
  • 1991 – Establishment of a unicameral National Assembly with 292 appointed members.
  • 1997 – Establishment of a 500-member House of Representatives, 400 directly elected with 100 elected through proportional representation.
  • 2006 – Following the coup, an interim charter was signed establishing a 250-member National Legislative Assembly.
  • 2007 – Return to 500-member House with 375 members elected through single constituency elections and 125 appointed through party-list proportional representation, established, by referendum under the 2007 Constitution of Thailand.
  • 2014 – Abolished as a result of the 2014 Thai coup d'état.
  • 2017 – Re-established following the primulgation of the 2017 constitution.

List of House of Representatives general electionsEdit

20th centuryEdit

Election Date Turnout Seats Registered
Win party Seats Share
1933 15 November 1933 41.45% 78 of the 156 4,278,231
1937 7 November 1937 40.22% 91 of the 182 6,123,239
1938 12 November 1938 35.03% 6,310,172
1946 6 January 1946 32.52% 96 of the 192 6,431,827
1948 29 January 1948 29.50% 99 of the 186 7,176,891

1952 26 February 1952 38.95% 123 of the 246 7,602,591
Feb. 1957 26 February 1957 57.50% 160 of the 283 9,859,039 Seri Manangkhasila 86
Dec. 1957 15 December 1957 44.07% 160 of the 281 9,917,417 Sahaphum 44
1969 10 February 1969 49.16% 219 14,820,180 United Thai People's 75
1975 26 January 1975 47.18% 269 20,242,791 Democrat 72 17.23%
1976 4 April 1976 43.99% 279 20,623,430 114 25.31%
1979 22 April 1979 43.90% 301 21,284,790 Social Action 82 21.26%
1983 18 April 1983 50.76% 324 24,224,470 92 26.78%
1986 27 July 1986 61.43% 347 26,160,100 Democrat 100 22.52 %
1988 24 July 1988 63.56% 357 26,658,638 Chart Thai 87 19.29%
Mar. 1992 22 March 1992 59.24% 360 32,436,283 Justice Unity 79 19.27%
Sep. 1992 13 September 1992 61.59% 31,860,156 Democrat 79 21.02%
1995 2 July 1995 62.04% 391 37,817,983 Chart Thai 92 22.83%
1996 17 November 1996 62.42% 393 38,564,593 New Aspiration 125 29.14%
Election Date Turnout Seats Registered
Win party Seats Share

21st centuryEdit

Election Date Turnout Seats Registered
Win party Seats Share
2001 6 January 2001 69.43% 500 42,875,036 Thai Rak Thai 248 39.91%
2005 6 February 2005 72.56% 44,572,101 377 60.48%
2006 2 April 2006 64.77% 44,909,562 Thai Rak Thai
2007 23 December 2007 85.38% 480 45,658,170 People's Power 233 38.61%
2011 3 July 2011 75.03% 500 46,939,549 Pheu Thai 265 47.03%
2014 2 February 2014 47.72 % 43,024,042 Invalidated
2019 24 March 2019 74.69% 51,239,638 Pheu Thai
136 21.92%
2023 14 May 2023 75.20%[4] 52,287,046 Move Forward 152 26.23%
Election Date Turnout Seats Registered
Win party Seats Share


The qualifications to be a candidate for the House of Representatives were outlined in Section 101, Part 2, Chapter 6 of the 2007 Constitution. The candidate had to be a citizen of Thailand by birth only, age of twenty-five or older on election day, and born in the province in which they intended to stand as a candidate. The candidate must have been a voter and therefore had to be on the electoral register for at least five years directly before the election, and must also had a house or have been in public service in the province for five years. The candidate must also had been a member of an educational institution in that province for at least five consecutive years. Politically, a candidate had to be a member of one political party for a period of at least ninety days before election day, except in cases of dissolution where thirty days was the minimum period. This was done to discourage party switching before the election. For party list candidates, they must also had to meet the same qualifications except for the provincial restrictions. They were instead divided in lists based on provincial groups.

Those specifically barred from being candidates were those: addicted to drugs, declared bankrupt, unable to vote (see voter eligibility below), former convicted felons (the individual had to wait for five years after release to become eligible), removed from public service for being corrupt or incompetent, had assets confiscated due to embezzlement and finally, the individual had not been a member of the government or civil service, Senate, local administrations, member of the judiciary or other independent agencies.


Before its abolishment, the House of Representatives had 500 members. 375 members were directly elected in single constituency elections by first-past-the-post voting. The 375 constituencies were divided by population according to the census and tambons. The other 125 members were voted based on 'proportional representation' it is actually in truth a parallel voting system or more precisely the Mixed Member Majoritarian system (MMM). In Thai general elections, voters had two votes: one to select the member of parliament for their constituencies and the second to choose which party they prefer. Seats were assigned to parties as a result through the d'Hondt method.

In accordance with the 2007 Constitution of Thailand, a general election was held every 4 years. Dissolution could happen anytime, which was done by the King with the advice of the prime minister through the use of the royal decree. Elections were held under universal suffrage; every voter had to be a citizen of Thailand, if not by birth then by being a citizen for 5 years. The voter had to be over 18 years old before the year the election was held. Voting in elections were also mandatory as missing an election would result in the loss of the right to be involved in political activities. Those barred from voting in House elections were members of the clergy, those suspended from the privilege for various reasons, detainees under legal or court orders and being of unsound mind or of mental infirmity.

Term and dissolutionEdit

The term of the House of Representatives was exactly four years from the previous election day. Upon the expiration of the House, the King would issue a decree calling for a general election of the House, in which the date of the election had to be announced. This had to be done within forty days of the expiration. The date of the election had to be the same for the entire Kingdom.

The King held the royal prerogative to dissolve the House before its expiration. When this happened a royal decree was issued where the election date was announced; this had to be done in no less than forty days and not more than sixty days from the date of the dissolution. The reasons and circumstances of a dissolution could be made only once.


Members of the House of Representatives were generally called Members of Parliament or MPs (Thai: สมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎร or ส.ส.). The membership of the House of Representatives commenced on election day. If there was a vacancy in the membership of the House, and it was not due to expiration or dissolution, it had to be re-occupied. Vacancies could occur due to death, resignation, conviction and/or expulsion (only by a parliamentary party through a 3/4 majority vote). If the vacancy was of a constituency member then an election had to be held within forty days of the vacancy, unless it was less than 180 days of the present term of the House, then the vacancy could remain.

In the case where the vacancy was made by a proportional representative member, the vacancy would be filled by the Speaker of the House of Representatives by submitting the name of the next candidate in the party list (submitted on election day) to be published in the Royal Gazette. This had to be done within seven days. If no name was found then the vacancy could remain unfilled. Members of the House who had filled a vacancy under either of these procedures could only remain in the House for the remainder of its present term.


Presiding officersEdit

The executive committee of House of Representatives consisted of one speaker and two deputy speakers to be its presiding officers. The Speaker of the House was also the ex officio President of the National Assembly of Thailand. The election was done by a secret ballot in the first session; after a resolution was passed; the elected would be formally approved by the King. The Speaker and Deputy Speakers of the House could not be members of the cabinet or any political party executive committee. The speaker and his deputies were not entitled to represent partisan interests and had to exercise their powers on a non-partisan basis.

Leader of the Governing CoalitionEdit

The Constitution stipulated that the Prime Minister and the Ministers had to be former members of the House of Representatives. After the first session, the House had to vote in a resolution to elect a Prime Minister, after which the King would formally approve him within thirty days. The Prime Minister-elect was always the leader of the largest party in the House. However, under the electoral system, the House resulted in a hung parliament. After the 2007 election, six parties formed a governing coalition, electing Samak Sundaravej of the largest party, People's Power Party (PPP), the Prime Minister.

On August 5, 2011, the House elected Yingluck Shinawatra as Prime Minister against Abhisit Vejjajiva of the Democrat Party, to a vote of 265 for and 159 against.

Leader of the OppositionEdit

After the appointment of the Cabinet, the King appointed the official Leader of the Opposition of Thailand. The Leader of the Opposition had to be the leader of the largest party with no members holding any ministerial positions. His party had to be larger than one fifth of the total number of the House. If no Party met this qualification then the Leader with most votes from parties with no ministerial positions would then be appointed. The Royal appointment had to be countersigned by the President of the National Assembly. The Leader of the Opposition led the Shadow Cabinet of Thailand.

Latest election resultEdit

Palang Pracharath Party8,433,13723.349719116
Pheu Thai Party7,920,63021.921360136
Future Forward Party6,265,95017.34315081
Democrat Party3,947,72610.92332053
Bhumjaithai Party3,732,88310.33391251
Thai Liberal Party826,5302.2901010
Chartthaipattana Party782,0312.166410
New Economics Party485,6641.34066
Prachachart Party485,4361.34617
Puea Chat Party419,3931.16055
Action Coalition for Thailand416,3241.15145
Chart Pattana Party252,0440.70123
Thai Local Power Party213,1290.59033
Thai Forest Conservation Party136,5970.38022
Thai People Power Party81,7330.23011
Thai Nation Power Party73,8710.20011
People Progressive Party69,4170.19011
Palang Thai Rak Thai Party60,8400.17011
Thai Civilized Party60,4210.17011
Prachaniyom Party56,6170.16011
Thai Teachers for People Party56,3390.16011
Thai People Justice Party47,8480.13011
People Reform Party45,5080.13011
Thai Citizens Power Party44,7660.12011
New Democracy Party39,7920.11011
New Palangdharma Party35,5330.10011
Thairaktham Party33,7480.09000
Puea Pandin Party31,3070.09000
New Alternative Party29,6070.08000
Paradonphab Party27,7990.08000
Democratic Force Party26,6170.07000
Pheu Khon Thai Party26,5980.07000
Thai Power Builds the Nation Party23,0590.06000
Green Party22,6620.06000
Land of Dharma Party21,4630.06000
Mahachon Party17,8670.05000
Social Power Party17,6830.05000
The Farmer Network of Thailand Party17,6640.05000
Thaen Khun Phaendin Party17,1120.05000
Siam Development Party16,8390.05000
Phuea Tham Party15,3650.04000
Ruam Jai Thai Party13,4570.04000
Klong Thai Party12,9460.04000
Phung Luang Party12,5760.03000
Thai Network Party12,2680.03000
Thai Citizen Party11,8390.03000
Thai Population Party11,0430.03000
Thai Ethnic Party9,7570.03000
Palang Thai Rak Chart Party9,6850.03000
Power of Faith Party9,5610.03000
New Aspiration Party9,0740.03000
Phuea Thai Pattana Party8,0950.02000
Thinkakhao Party6,7990.02000
Thai Teacher Power Party6,3980.02000
Thai Morality Party5,9420.02000
Glang Party5,4470.02000
Thai Social Democratic Party5,3340.01000
Commoners' Party5,3210.01000
Foundational Party4,7860.01000
Powerful Love Party4,6240.01000
Palang Pandinthong Party4,5680.01000
Thai Rung Rueng Party4,2370.01000
Bhumphalangkasettrakonthai Party3,5350.01000
Rak Thong Thin Thai3,2540.01000
Thai Power Labour Party2,9510.01000
Commoner Party of Thailand2,3530.01000
Thai Dee Power Party2,5360.01000
Cooperative Power Party2,3430.01000
Phue Cheevitmai Party1,5950.00000
Thailand Development Party1,0790.00000
Phue Sahagon Thai Party9050.00000
People Vote Party7910.00000
Thai Rubber Party6100.00000
Democracy for People Party5620.00000
Raks Tham4460.00000
Kasikornthai Party1830.00000
Thai Future Party1980.00000
None of the above605,3921.68
Valid votes36,138,03994.43
Invalid/blank votes2,130,3275.57
Total votes38,268,366100.00
Registered voters/turnout51,239,63874.69
Source: Election Commission[5][6][7]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Kendall, Dave (2019-01-06). "Explainer: New rules for the House of Representatives". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  2. ^ Sopchokchai, Orapin. Female Members of Parliament, Women's Political Participation at the National Level Archived 2011-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Women's Political Participation in Thailand, TDRI Quarterly Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, December 1998, pp. 11–20
  3. ^ Iwanaga, Kazuki. Women in Politics in Thailand Archived 2012-03-17 at the Wayback Machine, Working Paper No. 14, Centre for East and South-East Asian Studies, Lund University, Sweden, 2005
  4. ^ "ECT report".
  5. ^ Election Commission (8 May 2019). "กกต.ประกาศผลการเลือกตั้งสมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎรแบบบัญชีรายชื่อ" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  6. ^ Election Commission (28 May 2019). "หลักเกณฑ์และวิธีการคำนวณ ส.ส. แบบบัญชีรายชื่อ (ประกาศครั้งที่ 2 ข้อมูล ณ วันที่ 28 พฤษภาคม 2562)" (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  7. ^ Election Commission (28 March 2019). "article_20190328165029" (PDF). Retrieved 30 March 2019.

External linksEdit