A request that this article title be changed to LGBTQ is under discussion. Please do not move this article until the discussion is closed.
LGBT is an initialism that stands for "lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender." In use since the 1990s, the initialism, as well as some of its common variants, functions as an umbrella term for certain sexualities and gender identities.
The term LGBT is an adaptation of the initialism LGB, which began to replace the term gay (or gay and lesbian) in reference to the broader LGBT community beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s. When not inclusive of transgender people, the shorter term LGB is still used instead of LGBT.
It may refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or non-cisgender, instead of exclusively to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant, LGBTQ, adds the letter Q for those who identify as queer or are questioning their sexual or gender identity. The initialisms LGBT or GLBT are not agreed to by everyone that they are supposed to include.
History of the term
The first widely used term, homosexual, now a term used primarily in scientific contexts, has at times carried negative connotations in the United States. Gay became a popular term in the 1970s.
As lesbians forged more public identities, the phrase gay and lesbian became more common. A dispute as to whether the primary focus of their political aims should be feminism or gay rights led to the dissolution of some lesbian organizations, including Daughters of Bilitis, which was founded by Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon, but disbanded in 1970 following disputes over which goal should take precedence. As equality was a priority for lesbian feminists, disparity of roles between men and women or butch and femme were viewed as patriarchal. Lesbian feminists eschewed gender role play that had been pervasive in bars as well as the perceived chauvinism of gay men; many lesbian feminists refused to work with gay men or take up their causes.
Lesbians who held the essentialist view that they had been born homosexual and used the descriptor lesbian to define sexual attraction often considered the separatist opinions of lesbian-feminists to be detrimental to the cause of gay rights. Bisexual and transgender people also sought recognition as legitimate categories within the larger minority community.
In the late 1970s and the early 1980s, after the elation of change following group action in the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, some gays and lesbians became less accepting of bisexual or transgender people. Critics[like whom?] said that transgender people were acting out stereotypes, and bisexuals were simply gay men or lesbian women who were afraid to come out and be honest about their identity. Each community has struggled to develop its own identity including whether, and how, to align with other gender and sexuality-based communities, at times excluding other subgroups; these conflicts continue to this day. LGBTQ activists and artists have created posters to raise consciousness about the issue since the movement began.
From about 1988, activists began to use the initialism LGBT in the United States. Not until the 1990s within the movement did gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people gain equal respect. This spurred some organizations to adopt new names, as the GLBT Historical Society did in 1999. Although the LGBT community has seen much controversy regarding universal acceptance of different member groups (bisexual and transgender individuals, in particular, have sometimes been marginalized by the larger LGBT community), the term LGBT has been a positive symbol of inclusion.
Despite the fact that LGBT does not nominally encompass all individuals in smaller communities (see Variants below), the term is generally accepted to include those not specifically identified in the four-letter initialism. Overall, the use of the term LGBT has, over time, largely aided in bringing otherwise marginalized individuals into the general community. Transgender actress Candis Cayne, in 2009, described the LGBT community as "the last great minority", noting that "we can still be harassed openly" and be "called out on television".
In 2016, GLAAD's Media Reference Guide states that LGBTQ is the preferred initialism, being more inclusive of younger members of the communities who embrace queer as a self-descriptor. Some people consider queer to be a derogatory term originating in hate speech and reject it, especially among older members of the community.
Many variants exist including variations that change the order of the letters, including LGBT+. At least some of the components of sexuality (regarding hetero, bi, straight), and also gender are stated to be on different spectrums of sexuality Other common variants also exist, such as LGBTQIA, with the A standing for asexual, aromantic, or agender, and LGBTQIA+, where "[t]he '+' represents those who are part of the community, but for whom LGBTQ does not accurately capture or reflect their identity." Longer initialisms have prompted criticism for their length, sometimes being referred to as "alphabet soup", and the implication that the initialism refers to a single community is also controversial.
Although identical in meaning, LGBT may have a more feminist connotation than GLBT as it places the "L" (for "lesbian") first. LGBT may also include additional Qs for "queer" or "questioning" (sometimes abbreviated with a question mark and sometimes used to mean anybody not literally L, G, B or T) producing the variants LGBTQ and LGBTQQ. The order of the letters has not been standardized; in addition to the variations between the positions of the initial "L" or "G", the mentioned, less common letters, if used, may appear in almost any order. In Spain, LGTB is used, that is, reversing the letters "B" and "T". Variant terms do not typically represent political differences within the community, but arise simply from the preferences of individuals and groups.
The terms pansexual, omnisexual, fluid and queer-identified are regarded as falling under the umbrella term bisexual (and therefore are considered a part of the bisexual community). Some use LGBT+ to mean "LGBT and related communities". Other variants may have a "U" for "unsure"; a "C" for "curious"; another "T" for "transvestite"; a "TS", or "2" for "two-spirit" persons; or an "SA" for "straight allies". The inclusion of straight allies in the LGBT initialism has proven controversial, as many straight allies have been accused of using LGBT advocacy to gain popularity and status in recent years, and various LGBT activists have criticised the heteronormative worldview of certain straight allies. Some may also add a "P" for "polyamorous", an "H" for "HIV-affected", or an "O" for "other". The initialism LGBTIH has seen use in India to encompass the hijra third gender identity and the related subculture.
Adding the term allies to the initialism has sparked controversy, with some seeing the inclusion of ally in place of asexual/aromantic/agender as a form of LGBT erasure. There is also the acronym QUILTBAG (queer and questioning, unsure, intersex, lesbian, transgender and two-spirit, bisexual, asexual and aromantic, and gay and genderqueer). Similarly LGBTIQA+ stands for "lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer/questioning, asexual and many other terms (such as non-binary and pansexual)".
In Canada, the community is sometimes identified as LGBTQ2 (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and two spirit). Depending on which organization is using the abbreviation, the choice of initialism changes. Businesses and the CBC often simply employ LGBT as a proxy for any longer abbreviation, private activist groups often employ LGBTQ+, whereas public health providers favour the more inclusive LGBT2Q+ to accommodate twin spirited indigenous peoples. For a time, the Pride Toronto organization used the much lengthier initialism LGBTTIQQ2SA, but appears to have dropped this in favour of simpler wording. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was also criticized for using the 2SLGBTQQIA+ initialism.
The term trans* has been adopted by some groups as a more inclusive alternative to "transgender", where trans (without the asterisk) has been used to describe trans men and trans women, while trans* covers all non-cisgender (genderqueer) identities, including transgender, transsexual, transvestite, genderqueer, genderfluid, non-binary, genderfuck, genderless, agender, non-gendered, third gender, two-spirit, bigender, and trans man and trans woman. Likewise, the term transsexual commonly falls under the umbrella term transgender, but some transsexual people object to this.
Those who add intersex people to LGBT groups or organizations may use the extended initialism LGBTI, or LGBTIQ.
The relationship of intersex to lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans, and queer communities is complex, but intersex people are often added to the LGBT category to create an LGBTI community. Some intersex people prefer the initialism LGBTI, while others would rather that they not be included as part of the term. Emi Koyama describes how inclusion of intersex in LGBTI can fail to address intersex-specific human rights issues, including creating false impressions "that intersex people's rights are protected" by laws protecting LGBT people, and failing to acknowledge that many intersex people are not LGBT. Organisation Intersex International Australia states that some intersex individuals are same-sex attracted, and some are heterosexual, but "LGBTI activism has fought for the rights of people who fall outside of expected binary sex and gender norms." Julius Kaggwa of SIPD Uganda has written that, while the gay community "offers us a place of relative safety, it is also oblivious to our specific needs."
Numerous studies have shown higher rates of same-sex attraction in intersex people, with a recent Australian study of people born with atypical sex characteristics finding that 52% of respondents were non-heterosexual; thus, research on intersex subjects has been used to explore means of preventing homosexuality. As an experience of being born with sex characteristics that do not fit social norms, intersex can be distinguished from transgender, while some intersex people are both intersex and transgender.
Asexual, aromantic and agender inclusion
In the early 2010s, asexuality and aromanticism started gaining wider recognition. Around 2015, they were started to be included in the expanded initialism LGBTQIA, with the A standing for asexual, aromantic, commonly grouped together as a-spec along with agender.
Some people have mistakenly claimed the A stands for ally, but allies are not a marginalized group and mentions of A for ally have regularly sparked controversy as a form of LGBT erasure.
Criticism of the term
The initialisms LGBT or GLBT are not agreed to by everyone that they encompass. For example, some argue that transgender and transsexual causes are not the same as that of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people. This argument centers on the idea that being transgender or transsexual has to do more with gender identity, or a person's understanding of being or not being a man or a woman irrespective of their sexual orientation. LGB issues can be seen as a matter of sexual orientation or attraction. These distinctions have been made in the context of political action in which LGB goals, such as same-sex marriage legislation and human rights work (which may not include transgender and intersex people), may be perceived to differ from transgender and transsexual goals.
A belief in "lesbian and gay separatism" (not to be confused with the related "lesbian separatism"), holds that lesbians and gay men form (or should form) a community distinct and separate from other groups normally included in the LGBTQ sphere. While not always appearing of sufficient number or organization to be called a movement, separatists are a significant, vocal, and active element within many parts of the LGBT community. In some cases separatists will deny the existence or right to equality of bisexual orientations and of transsexuality, sometimes leading public biphobia and transphobia. In contrasts to separatists, Peter Tatchell of the LGBT human rights group OutRage! argues that to separate the transgender movement from the LGB would be "political madness", stating that:
Queers are, like transgender people, gender deviant. We don't conform to traditional heterosexist assumptions of male and female behaviour, in that we have sexual and emotional relationships with the same sex. We should celebrate our discordance with mainstream straight norms.
The portrayal of an all-encompassing "LGBT community" or "LGB community" is also disliked by some lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. Some do not subscribe to or approve of the political and social solidarity, and visibility and human rights campaigning that normally goes with it, including LGBT pride marches and events. Some of them believe that grouping together people with non-heterosexual orientations perpetuates the myth that being gay/lesbian/bi/asexual/pansexual/etc. makes a person deficiently different from other people. These people are often less visible compared to more mainstream gay or LGBT activists. Since this faction is difficult to distinguish from the heterosexual majority, it is common for people to assume all LGBT people support LGBT liberation and the visibility of LGBT people in society, including the right to live one's life differently from the majority. In the 1996 book Anti-Gay, a collection of essays edited by Mark Simpson, the concept of a 'one-size-fits-all' identity based on LGBT stereotypes is criticized for suppressing the individuality of LGBT people.
Writing in the BBC News Magazine in 2014, Julie Bindel questions whether the various gender groupings now, "bracketed together[,] ... share the same issues, values and goals?" Bindel refers to a number of possible new initialisms for differing combinations and concludes that it may be time for the alliances to either be reformed or go their "separate ways." In 2015, the slogan "Drop the T" was coined to encourage LGBT organizations to stop support of transgender people; the campaign has been widely condemned by many LGBT groups as transphobic.
Many people have looked for a generic term to replace the numerous existing initialisms. Words such as queer (an umbrella term for sexual and gender minorities) and rainbow have been tried, but most have not been widely adopted. Queer has many negative connotations to older people who remember the word as a taunt and insult, and such (negative) usage of the term continues. Many younger people also understand queer to be more politically charged than LGBT.
SGM, or GSM, an abbreviation for sexual and gender minorities, has gained particular currency in government, academia, and medicine. It has been adopted by the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the UCLA Williams Institute, which studies SGM law and policy. Duke University and the University of California San Francisco both have prominent sexual and gender minority health programs. An NIH paper recommends the term SGM because it is inclusive of "those who may not self-identify as LGBT … or those who have a specific medical condition affecting reproductive development." A publication from the White House Office of Management and Budget states, "We believe that SGM is more inclusive, because it includes persons not specifically referenced by the identities listed in LGBT," and a UK government paper favors SGM because initials like LGBTIQ+ stand for terms that, especially outside the Global North, are "not necessarily inclusive of local understandings and terms used to describe sexual and gender minorities." An example of usage outside the Global North is the Constitution of Nepal, which identifies "gender and sexual minorities" as a protected class. GSRM is also used to include romantic minorities such as aromanticism.
Rainbow has connotations that recall hippies, New Age movements, and groups such as the Rainbow Family or Jesse Jackson's Rainbow/PUSH Coalition. SGL (same gender loving) is sometimes favored among gay male African Americans as a way of distinguishing themselves from what they regard as white-dominated LGBT communities.
Further umbrella terms
In Canada especially, the term 2SLGBTQ+ is seen, with the first two characters standing for Two-spirit; the whole term stands for two-spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer and questioning, and is intended as a term encompassing all sexual- and gender-minorities. For some indigenous people, two-spirit invokes a combination of identities, including sexual, gender, cultural, and spiritual.
Some people advocate the term "minority sexual and gender identities" (MSGI, coined in 2000) for the purpose of explicitly including all people who are not cisgender and heterosexual or "gender, sexual, and romantic minorities" (GSRM), which is more explicitly inclusive of minority romantic orientations and polyamory, but those have not been widely adopted either. Other rare umbrella terms are Gender and Sexual Diversities (GSD), MOGII (Marginalized Orientations, Gender Identities, and Intersex) and MOGAI (Marginalized Orientations, Gender Alignments and Intersex).
In public health settings, MSM ("men who have sex with men") is clinically used to describe men who have sex with other men without referring to their sexual orientation, with WSW ("women who have sex with women") also used as an analogous term.
MVPFAFF is an abbreviation for Māhū, Vakasalewa, Palopa, Fa'afafine, Akava'ine, Fakaleitī (Leiti), and Fakafifine. This term was developed by Phylesha Brown-Acton in 2010 at the Asia Pacific Games Human Rights Conference. This refers to those in the rainbow Pasifika community that may or may not identify with the LGBT initialism.
- ^ Parent, Mike C.; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie (June 2013). "Approaches to Research on Intersectionality: Perspectives on Gender, LGBT, and Racial/Ethnic Identities". Sex Roles. 68 (11–12): 639–645. doi:10.1007/s11199-013-0283-2. S2CID 144285021.
- ^ Acronyms, Initialisms & Abbreviations Dictionary, Volume 1, Part 1. Gale Research Co., 1985, ISBN 978-0-8103-0683-7. Factsheet five, Issues 32–36, Mike Gunderloy, 1989 Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Alexander, Jonathan; Yescavage, Karen (2003). Bisexuality and Transgenderism: InterSEXions of The Others. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-287-2. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Bohan, Janis S. (1996). Psychology and Sexual Orientation: Coming to Terms. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91514-4. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ a b c d Shankle, Michael D. (2006). The Handbook of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Public Health: A Practitioner's Guide To Service. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-496-8. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ "Civilities, What does the acronym LGBTQ stand for?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- ^ a b c Finnegan, Dana G.; McNally, Emily B. (2002). Counseling Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Substance Abusers: Dual Identities. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-925-3.
- ^ Julia Goicichea (16 August 2017). "Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers". The Culture Trip. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- ^ Eli Rosenberg (24 June 2016). "Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- ^ "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- ^ Cahill, Sean, and Bryan Kim-Butler. "Policy priorities for the LGBT community: Pride Survey 2006." New York, NY: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (2006).
- ^ Media Reference Guide Archived 27 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine (citing AP, Washington Post style guides), GLAAD. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
- ^ Ross, E. Wayne (2006). The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6909-5. Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ a b Swain, Keith W. (21 June 2007). "Gay Pride Needs New Direction". Denver Post. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- ^ Sears, James Thomas (2001). Rebels, Rubyfruit, and Rhinestones: Queering Space in the Stonewall South - James Thomas Sears - Google Books. ISBN 9780813529646. Archived from the original on 14 May 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
- ^ Esterberg, Kristen (1994). "From Accommodation to Liberation: A Social Movement Analysis of Lesbians in the Homophile Movement". Gender and Society. 8 (3): 424–443. doi:10.1177/089124394008003008. S2CID 144795512.
- ^ Faderman, Lillian (1991). Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth Century America, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017122-3, p. 210–211.
- ^ Faderman (1991), p. 217–218.
- ^ a b Leli, Ubaldo; Drescher, Jack (2005). Transgender Subjectivities: A Clinician's Guide. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-0-7890-2576-0. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ "Out of the Closet and Into the Streets". Center for the Study of Political Graphics. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- ^ Research, policy and practice: Annual meeting Archived 19 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine, American Educational Research Association Verlag AERA, 1988.
- ^ Koskovich, Gerard. "Our History". The GLBT Historical Society. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
- ^ "I Advocate...". The Advocate. Issue #1024. March 2009. p. 80.
- ^ Ring, Trudy (26 October 2016). "Expanding the Acronym: GLAAD Adds the Q to LGBT". Advocate. Archived from the original on 14 May 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- ^ Nadal, Kevin (15 April 2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. p. 1384. ISBN 978-1-4833-8427-6. OCLC 994139871. Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- ^ "Marcha del Orgullo LGBTIQ" (in Spanish). Comisión Organizadora de la Marcha (C.O.M.O). Archived from the original on 8 October 2002. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- ^ "LGBT+ mental health". LGBT+ mental health. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ a b Vikhrov, Natalie (26 April 2019). "Armenia's LGBT+ community still waits for change one year after revolution". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- ^ Merriam-Webster. "LGBTQIA". Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
Definition of LGBTQIA: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning (one's sexual or gender identity), intersex, and asexual/aromantic/agender
- ^ a b c "A is for Asexual, Agender, Aromantic". glaad. 11 February 2015. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 28 March 2023.
- ^ a b Kuykendall, Emily (20 June 2016). "What the A in LGBTQIA+ Stands For". Buddy Project. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
The A in LGBTQIA+ stands for asexual, aromantic, and agender ... .
- ^ "LGBTQIA+". www.uncw.edu. Archived from the original on 31 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
- ^ "The new rainbow pride flag is a design disaster—but a triumph for LGBTQ inclusiveness". Quartz. 12 June 2018. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- ^ "Coming to terms with terms". www.oakpark.com. 24 September 2019. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
- ^ Oli (4 December 2019). "The challenge of generosity". Oliver Arditi. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
- ^ DeMarco, Linda; Bruni, Sylvain (18 July 2012) [1st pub. 18 May 2012]. "No More Alphabet Soup". The Huffington Post. 1527958. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015.
- ^ Bloodsworth-Lugo, Mary K. (2007). In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7221-7. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Alder, Christine; Worrall, Anne (2004). Girls' Violence: Myths and Realities. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6110-5. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Cherland, Meredith Rogers; Harper, Helen J. (2007). Advocacy Research in Literacy Education: Seeking Higher Ground. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8058-5056-7. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ "LGTB, en mayúsculas". 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 19 December 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
- ^ Brown, Catrina; Augusta-Scott, Tod (2006). Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives. Sage Publications Inc. ISBN 978-1-4129-0988-4. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Lebaron, Sarah; Pecsenye, Jessica; Roland, Becerra; Skindzier, Jon (2005). Oberlin College: Oberlin, Ohio. College Prowler, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59658-092-3. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Chen, Edith Wen-Chu; Omatsu, Glenn (2006). Teaching about Asian Pacific Americans: Effective Activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Communities (Critical Perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-5338-5. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Babb, Florence E. (2001). After Revolution: Mapping Gender and Cultural Politics in Neoliberal Nicaragua. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-70900-3.
- ^ Padilla, Yolanda C. (2003). Gay and Lesbian Rights Organizing: Community-based Strategies. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-275-9. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Swigonski, Mary E.; Mama, Robin S.; Ward, Kelly; Shepard, Matthew (2001). From Hate Crimes to Human Rights: A Tribute to Matthew Shepard. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-257-5. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Becker, Ron (2006). "Gay-Themed Television and the Slumpy Class: The Affordable, Multicultural Politics of the Gay Nineties". Television & New Media. 7 (2): 184–215. doi:10.1177/1527476403255830. ISSN 1527-4764. S2CID 145717408.
- ^ DeTurk, Sara (2011). "Allies in Action: The Communicative Experiences of People Who Challenge Social Injustice on Behalf of Others". Communication Quarterly. 59 (5): 569–590. doi:10.1080/01463373.2011.614209. ISSN 0146-3373.
- ^ O'Rourke, P. J. (2001). Peace Kills: America's Fun New Imperialism. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4198-9. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Gurjar, Kaumudi. "Maiden stage act by city's LGBT face gets censor's chop". punemirror.in. Pune Mirror. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- ^ McCusker, Ros. "Gay Leeds — Your comprehensive guide to all things gay in Leeds". gayleeds.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- ^ a b Kelly, Morgan. "Adding 'allies' to LGBT acronym sparks controversy". iowastatedaily.com. Iowa State Daily. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- ^ a b "Why People Are Upset About Equinox Gym's Pride Video". Bustle. 8 June 2017. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2023.
- ^ "Why the A doesn't stand for Ally". 19 May 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 28 March 2023.
- ^ Richard, Katherine. "Column: "A" stands for asexuals and not allies". loyolamaroon.com. The Maroon. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
That "A" is not for allies[,] [t]hat "A" is for asexuals. [...] Much like bisexuality, asexuality suffers from erasure.
- ^ "Reaching into the QUILTBAG: The Evolving World of Queer Speculative Fiction". Apex Magazine. 6 March 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- ^ University, La Trobe. "What does LGBTIQA+ mean". www.latrobe.edu.au. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- ^ "LGBTIQA+ glossary of common terms". aifs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 9 December 2022. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
- ^ "Government of Canada initiatives to support LGBTQ2 communities and promote diversity and inclusion". JUSTIN TRUDEAU, PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA. 28 November 2017. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- ^ "Rainbow Refugee". Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- ^ "LGBT2Q+". www.vch.ca. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- ^ Szklarski, Cassandra (2 July 2016). "Is it time to drop LGBTQ's 'infinitely expanding alphabet' for something simpler? | CBC News". CBC. CBC. Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- ^ "Justin Trudeau Mocked After Using 2SLGBTQQIA Acronym". Archived from the original on 14 June 2022. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
- ^ Ryan, Hugh (10 January 2014). "What Does Trans* Mean, and Where Did It Come From?'". Slate. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- ^ "Glossary of Transgender Terms". Vaden Health Center Stanford University. 14 February 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- ^ William L. Maurice, Marjorie A. Bowman, Sexual medicine in primary care Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Mosby Year Book, 1999, ISBN 978-0-8151-2797-0
- ^ a b Aragon, Angela Pattatuchi (2006). Challenging Lesbian Norms: Intersex, Transgender, Intersectional, and Queer Perspectives. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-645-0. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- ^ Siddharta, Amanda (28 April 2019). "Trans Women March for Their Rights in Conservative Indonesia". VOA. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- ^ Dreger, Alice (4 May 2015). "Reasons to Add and Reasons NOT to Add "I" (Intersex) to LGBT in Healthcare" (PDF). Association of American Medical Colleges. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
- ^ Makadon, Harvey J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Potter, Jennifer; Goldhammer, Hilary (2008). The Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. ACP Press. ISBN 978-1-930513-95-2. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Koyama, Emi. "Adding the "I": Does Intersex Belong in the LGBT Movement?". Intersex Initiative. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ "Intersex for allies". 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ OII releases new resource on intersex issues Archived 6 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Intersex for allies and Making services intersex inclusive by Organisation Intersex International Australia, via Gay News Network, 2 June 2014.
- ^ Kaggwa, Julius (19 September 2016). "I'm an intersex Ugandan – life has never felt more dangerous". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
- ^ a b Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.L. (January 1990). "Will Prenatal Hormone Treatment Prevent Homosexuality?". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 1 (4): 279–283. doi:10.1089/cap.1990.1.279. ISSN 1044-5463.
human studies of the effects of altering the prenatal hormonal milieu by the administration of exogenous hormones lend support to a prenatal hormone theory that implicates both androgens and estrogens in the development of gender preference ... it is likely that prenatal hormone variations may be only one among several factors influencing the development of sexual orientation
- ^ a b Dreger, Alice; Feder, Ellen K; Tamar-Mattis, Anne (29 June 2010), Preventing Homosexuality (and Uppity Women) in the Womb?, The Hastings Center Bioethics Forum, archived from the original on 2 April 2016, retrieved 18 May 2016
- ^ "New publication "Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia"". Organisation Intersex International Australia. 3 February 2016. Archived from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- ^ Jones, Tiffany; Hart, Bonnie; Carpenter, Morgan; Ansara, Gavi; Leonard, William; Lucke, Jayne (2016). Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia (PDF). Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers. ISBN 978-1-78374-208-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- ^ "Free & Equal Campaign Fact Sheet: Intersex" (PDF). United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- ^ Children's right to physical integrity Archived 26 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, Report Doc. 13297, 6 September 2013.
- ^ "Trans? Intersex? Explained!". Inter/Act. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- ^ "Basic differences between intersex and trans". Organisation Intersex International Australia. 3 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- ^ Cabral Grinspan, Mauro (25 October 2015), The marks on our bodies, Intersex Day, archived from the original on 5 April 2016, retrieved 4 October 2016
- ^ Klesse, Christian (2007). The Spectre of Promiscuity: Gay Male and Bisexual Non-Monogamies and Polyamories. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-4906-9. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.[clarification needed]
- ^ Wilcox, Melissa M. (2003). Coming Out in Christianity: Religion, Identity, and Community. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21619-9. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ a b c Mohr, Richard D. (1988). Gays/Justice: A Study of Ethics, Society, and Law. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-06735-5. Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- ^ a b c d e f Atkins, Dawn (1998). Looking Queer: Body Image and Identity in Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay, and Transgender Communities. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-0-7890-0463-5. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Blasius, Mark (1994). Gay and Lesbian Politics: Sexuality and the Emergence of a New Ethic. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-56639-173-3. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Tatchell, Peter (24 June 2009). "LGB - but why T?". mother-ship.com. Mothership Blog. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
To try and separate the LGB from the T, and from women, is political madness. Queers are, like transgender people, gender deviant. We don't conform to traditional heterosexist assumptions of male and female behaviour, in that we have sexual and emotional relationships with the same sex. We should celebrate our discordance with mainstream straight norms. The right to be different is a fundamental human right. The idea that we should conform to straight expectations is demeaning and insulting.
- ^ a b c d e Sycamore, Matt Bernstein (2005). That's Revolting!: Queer Strategies for Resisting Assimilation. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 978-1-932360-56-1. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- ^ a b c d Carlsson, Chris (2005). The Political Edge. City Lights Books. ISBN 978-1-931404-05-1. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- ^ Leondar-Wright, Betsy (2005). Class Matters: Cross-Class Alliance Building for Middle-Class Activists. New Society Publishers. ISBN 978-0-86571-523-3. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ "Anti-Gay". Marksimpson.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Julie Bindel (2 July 2014). "Viewpoint: Should gay men and lesbians be bracketed together?". BBC News Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- ^ "LGBT Groups Respond to Petition Asking to 'Drop the T'". www.advocate.com. 6 November 2015. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- ^ "Signatures for 'Drop The T' counter-petition surpass original - PinkNews · PinkNews". www.pinknews.co.uk. 12 November 2015. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- ^ "Why More Than 1,000 People Have Signed a Petition to Drop the "T" From LGBT". Teen Vogue. 9 November 2015. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- ^ Beyer, Dana (12 November 2015). "Gay Transphobia, 2015 Style". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- ^ a b c Armstrong, Elizabeth A. (2002). Forging Gay Identities: Organizing Sexuality in San Francisco, 1950–1994. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-02694-7. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- ^ Halpin, Mikki (2004). It's Your World—If You Don't Like It, Change It: Activism for Teenagers. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-689-87448-2. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Besanvalle, James (20 July 2018). "Five alternative terms you can use instead of LGBT". Gay Star News. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- ^ "Sexual & Gender Minority Research Office". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
- ^ "Sexual and Gender Minority Clearinghouse". Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
- ^ Park, Andrew (July 2016). "A Development Agenda for Sexual and Gender Minorities". Williams Institute. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
- ^ "Duke Sexual and Gender Minority Health Program". Duke University. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
- ^ "Center for Sexual & Gender Minority Health". University of California San Francisco. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
- ^ Strategic Plan to Advance Research on the Health and Well-being of Sexual and Gender Minorities (PDF), National Institutes of Health, archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2021, retrieved 23 November 2020
- ^ "Updates on Terminology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Survey Measures" (PDF). Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology, under the auspices of the Office of Management and Budget. August 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
- ^ Gender and Strategic Communications in Conflict and Stabilisation Contexts (PDF), HM Government, January 2020, archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2020, retrieved 23 November 2020
- ^ Constitution of Nepal, Nepal Law Commission, 2015, archived from the original on 30 September 2020, retrieved 24 November 2020
- ^ Choudhuri, Devika Dibya; Curley, Kate (20 September 2019), "Multiplicity of LGBTQ+ Identities, Intersections, and Complexities", Rethinking LGBTQIA Students and Collegiate Contexts, Routledge, pp. 3–16, doi:10.4324/9780429447297-1, ISBN 978-0-429-44729-7, S2CID 210355997, archived from the original on 23 March 2023, retrieved 9 June 2021
- ^ Lapointe, Alicia (2016), Rodriguez, Nelson M.; Martino, Wayne J.; Ingrey, Jennifer C.; Brockenbrough, Edward (eds.), "Postgay", Critical Concepts in Queer Studies and Education: An International Guide for the Twenty-First Century, Queer Studies and Education, New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 205–218, doi:10.1057/978-1-137-55425-3_21, ISBN 978-1-137-55425-3, archived from the original on 23 March 2023, retrieved 9 June 2021
- ^ Rimmerman, Craig A.; Wald, Kenneth D.; Wilcox, Clyde (2006). The Politics of Gay Rights. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-1-4129-0988-4. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ^ Jessica Antony; Wayne Antony (2022). Jessica Antony; Wayne Antony; Les Samuelson (eds.). Power and Resistance, 7th ed.: Critical Thinking About Canadian Social Issues. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing. p. 389. ISBN 978-1-77363-539-2. OCLC 1288193829. Archived from the original on 5 January 2023. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
- ^ "Welcome to the Bradford University Minority Sexual and Gender Identity Site!". Bradford Uni MSGI Society. 2008. Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
- ^ "GSRM - Gender, Sexual, and Romantic Minorities". acronymfinder.com. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- ^ "'Diversities' May Enrich 'LGBTQIAP' Alphabet Soup". The Huffington Post. 19 September 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- ^ "LGBT? LGBTQ? Queer? QUILTBAG? GSM? GSRM?". queerumich.com. University of Michigan (on Tumblr). Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- ^ "Gender and Sexual Minority Students (LGBTIQA)". University of Derby. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- ^ Organisation proposes replacing the 'limiting' term LGBT with 'more inclusive' GSD Archived 16 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine, 25 February 2013
- ^ "'Gender And Sexual Diversities,' Or GSD, Should Replace 'LGBT,' Say London Therapists". The Huffington Post. 25 February 2013. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- ^ "Pride on the prowl". Dalhousie News. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- ^ Young, R M & Meyer, I H (2005) The Trouble with "MSM" and "WSW": Erasure of the Sexual-Minority Person in Public Health Discourse American Journal of Public Health July 2005 Vol. 95 No. 7.
- ^ Glick, M Muzyka, B C Salkin, L M Lurie, D (1994) Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis: a marker for immune deterioration and a predictor for the diagnosis of AIDS Journal of Periodontology 1994 65 p. 393–397.
- ^ Brown-Acton, Phylesha (25 February 2020). "Hands and feet: A reflection on Polynesian navigation—a Niue Fakafifine community practitioner perspective in Aotearoa-New Zealand". Te Kaharoa. 15 (1). doi:10.24135/tekaharoa.v15i1.298. ISSN 1178-6035. S2CID 226134097. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
- ^ "Rainbow". Le Va. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
- Archives of glbtq.com, the GLBTQ encyclopedia
- Directory of U.S. and international LGBT Community Centers (archived 10 October 2008)
- American Psychological Association's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Concerns Office