List of English words of Turkic origin

This is a list of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages. Many of them came via traders and soldiers from and in the Ottoman Empire. There are some Turkic words as well, most of them entered English via the Russian language.


Languages of Turkic peoples left numerous traces in different languages, including the English language. Turkic borrowings, which belong to the social and political vocabulary, are generally used in special literature and in the historical and ethnographical works, which relate to the life of Turkic and Muslim peoples. The ethnographical words are generally used in the scientific literature, and in the historical and ethnographical texts.

The adoption of Indian (principally Hindustani) words, among which there were some Turkic borrowings, became one of the ways for the words of the Turkic origin to penetrate English. Additionally, several words of Turkic origin penetrated English through Central or Eastern European languages like Russian and Polish. Albanian, German, Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, Hungarian and Serbo-Croatian were also intermediary languages for the Turkic words to penetrate English, as well as containing numerous Turkic loanwords themselves (e.g. Serbo-Croatian contains around 5,000 Turkic loanwords, primarily from Turkish[1]).

In the nineteenth century, Turkic loanwords, generally of Turkish origin, began to penetrate not only through the writings of the travelers, diplomats and merchants, and through the ethnographical and historical works, but also through the press. In 1847, there were two English-language newspapers in IstanbulThe Levant Herald and The Levant Times, seven newspapers in French, one in German and 37 in Turkish. Turkish contributed the largest share of the Turkic loans, which penetrated into the English directly. This can be explained by the fact that Turkey had the most intensive and wide connections with England. Nevertheless, there are many Turkic loans in English, which were borrowed by its contacts with other peoples – Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Uzbeks, Kazakhs and Kirghiz.

Most of the Turkic loans in English carry exotic or ethnographical connotations. They do not have equivalents in English, do not have synonymic relations with primordial words, and generally are used to describe the fauna, flora, life customs, political and social life, and an administrative-territorial structure of Turkic regions. But there are many Turkic loans, which are still part of the frequently used vocabulary. Some Turkic loans have acquired new meanings, unrelated to their etymology.

To conclude, the words of the Turkic origin began penetrating English as early as the Middle Ages, the Turkic loanwords found their way into English through other languages, most frequently through French. Since the 16c, beginning from the time of the establishment of the direct contacts between England and Turkey, and Russia, in English appeared new direct borrowings from Turkic languages. German, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, French, Arabic, Armenian, Afrikaans, Hungarian, Yiddish, Hindustani, Spanish, Italian, Latin, Malayan, to a different extent, took part in the process of the transfer of the Turkic words into English. The main language from which the borrowings were made, was Turkish.


from Turkic Afshar, "a Turkic tribe living majorly in Kerman province of Iran". A Shiraz rug of coarse weave.[2][3][4]
Aga or Agha
from Turkish ağa, a title of rank, especially in Turkey.[5][6]
Aga Khan
from Turkic agha and khan, the divinely ordained head of the Nizari branch of Isma'ili Shi'a Islam.[7]
from Turkish Ağalık, a feudal unit of the Ottoman Empire
from Turkish ayran[8][9][10]
from Turkish akbaş, literally "a whitehead"[11]
from Turkish akçe, also asper, an Ottoman monetary unit that consisted of small silver coins.[12][13]
from Turkish Akhisar, a city in Manisa Province, Turkey near İzmir. A kind of heavy modern carpet made at Akhisar.[14]
from the Altai Mountains of Central Asia, which is from Turkic-Mongolian altan, meaning "golden". 1. the Altai horse 2. the Altay sheep[15][16]
from Turkish altılık. A coin formerly used in Turkey, originally silver, equivalent to six piastres.[17]
(from Arabic: عربة ʿarabah or the Turkish loan form araba, arba or aroba). A horse-driven carriage.
from Turkish arnavut, "an Albanian". An inhabitant of Albania and neighboring mountainous regions, especially an Albanian serving in the Turkish army.[18]
from Turkish Aslan, "lion".
from Astrakhan, Russia, which is from Tatar or Kazakh hadžitarkhan, or As-tarxan (tarkhan of As or Alans) Karakul sheep of Russian origin or a cloth with a pile resembling karakul.[19][20]
from Turkic atabeg, from ata, "a father" + beg "a prince".[21][22]
from Turkic, an alternative form of Atabeg.
from Turkish yatağan, an alternative form of yatagan.[23]
from Russian, from South Turkic ataman, "leader of an armed band" : ata, "father" + -man, augmentative suffix.[24]
Russian, from the Tatar, Kyrgyz and Kazakh languages.[25]
see Airan


Pieces of baklava
from Hindi bahādur "brave, brave person", from Persian, probably from Mongolian, cf. Classical Mongolian baγatur, which is from Turkic, perhaps originally a Turkic personal name.[26]
from Turkish bayram, literally "a festival"[27][28]
from Turkish baklava[29]
from Balaklava, village in the Crimea, which is from Turkish balıklava. A hoodlike knitted cap covering the head, neck, and part of the shoulders and worn especially by soldiers and mountaineers.[30][31]
from Russian balalaika, of Turkic origin.[32][33]
from Turkish balkan "a mountain chain", relating to the states of the Balkan Peninsula, or their peoples, languages, or cultures.[34]
from Turkish bamya.[35]
from Romanian, from Serbo-Croatian ban, "lord", which is from Turkic bayan, "very rich person" : bay, "rich" + -an, intensive suff.[36]
from Canadian French barbotte, which is from Turkish barbut. A dice game.[37]
from Russian, which is from Kirghiz barkhan. A moving sand dune shaped like a crescent and found in several very dry regions of the world[38]
from Turkish başa, a variant of pasha[39]
from Turkish başıbozuk[40]
from Turkish başlık, "a hood", from baş, "a head"[41]
from Turkish batman. Any of various old Persian or Turkish units of weight[42]
from Russian bityug, bityuk, which is from Turkic bitük, akin to Chagatai bitü, Uzbek bitäü. A Russian breed of heavy draft horses.[43][44]
from Turkic beg, an alternative form of bey[45]
from Turkish beylerbeyi, a variant of beylerbey[46]
from Urdu begam, which is from East Turkic begüm[47]
from the name of Turkish scientist Hulusi Behçet, a multisystem, chronic recurrent disease.[48]
from Turkish bektaşi[49]
from French bergamote, from Italian bergamotta, ultimately from Turkish bey armudu, literally, "the bey's pear"[50]
from Turkish bey[51]
from Turkish beylerbeyi[52]
from Turkish beylik[53][54][55]
from Turkish binbaşı, "chief of a thousand", bin "thousand" + bash "head". (Mil.) A major in the Turkish army.[56]
from Russian bogatyr "hero, athlete, warrior", from Old Russian bogatyri, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish batur "brave"[57]
from Turkish börek, ultimately from root bur-, "twisted"
from Russian burunduk, which is from Mari uromdok or from Turkic burunduk. A Siberian ground squirrel.[58][59][60]
Bosa or boza
from Turkish boza, a fermented drink[61][62]
from Turkish boş, which means "nonsense, empty"[63] (Bosh on wiktionary)
from Turkish bostancı, literally "a gardener"[64]
from modern Greek mpouzoúki, which is from Turkish bozuk "broken, ruined, depraved" or büzük "constricted, puckered".[65]
from Russian boyarin, from Old Russian boljarin, from Turkic baylar, plural of bay, "rich"; akin to Turkish bay, "rich, gentleman".[66]
Bridge game
the word came into English from the Russian word, biritch, which in turn originates from a Turkic word for "bugler" (in modern Turkish: borucu, borazancı) or might have come from a Turkish term bir, üç, or "one, three"[67]
from Middle English bougre, "heretic", from Old French boulgre, from Medieval Latin Bulgarus, from Greek Boulgaros, "Bulgarian", probably ultimately from Turkic bulghar, "of mixed origin, promiscuous" or "rebels", from bulgamaq, "to mix, stir, stir up".[68][69][70][71]
from Bolgar, Bolghar, former kingdom on the Volga river around Kazan (see bugger). A Russia leather originally from Bolgar.[69][72]
from Turkish bulgur, which means "pounded wheat"[73]
from Russian buran, of Turkic origin, probably from Tatar buran[74][75]
from Russian, probably from buryi "dark brown (of a horse)", probably of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish bur "red like a fox"; the Turkic word probably from Persian bor "reddish brown"; akin to Sanskrit babhru "reddish brown".[76]


from Turkish kahvane, kahvehane "a coffee shop, café", from kahve "coffee" + hane "house"[77][78]
from Turkish kayık[79]
alteration (influenced by caique) of earlier caikjee, from Turkish kayıkçı, "a boatman"[80]
from Turkish kalpak[81]
from Turkish karakulak, which means "black ear"[82]
from French, perhaps from Turkish kerrake "alpaca coat". A woman's short coat or jacket usually about waist length.[83]
from Uzbek karakul, an alteration of karakul[84]
from Neo-Latin, of Turkic origin; akin to Kirghiz karaghan "Siberian pea tree".[85]
from Turkish karamürsel, karamusal, perhaps from kara "black" + mürsel "envoy, apostle"[86]
from Turkish Kasaba, a small town with 2.000 to 20.000 people in Turkey[87]
from Middle French casaque "long coat", probably ultimately from Turkic quzzak "nomad, adventurer" (the source of Cossack), an allusion to their typical riding coat. Or perhaps from Arabic kazagand, from Persian kazhagand "padded coat".[88]
from French, which is from Turkish khan, "lord, prince"[89]
from Turkish, a Turkish fabric of silk and cotton, with gold thread interwoven.[90]
from Ottoman Turkish çelenk, a bird's feather used as a sign of bravery
from Turkish çavuş.[91]
from Turkish çubuk.[92]
from Sindhi, of Turko-Mongol origin; akin to Turkish çuha "cloth". A long-sleeved long-skirted cloak for men worn mainly in India and Pakistan.[93]
perhaps from Turkish çavuş "a doorkeeper, messenger"[94]
from Ottoman Turkish kahve via Italian caffè[95]
from Russian korsak, from Kirghiz karsak, "a small yellowish brown bushy-tailed fox"[96]
from French, literally, "Cossack", from Russian Kazak & Ukrainian kozak, which is from Turkic Kazak. A cracker.[97]
from Turkic quzzaq which means "adventurer, guerilla, nomad"[98] (Cossack on wiktionary)


Registration of boys for the devshirmeh
from German, from Low German, alteration of Middle Low German bisemer, besemer, of Baltic origin; akin to Lithuanian bezmnas, of Slavic origin; akin to Old East Slavic bezmenu "desemer, small weight", Polish bezmian, przezmian "balance without pans", perhaps of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish batman "small weight". An ancient balance.[99]
from Turkish devşirme, which means "gathering"[100][101]
from Turkish dayı, literally "a maternal uncle"[102]
from Turkish dolma, which means "filled" or "stuffed"[103]
ultimately from Turkish dolaman, a robe, from dolamak "to wind"[104][105]
Dolmus, also Dolmush
from Turkish dolmuş, a share taxi[106]
from Kazakh dombra, a musical instrument[107][108]
Doner kebab
(Canadian: donair) from Turkish döner kebap[109][110]
from Turkish dönme, which literally means "a convert"[111][112]
from Turkish dönüm, an alternative form of dunam[113][114]
from German dudeln "to play (the bagpipe)", from dudel "a bagpipe", from Czech or Polish dudy "a bagpipe", from Turkish düdük "a flute".[115]
from Turkish dönüm, from dönmek "go round"[116][117]


Elchee or elchi
from Turkish elçi, which means "an ambassador".[118]
Eleme figs
from Turkish eleme "selected, sifted". Smyrna figs of superior quality packed flat.[119]


from Turkish fes


from Turkish kalyonçi, kalyoncu, "a Turkish sailor", from kalyon, Italian galeone + çi or cu, the Turkish suffix.[120]
modification of Turkish kancalamak "to put on a hook", from Turkish kanca "large hook", modification of Greek gampsos "curved" + Turkish suffix -lamak.[121]
from Turkish gâvur
from French, from Spanish gileco, jaleco, chaleco, from Arabic jalikah, "a garment worn by slaves in Algeria", from Turkish yelek "waistcoat, vest"[122]


from Ottoman Turkish haydut, "bandit, soldier"
from Turkish haramibaşı, "bandit leader" (from harami, "bandit" + baş, "head")
from Turkish haremlik, from harem (from Arabic harim & Arabic haram) + the Turkish suffix -lik "a place"[123]
from Turkic ordu or orda ("khan's residence")[124][125] (Horde on wiktionary)
most directly from Latin, ultimately from Turkic, c.f. Onogur.


Imam bayildi
from Turkish imambayıldı, "the imam fainted", an eggplant dish prepared with olive oil.[126]
from Turkish imbat, a cooling etesian wind in the Levant (as in Cyprus).[127]


from Turkish yeniçeri, which means "a new soldier"[128] (janissary on wiktionary)
from Turkish yelek, the bodice or vest of a Turkish woman's dress.[129]
from Turkic, a union of seven Turkic peoples of Central Asia formed at the end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century under one khan.[130]


from Ottoman Turkish kadı, "judge"
from Turkish kaftan (also in Persian)[131]
from Turkish kayık, an alternative form of caïque.[132]
from Ottoman Turkish kaldırım, "paved road"
from Turkish kalpak
from Turkish kangal or sivas kangal köpeği[133][134]
A type of rug, named after the Karabagh region in the Caucasus.[135]
from Turkish karabaş, literally "a blackhead"[136][137]
from Azerbaijani Karadagh, a mountain range in Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran. a Persian rug having a bold design and rich coloring.[138]
from Russian karagan, which is from Turkic karagan. A species of gray fox found in Russia.[139][140]
from Uzbek karakul, literally a village in Uzbekistan[141]
from Russian, of Turkic origin, karakurt, "a venomous spider".[142]
from New Greek kaseri, from Turkish kaşer, kaşar[143]
from Turkish kavas[144][145]
from Kazak, a town in Azerbaijan, an Oriental rug in bold colors with geometric designs or stylized plant and animal forms.[146]
from Russian, probably ultimately from Old Turkic köpür, "milk, froth, foam", from köpürmäk, "to froth, foam".[147][148]
from Turkish kelek, a raft or float supported on inflated animal skins.[149]
from Russian kendyr, from Turkish kendir. A strong bast fiber that resembles Indian hemp and is used in Asia as cordage and as a substitute for cotton and hemp.[150][151]
probably from Middle English cacchen "to capture", or perhaps from Turkish kayık "a boat, skiff".[152][153]
from Turkic kaghan, an alternative form of khan[154]
from Turkic khan, akin to Turkish han (title meaning "ruler")[155]
from Turkic khanum, akin to Turkish hanım, "a female derivation of Khan"[156]
from Turkic khatūn, perhaps from Old Turkic or from Sogdian kwat'yn, "a queen"[157][158]
from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Kazan Tatar kibit "booth, stall, tent", Uyghur käbit.[159]
from Polish kiełbasa, from East and West Slavic *kŭlbasa, from East Turkic kül bassï, "grilled cutlet", from Turkic kül bastï : kül, "coals, ashes" + bastï, "pressed (meat)" (from basmaq, to press)[160]
from Turkish kılıç, a Turkish saber with a crescent-shaped blade.[161]
from Turkish köşk, an open summerhouse or pavilion[162]
from Russian, which is from Chagatai. 1. One of the ancient Turkic peoples of the Golden Horde related to the Uyghurs and Kyrgyz. 2. The Turkic language of the Kipchaks.[163]
Kis Kilim
from Turkish kızkilim, a kind of carpet.[164]
from Turkish kızılbaş, literally "a red head"[165][166]
from Yiddish, from Ukrainian knysh, probably of Turkic origin.[167]
from Russian kok-sagyz, from Turkic kök-sagız, from kök "root" + sagız "rubber, gum"[168]
from Turkish komitacı, a rebel, member of a secret revolutionary society.[169]
from Turkish konak, a large house in Turkey.[170]
from Russian krym-sagyz, of Turkic origin, from Krym "Crimea",[171] + sagız "rubber, gum".[172]
from Turkish Kula, a town in western Turkey. A Turkish rug that is often a prayer rug and that uses the Ghiordes knot.[173]
from Russian kulak "a fist", of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish kol "arm".[174][175]
from Kirghiz kulan, "the wild ass of the Kirghiz steppe".[176]
from Turkic kumyz or kumis[177] (kumiss on wiktionary)
from Turkish kırbaç[178][179]
from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish kurgan "fortress, castle"[180]
from Turkish kuruş, a Turkish piaster equal to 1/100 lira.[181]


from French laquais, from Spanish lacayo, ultimately from Turkish ulak, which means "runner" or "courier".[182]
from Turkish Ladik, a village in Turkey. A rug of fine texture woven in and near Ladik in central Anatolia.[183]
from Middle English latoun, laton, from Middle French laton, leton, from Old Provençal, from Arabic latun, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish altın "gold"[184]
from Yiddish, plural of loksh "noodle", from Russian dial. loksha, of Turkic origin; akin to Uyghur & Kazan Tatar lakca "noodles", Chuvash läskä.[185]


from Russian mamot, mamont, mamant, perhaps from a Yakut word derived from Yakut mamma "earth"; from the belief that the mammoths burrowed in the earth like moles.[186]
from Middle English, from Old French, from Old Spanish, from Ottoman Turkish martagan, "a kind of turban".[187]
an accounting method used by the Ottoman Empire, Abbasid empire, and the Ilkhanate; from a word meaning "Ladder" or "Staircase".[188]


from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Kirghiz nogai[189]


Odalisque with a slave, 1842
from Turkish oda, literally "a room, chamber". A room in a harem.[190]
from French, which is from Turkish odalık, from oda, "a room"[191]
Oghuz or Ghuz
from Turkic oghuz. A group of Turks from Central Asia.
from Turkish osmanlı, from Osman, founder of the Ottoman Empire + "of or pertaining to"[192]
is a form of couch which usually has a head but no back, though sometimes it has neither. It may have square or semicircular ends, and as a rule it is what upholsterers call "overstuffed” — that is to say no wood is visible. In American English, an ottoman is a piece of furniture consisting of a padded, upholstered ...
from French, adjective & noun, probably from Italian ottomano, from Turkish osmani, from Osman, Othman died 1326, founder of the Ottoman Empire[193]


modification of Turkish baklava[194]
from Uzbek, a heavy black horsehair veil worn by women of Central Asia.[195]
from Turkish paşa, earlier basha, from bash "head, chief" which equates to "Sir"[196][197]
from Turkish paşalık, "title or rank of pasha", from paşa: the jurisdiction of a pasha or the territory governed by him[198][199]
from Yiddish pastrame, from Romanian pastrama, ultimately from Turkish pastırma[200]
from Russian pecheneg, which is from Turkic. Member of a Turkic people invading the South Russian, Danubian, and Moldavian steppes during the early Middle Ages.[201][202]
from Turkish pilav, and ultimately from Sanskrit pulāka- (पुलाक), "lump of boiled rice"
from Yiddish, from Russian, plural of pirog (pie), perhaps borrowed from Kazan Tatar, (cf. Turk. börek)[203]
from Persian pul, which is from Turkish pul. A unit of value of Afghanistan equal to 1/100 Afghani.[204]


Qajar or Kajar
from Persian Qajar, of Turkish origin. A people of northern Iran holding political supremacy through the dynasty ruling Persia from 1794 to 1925.[205]
from Anglo-French quiveir, from Old French quivre, probably ultimately from the Hunnic language,[206] kubur in Old Turkic


from Turkish Rumeli, "land of Romans"


Sarma, a kind of dolma, is a classic of Turkish cuisine.
from Old French çabot, alteration of savate "old shoe", probably of Turkish or Arabic origin.[207]
from French saïque, from Turkish shaika.[208]
from Russian saĭgá(k), from Turkic; cf. Chagatai sayğak[209][210]
through Old French from Arabic saqr, probably from Turkic sonqur, which means "a falcon".[211]
from Turkish samyeli, sam, "poisonous" + yel, "wind".[212]
from Turkish sancak, which means "a banner"[213][214]
from Turkish sarma, which means "wrapping"[215][216]
from Russian saksaul, which is from Kazakh seksevil. A leafless xerophytic shrub or tree of the family Chenopodiaceae of Asia that has green or greenish branches and is used for stabilization of desert soils.[217][218]
from Turkish Selamlık.[219]
from Turkish Selçuk, "eponymous ancestor of the dynasties". Of or relating to any of several Turkic dynasties that ruled over a great part of western Asia in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.[220]
from Turkish serasker, from Persian ser "head, chief" + Arabic asker "an army".[221]
originally Arabic sawda, via Turkish sevda, "black bile". Genre of Balkan folk-music
through Russian sevryuga ultimately from Tatar söirök.[222]
from French schabraque, from German schabracke, from Hungarian csáprág, from Turkish çaprak[223]
from Turkish sağrı, which means "the back of a horse"[224]
from Turkic word šamán.[citation needed]
from Russian шашлык, which is from Crimean Tatar şışlık, which means "shish kebab"[225]
ultimately from Turkish çevirme, which literally means "turning"[226]
from Turkish şiş, which literally means "a skewer"[227][228]
Shish kebab
from Turkish şiş kebabı[229]
from Russian, of Turko-Mongol origin; akin to Kalmyk & Mongolian sor "salt", Turkish sure "brackish soil". A salt lake in Turkestan, a salina.[230]
from Kirghiz, "crude iron casting, ruble"[231]
a long upholstered seat with a back and arms, for two or more people.


from Russian taiga, of Turkic origin; akin to Teleut taiga "rocky, mountainous terrain", Turkish dağ "mountain"; Mongolian origin is also possible.[232][233]
from modern Greek taramas "preserved roe", from Turkish tarama "preparation of soft roe or red caviar" + salata "salad".[234]
from Chagatai Taranci, literally "a farmer".[235]
from Russian tarantas, which is from Kazan Tatar tarıntas.[236]
from Russian, which is from Teleut. A rodent
from Arabic tarbūsh, from Ottoman Turkish terposh, probably from Persian sarposh "headdress" (equivalent to sar "head" + pūsh "covering"), by association with Turkish ter "sweat". A tasseled cap of cloth or felt, usually red, that is worn by Muslim men either by itself or as the inner part of the turban.[237]
from Old Turkic tarkan, a privileged class.[238]
from Russian, which is from Kirghiz or Kazakh tarpan.[239][240]
from Persian Tatar, of Turkic origin. A ferocious or violent person - Latin, from "Tartarus" - evil, hell.[241]
from Russian tau-sagyz, from Turkic tau-sagız, from tau "mountain" + sagız "gum, rubber".[242]
from Turkish tavla, a version of the board game backgammon.[243]
from Turkish tekke, a dervish monastery.[244]
from Kazakh teŋge "coin, ruble".[245]
from Turkish tepe, literally "a hill, summit". An artificial mound.[246][247][248]
from Terek, river of southeast Russia, which is from Balkar Terk. A sandpiper of the Old World breeding in the far north of eastern Europe and Asia and migrating to southern Africa and Australia and frequenting rivers.[249][250]
from Italian tiorba, which is from Turkish torba "a bag".[251][252]
from Persian تومان, which is from Turkic tümen, "a unit of ten thousand".[253]
from Russian tovarishch, from Old East Slavic tovarishch, sing. of tovarishchi, "business associates", which is from Old Turkic tavar ishchi, "businessman, merchant" : tavar, "wealth, trade" + ishchi, "one who works" (from ish, "work, business").[254]
from Turkish tuğra, an elaborate monogram formed of the Sultan's name and titles.[255][256]
a member of the Tungusic people; from Russian, from East Turkic tunguz, "wild pig, boar", from Old Turkic tonguz.[257]
from Turkish türk, which has several meanings in English.[258]
from Persian turki, from Turk, "Turk", from Turkish Türk.[259]
from Middle English Turkeys, from Anglo-French turkeise, from feminine of turkeis Turkish, from Turc Turkish.[260]
from Turkish tuzla, from the name of Lake Tuz in Turkey. A central Anatolian rug.[261]
from modern Greek tsatsiki, which is from Turkish cacık.[262]


Polish uhlans
from Old East Slavic Ugre, which means "Hungarians", of Turkic origin.[263]
from Turkish oğlan "a boy, servant".[264]
from Hindustani Urdu "camp", which is from Turkic ordu (source of horde).[265]
from Russian, which is from Kazan Tatar urman, "a forest", synonymous with taiga;[266] Turkish word orman.
from Ushak, Turkish Uşak, manufacturing town of western Turkey. A heavy woolen oriental rug tied in Ghiordes knots and characterized by bright primary colors and an elaborate medallion pattern.[267]


Cacık, a Turkish cold soup yogurt variety
from Turkic yardang, ablative of yar "steep bank, precipice".[268][269]
of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish yağmurluk which means "rainwear".[270]
Yashmak or yashmac
from Turkish yaşmak.[271]
from Turkish yatağan.[272]
from Turkish yoğurt.[273] (yogurt on wiktionary)
from Turkic yurt, which means "a dwelling place".[274]
from Turkish yürük, "a nomad". 1. One of a nomadic shepherd people of the mountains of southeastern Anatolia. 2. A Turkish rug from the Konya and Karaman regions, southeastern Anatolia.[275]


from Turkish zil "bell, cymbals", of onomatopoeic origin.[276][277]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit


  1. ^ Prince, John Dyneley (1931). "Surviving Turkish Elements in Serbo-Croatian". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 51 (3): 241–261. doi:10.2307/593448. JSTOR 593448.
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Afshar
  3. ^ TDK Online – Afşar[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Parvis Tanavoli On Afshar Rugs
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas. "aga". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  6. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Aga
  7. ^ – Aga Khan
  8. ^ – Ayran
  9. ^ – Airan in Main Categories of Products
  10. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Airan
  11. ^ " – Akbash Dog". Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2006-09-02.
  12. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Akche
  13. ^ Wilson, Rodney (2002). Economic Development in the Middle East. Taylor & Francis. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-203-01286-4.
  14. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Akhissar
  15. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Altai
  16. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Altai Mountains
  17. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Altilik
  18. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Arnaut
  19. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Astrakhan
  20. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Astrakhan
  21. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Atabeg
  22. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – use of Atabeg in an article
  23. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Ataghan
  24. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Ataman". Archived from the original on 2005-08-29. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
  25. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Aul
  26. ^ – Bahadur
  27. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Bairam
  28. ^ – Bairam
  29. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Baklava
  30. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Balaclava
  31. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Balaklava
  32. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Balalaika
  33. ^ "Encarta Online – Balalaika". Archived from the original on 2010-11-30.
  34. ^ "Encarta Online – Balkan". Archived from the original on 2009-04-12.
  35. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Bamia
  36. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Ban". Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
  37. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Barbotte
  38. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Barkhan
  39. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Bashaw
  40. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Bashi-bazouk
  41. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Bashlyk
  42. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Batman
  43. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Beetewk
  44. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Bityug
  45. ^ " – Beg". Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2006-09-02.
  46. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Beylerbey
  47. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Begum". Archived from the original on 2006-02-08. Retrieved 2006-09-01.
  48. ^ – Behcet
  49. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Bektashi
  50. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Bergamot
  51. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Bey
  52. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Beylerbey
  53. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Ottoman art
  54. ^ – Beylik
  55. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Beylic
  56. ^ – Binbashi
  57. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Bogatyr
  58. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Borunduk
  59. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Burunduk
  60. ^ Этимологический Словарь – Piotr Czerwinski → Burunduk Archived 2008-05-04 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Bosa
  62. ^ "bosa." Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd edition. 1989.
  63. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Bosh
  64. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Bostanji
  65. ^ – Bouzouki
  66. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Boyar
  67. ^ Harper, Douglas. "bridge". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  68. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Bugger
  69. ^ a b The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Bulgar
  70. ^ Taylor, Isaac (2008). Names and Their Histories. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-559-29667-3. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
  71. ^ Dybo, Anna. "bulga-". Turkic etymology. StarLing. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
  72. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Bulgar
  73. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Bulgur
  74. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Buran". Archived from the original on 2005-11-22. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
  75. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Buran
  76. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Burka
  77. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Cafeneh
  78. ^ – Cafeneh
  79. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Caique
  80. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Caiquejee
  81. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Calpac
  82. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Caracal
  83. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Caraco
  84. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Caracul
  85. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Caragana
  86. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Caramoussal
  87. ^ Arasindaki Fark - Köy ile Kasaba farkı nedir
  88. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cassock". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  89. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Cham". Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
  90. ^ – Chekmak
  91. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Chiaus
  92. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Chibouk
  93. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Choga
  94. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Chouse
  95. ^ "Coffee | Origin and meaning of coffee by Online Etymology Dictionary".
  96. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Corsac
  97. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Cosaque
  98. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cossack". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  99. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Desemer
  100. ^ " – Devsirme". Archived from the original on 2021-01-26. Retrieved 2006-09-02.
  101. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Topic: Devsirme
  102. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Dey
  103. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Dolma
  104. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Dolman
  105. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Dolman Archived 2007-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
  106. ^ "dolmus." Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd edition. 1989.
  107. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Domra
  108. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Domra
  109. ^ The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English – Doner kebab[dead link]
  110. ^ – Doner kebab
  111. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Donmeh
  112. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Donme
  113. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Donum
  114. ^ – Donum
  115. ^ Antlion Pit – Doodle
  116. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Dunam
  117. ^ – Dunam
  118. ^ ABSP – Turkish words – Elchee
  119. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Eleme figs[permanent dead link]
  120. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Galiongee
  121. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Ganch
  122. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Gilet
  123. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Haremlik
  124. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Horde
  125. ^ Harper, Douglas. "horde". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  126. ^ The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English – Imam bayildi[dead link]
  127. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Imbat
  128. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Janissary
  129. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Jelick
  130. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Jettru
  131. ^ Harper, Douglas. "caftan". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  132. ^ – Kaique
  133. ^ – Kangal
  134. ^ " – Kangal". Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2006-09-02.
  135. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Karabagh
  136. ^ – Karabash
  137. ^ " – Karabash". Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2006-09-02.
  138. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Karadagh
  139. ^ – Karagane
  140. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Karagan
  141. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Karakul
  142. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Karakurt
  143. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kasseri
  144. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Kavass
  145. ^ – Kavass
  146. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Kazak
  147. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Kefir". Archived from the original on 2006-01-14. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
  148. ^ "Encarta Online – Kefir". Archived from the original on 2010-11-30.
  149. ^ – Kelek
  150. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kendyr
  151. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Kendyr
  152. ^ Harper, Douglas. "ketch". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  153. ^ The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology – Ketch
  154. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Khagan
  155. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Khan
  156. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Khanum
  157. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Khatun
  158. ^ – Khatun[dead link]
  159. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kibitka
  160. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Kielbasa Archived 2008-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  161. ^ – Kilij
  162. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Kiosk
  163. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kipchak
  164. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kis Kilim[permanent dead link]
  165. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Kizilbash
  166. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Kizilbash
  167. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Knish". Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
  168. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kok-saghyz
  169. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Komitadji
  170. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Konak
  171. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Krym
  172. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Krym-saghyz
  173. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kulah
  174. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kulak
  175. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Kulak
  176. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kulan
  177. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Kumiss
  178. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kurbash
  179. ^ – Kurbash
  180. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Kurgan
  181. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kurus
  182. ^ Harper, Douglas. "lackey". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  183. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Ladik
  184. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Latten
  185. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Lokshen
  186. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Mammoth
  187. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Martagon". Archived from the original on 2005-09-01. Retrieved 2006-09-04.
  188. ^ Guvemli + Guvemli. "The birth and development of the accounting Method in the Middle East (Merdiban Method)" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
  189. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Nagaika
  190. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Oda
  191. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Odalisque
  192. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Osmanli
  193. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Ottoman
  194. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Paklava
  195. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Parandja
  196. ^ Harper, Douglas. "pasha". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  197. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Pasha
  198. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Pashalic
  199. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – use of Pashalic in an article
  200. ^ DEX Online – Pastrama
  201. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Petcheneg
  202. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Pechenegi
  203. ^ Harper, Douglas. "pirogi". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  204. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Pul
  205. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Kajar
  206. ^ Harper, Douglas. "quiver". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  207. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Sabot". Archived from the original on 2006-01-28. Retrieved 2006-12-23.
  208. ^ – Saic
  209. ^ – Saiga
  210. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Saiga". Archived from the original on 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2006-09-10.
  211. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Saker". Archived from the original on 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
  212. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Samiel". Archived from the original on 2007-08-26. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
  213. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Sanjak
  214. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Sanjak in Ottoman Bosnia
  215. ^ – Sarma
  216. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Sarma in Balkan cuisine
  217. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Saxaul
  218. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Saksaul
  219. ^ – Selamlik
  220. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Seljuk
  221. ^ – Seraskier
  222. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Sevruga". Archived from the original on 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
  223. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Shabrack
  224. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Shagreen
  225. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Shashlik
  226. ^ " – Shawarma". Archived from the original on 2006-03-23. Retrieved 2006-09-02.
  227. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Shish
  228. ^ Harper, Douglas. "shish kebab". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  229. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Shish Kebab
  230. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Shor
  231. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Som
  232. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Taiga
  233. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Taiga". Archived from the original on 2006-02-11. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
  234. ^ "Encarta Online – Taramasalata". Archived from the original on 2009-11-25.
  235. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Taranchi
  236. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Tarantass
  237. ^ – Tarbush
  238. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Tarkhan
  239. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Tarpan
  240. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Tarpan
  241. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Tatar/Tartar". Archived from the original on 2006-02-24. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
  242. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Tau-saghyz
  243. ^ – Tavla
  244. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Tekke
  245. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Tenge
  246. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Tepe
  247. ^ – Tepe
  248. ^ Turkic Etymology – Tepö
  249. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Terek
  250. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary – Terek
  251. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Theorbo
  252. ^ "Encarta Online – Theorbo". Archived from the original on 2009-11-17.
  253. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Toman Archived 2007-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
  254. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Tovarich". Archived from the original on 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
  255. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Ottoman Coins
  256. ^ Al-Damurdashi's Chronicle of Egypt – Tughra
  257. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Tungus
  258. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Turk
  259. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Turki". Archived from the original on 2005-09-05. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
  260. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Turquoise
  261. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Tuzla
  262. ^ "Encarta Online – Tzatziki". Archived from the original on 2009-08-21.
  263. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language – Ugrian". Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
  264. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Uhlan
  265. ^ Harper, Douglas. "urdu". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  266. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Urman
  267. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Ushak
  268. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Yardang
  269. ^ – Yardang
  270. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Yarmulke
  271. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Yashmak
  272. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Yataghan
  273. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Yogurt
  274. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Yurt
  275. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Yuruk
  276. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Zill
  277. ^ – Zill