Jaunpur (Hindustani pronunciation: [dʒɔːnpʊr] (listen)) is a city and a municipal board in Jaunpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 228 km southeast of state capital Lucknow. Demographically, Jaunpur resembles the rest of the Purvanchal area in which it is located.
|Coordinates: 25°44′N 82°41′E / 25.73°N 82.68°E|
|• Member of Parliament||Shyam Singh Yadav (BSP)|
|Elevation||82 m (269 ft)|
|• Density||1,113/km2 (2,880/sq mi)|
|• Additional official||Urdu|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Sex ratio||925 females per 1000 males ♂/♀|
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Earlier the Jaunpur district was ruled by the Bhar community, historically known as Sultan, having its historical dates from 1359, when the city was founded by the Sultan of Delhi Feroz Shah Tughlaq and named in memory of his cousin, Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose given name was Jauna Khan. In 1388, Feroz Shah Tughlaq appointed Malik Sarwar, a eunuch, who is notorious for having been the lover of Feroz Shah Tughlaq's daughter, as the governor of the region. The Sultanate was in disarray because of factional fighting for power, and in 1393 Malik Sarwar declared independence. He and his adopted son Mubarak Shah founded what came to be known as the Sharqi dynasty (dynasty of the East). During the Sharqi period the Jaunpur Sultanate was a strong military power in Northern India, and on several occasions threatened the Delhi Sultanate.
The Jaunpur Sultanate attained its greatest height under the younger brother of Mubarak Shah, who ruled as Shams-ud-din Ibrahim Shah (ruled 1402–1440). To the east, his kingdom extended to Bihar, and to the west, to Kanauj; he even marched on Delhi at one point. Under the aegis of a Muslim holy man named Qutb al-Alam, he threatened the Sultanate of Bengal under Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah.: 343
During the reign of Husain Shah (1456–76), the Jaunpur army was perhaps the biggest in India, and Husain decided to attempt a conquest of Delhi. However, he was defeated on three successive attempts by Bahlul Khan Lodi. It is a dominant trend in modern historiography of the period that this defeat was a cause of a large number of eunuchs in the military ranks. Finally, under Sikandar Lodi, the Delhi Sultanate was able to reconquer Jaunpur in 1493, bringing that sultanate to an end.
The Jaunpur Sultanate was a major center of Urdu and Sufi knowledge and culture. The Sharqi dynasty was known for its excellent communal relations between Muslims and Hindus, perhaps stemming from the fact that the Sharqis themselves were originally indigenous converts to Islam, as opposed to descendants of Persians or Afghans. Jaunpur's independence came to an end in 1480, when the city was conquered by Sikander Lodi, the Sultan of Delhi. The Sharqi kings attempted for several years to retake the city, but ultimately failed.
Although many of the Sharqi monuments were destroyed when the Lodis took the city, several important mosques remain, most notably the Atala Masjid, Jama Masjid (now known as the Badi (big mosque) Masjid) and the Lal Darwaza Masjid. The Jaunpur mosques display a unique architectural style, combining traditional Hindu and Muslim motifs with purely original elements. The old bridge over the Gomti River in Jaunpur dates from 1564, the era of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. The bridge is still being used for transportation. The Jaunpur Qila, a fortress from the Tughlaq era, also remains in good form.
Jaunpur district was annexed into British India based on the Permanent settlement of 1779, and thus was subject to the Zamindari system of land revenue collection.
During the Revolt of 1857 the Sikh troops in Jaunpur joined the Indian rebels. The district was eventually reconquered for the British by Gurkha troops from Nepal. Jaunpur then became a district administrative center.
Jaunpur is the district headquarters. The district has 2 Lok Sabha and 9 Vidhan Sabha constituencies.
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Gomti, Sai, Varuna, Pili Nadi ('yellow rivulet' or 'river'), Mayur and Basuhi are the five rivers which make its land fertile.
As per 2011 Indian Census, Jaunpur NPP had population of 180,362 of which male and female were 93,718 and 86,644 respectively, that is a sex ratio of 1024 females per 1000 males. Child population in the age range of 0–6 years was 22,710. The total number of literates in Jaunpur was 128,050, which constituted 71% of the population with male literacy of 75.2% and female literacy of 66.5%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Jaunpur was 81.2%, of which male literacy rate was 86.1% and female literacy rate was 75.9%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 12,703 and 195 respectively. There were 26216 households as of 2011.
GSG, GS Green Enterprise Katehari-Leduka Jaunpur was established in March 2017 by the Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, under U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976 to facilitate concentrated effort on Industrial development of eastern Uttar Pradesh.
In its 1st phase of activity, the authority has a fully developed growth center area on 10 acres of land, under growth center scheme of Govt. of India. Hawkins Cookers Limited company has one of the three manufacturing plants in India at Jaunpur to manufacture pressure cookers and cookware.
Satharia Industrial Development Authority was established in November 1989 by the Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, under U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976 to facilitate concentrated effort on Industrial development of eastern Uttar Pradesh.
Sidhwan-Rampur Industrial Development Authority has now setting its base in Rampur Nirvachan Kshetra on Jaunpur-Bhadohi Road in Mariyahu tehsil.
In its 1st phase of activity, the authority has a fully developed growth center area on 508 acres of land, under a growth center scheme of Govt. of India.
Virtually all kinds of industrial, commercial and social infrastructural facilities, such as medical, educational, residential, roads, transportation, drainage, telecommunication, dedicated industrial power 33/11 KV supply, post office, bank, water supply, community center, shopping center, and field hostel have been fully established and are operative.
Under One District, One Product (ODOP) Scheme 2018 of the UP Govt., perfume and carpet industry have been selected for Jaunpur district.
There are a number of tourist attractions in Jaunpur including monuments, and holy places.
Jaunpur is well-connected with all major cities of India thanks to Indian Railways. It has four major railway stations: Jaunpur City Railway Station(JOP) and Jaunpur Junction (JNU), Shahganj Junction (SHG), Janghai Junction, Kerakat railway station (KCT). Zafarabad (ZBD) also a railway station where's many train routes are diverted i.e., Allahababd, Varanasi, Lucknow Via Sultanpur, Lucknow via Shahganj, Ghazipur via Jaunpur junction.
Jaunpur is well-connected to Lucknow, Gorakhpur, Varanasi, Allahabad and other cities like Azamgarh, Mirzapur, Janghai, Sultanpur, Kerakat, Ghazipur etc. Mariahu NH-56, SH-36 are the roadways connecting all major cities to Jaunpur.Jaunpur to Babatpur NH-56 is now 4-lane highway.
On 20 December 2021 Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Yogi Adityanath and Minister for Road Transport & Highways Nitin Gadkari announced new highways worth ₹1500 crore that are currently under construction. They are:
- Jaunpur-Mariyahu-Bhadohi, 38 kilometres (24 mi)
- Machlishahr-Janghai-Bhadohi, 48 kilometres (30 mi)
- Janghai-Bhadohi Greenfield Bypass, 36 kilometres (22 mi)
The nearest airport is Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport in Varanasi, which is roughly 39 km (24 mi) from the city. The other nearest airport to Jaunpur is in Prayagraj which is roughly 142 km (88 mi) away. An airport was planned to be built near Pali village of Mariyahu Tehsil in 2018 which was later cancelled.
- Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, formerly Purvanchal University, is in Jaunpur. It was established in 1987 as a residential-cum-affiliating university and is named after Vir Bahadur Singh, former chief minister of Uttar Pradesh.
- Umanath Singh Autonomous State Medical Collage (UNS ASMC), in Siddiqpur has also been inaugurated by Prime Minister under One District One medical college during late 2021.
- Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, 21 km south from the district headquarters on Lumbini - Duddhi Road in Katghara Village near Mariahu Tehsil.
- Prasad Institute of Technology, affiliated to Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University
- Tilak Dhari Singh Post Graduate Degree College, is in heart of the Sadar tehsil. It has stadium, parking and auditorium facilities as well.
Mostly all major English, Hindi and Urdu dailies including Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Hindustan, Rashtreey Sahara, Inquilab, Hausla News available in Jaunpur. Hindi and Urdu dailies also have their bureaus in the city. Almost all major Hindi TV news channel have stringers in the city. A Hindi newspaper Tarunmitra is also published from Jaunpur. The city also catches Radio FM waves from neighboring city Varanasi they are:
- RED FM 93.5
- Radio Mirchi 98.3
- Big FM 92.7
- Vividh Bharti 100.6
- Hasan Abidi
- Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay
- Munna Bajrangi
- Ashok Bhushan
- Yadavendra Dutt Dubey
- Syed Wazir Hasan
- Majid Ali Jaunpuri, Islamic scholar
- Muhammad Jaunpuri
- Ravi Kishan
- Ashish Dixit
- Shailendra Yadav Lalai
- Mohammad Akram Nadwi, Islamic scholar
- Dinesh Kunwar Patel
- Sushma Patel
- Tribhuvan Ram
- Jawahar Yadav, pandit
- Dhananjay Singh
- Harivansh Singh
- Indu Prakash Singh
- Justice Surendra Kumar Yadav, judge
- Lalji Singh
- Shakeel Ahmed Samdani
- Jagdish Sonkar
- Rajesh Vivek
- Girish Chandra Yadav
- Jagmohan Yadav, former Director general of police of Uttar Pradesh Police
- ^ a b "Census of India: Jaunpur (NPP)". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- ^ a b "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- ^ Linguistic Survey of India (Volume 5, Issue 2 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. 1968.
- ^ a b Goron, Stan; Goenka, J. P. (2001). The coins of the Indian sultanates: Covering the area of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 978-8121510103.
- ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 98. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
- ^ "View at Jaunpur, on the River Ganges". Wesleyan Juvenile Offering. IV: 60. June 1847. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- ^ State Water Resources Agency (September 2019). Gomti Basin Plan (PDF). Development of River Basin Assessment and Plans for All Major River Basins in Uttar Pradesh. Vol. 1. Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 8 April 2023.
- ^ "Industrial Development Authority finds 50-acre land in Jaunpur unsuitable". The Times of India. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
- ^ "About SIDA". sidajaunpur.com. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- ^ "Perfume industry of Jaunpur bottomed out, will rise again: Rita Bahuguna". United News of India. 1 April 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- ^ Sood, Jyotika (6 November 2018). "In the poll year, all roads in eastern Uttar Pradesh lead to Varanasi". Mint. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- ^ "VIDEO: Yogi Adityanath and Nitin Gadkari on Jaunpur tour today, to present new projects worth 1500 Crore". India TV News. 20 December 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
- ^ "Medical College". District Jaunpur, Government of Uttar Pradesh - India. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
- ^ Siddiqui, Faiz Rahman (7 March 2017). "UP elections 2017: With 47 IAS officers to boast of, this village rues lack of development". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
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