# List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

A country's gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is the PPP value of all final goods and services produced within an economy in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. This is similar to nominal GDP per capita, but adjusted for the cost of living in each country.

Countries or territories by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2022
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In 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world was Int\$ 18,381.[a] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

## Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between economies because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

GDP (PPP) and GDP (PPP) per capita are usually measured by international dollar, which is a hypothetical currency that has the same purchasing power in every economy as the U.S. dollar in the United States.

## Table

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded to the nearest whole number.

The table initially ranks each country or territory with their latest available year's estimates, and can be reranked by either of the sources

* Nearly all country links in the table connect to articles titled "Income in (country or territory)" or to "Economy of (country or territory)".

GDP per capita (current international dollar) by country or  territory or non IMF members
Country/Territory UN Region IMF[5][6] World Bank[7] CIA[8][9][10]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
Ireland * Europe 145,196 2023 106,352 2021 102,500 2021
Luxembourg * Europe 142,490 2023 134,545 2021 115,700 2021
Liechtenstein * Europe 139,100 2009
Singapore * Asia 133,895 2023 116,487 2021 106,000 2021
Qatar * Asia 124,834 2023 102,018 2021 92,200 2021
Monaco * Europe 115,700 2015
Macau * Asia 89,558 2023 71,186 2021 64,800 2021
United Arab Emirates * Asia 88,221 2023 76,609 2021 69,700 2021
Bermuda * Americas 88,186 2021 80,300 2021
Switzerland * Europe 87,963 2023 77,274 2021 71,000 2021
Isle of Man * Europe 84,600 2014
Norway * Europe 82,655 2023 79,201 2021 65,700 2021
United States * Americas 80,035 2023 69,288 2021 63,700 2021
San Marino * Europe 78,926 2023 59,451 2020 56,400 2020
Brunei * Asia 75,583 2023 66,055 2021 60,100 2021
Hong Kong * Asia 74,598 2023 65,892 2021 60,000 2021
Cayman Islands * Americas 74,155 2021 67,500 2021
Denmark * Europe 73,386 2023 64,651 2021 58,000 2021
Taiwan * Asia 73,344 2023 50,500 2017
Netherlands * Europe 72,973 2023 63,768 2021 56,600 2021
Falkland Islands * Americas 70,800 2015
Iceland * Europe 69,779 2023 57,612 2021 53,600 2020
Austria * Europe 69,502 2023 58,431 2021 54,100 2021
Andorra * Europe 68,998 2023 49,900 2015
Germany * Europe 66,132 2023 57,881 2021 53,100 2021
Sweden * Europe 65,842 2023 59,324 2021 53,600 2021
Belgium * Europe 65,501 2023 58,905 2021 51,700 2021
Australia * Oceania 65,366 2023 56,281 2021 49,800 2021
Saudi Arabia * Asia 64,836 2023 48,711 2021 44,300 2021
Malta * Europe 61,939 2023 48,582 2021 44,700 2021
Gibraltar * Europe 61,700 2014
Finland * Europe 60,897 2023 55,013 2021 48,800 2021
Guyana * Americas 60,648 2023 24,087 2021 21,900 2021
Bahrain * Asia 60,596 2023 54,257 2021 49,400 2021
Canada * Americas 60,177 2023 52,085 2021 47,900 2021
France * Europe 58,828 2023 50,541 2021 45,000 2021
European Union *[n 1] Europe 56,929 2023 48,481 2021 44,436 2019
South Korea * Asia 56,706 2023 47,243 2021 44,200 2021
Jersey * Europe 56,600 2016
United Kingdom * Europe 56,471 2023 49,675 2021 45,000 2021
Israel * Asia 54,997 2023 43,722 2021 42,100 2021
Cyprus * Asia 54,611 [n 2]2023 44,110 [n 2]2021 41,700 [n 2]2021
Italy * Europe 54,216 2023 45,902 2021 41,900 2021
New Zealand * Oceania 54,046 2023 46,420 2021 42,900 2021
Kuwait * Asia 53,037 2023 46,328 2020 43,900 2020
Slovenia * Europe 52,641 2023 43,603 2021 40,000 2021
Guernsey * Europe 52,500 2014
Japan * Asia 51,809 2023 42,940 2021 40,800 2021
Czech Republic * Europe 50,961 2023 45,094 2021 40,700 2020
Aruba * Americas 49,627 2023 42,698 2021 38,900 2021
Spain * Europe 49,448 2023 40,699 2021 37,900 2021
Lithuania * Europe 49,266 2023 42,581 2021 39,300 2021
Estonia * Europe 46,385 2023 42,138 2021 38,700 2021
Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Americas 46,200 2006
Poland * Europe 45,343 2023 37,837 2021 34,900 2021
Portugal * Europe 44,707 2023 35,799 2021 33,700 2021
Bahamas * Americas 43,913 2023 33,189 2021 30,200 2021
Hungary * Europe 43,907 2023 36,753 2021 33,600 2021
Puerto Rico * Americas 43,845 2023 35,850 2021 32,600 2021
Croatia * Europe 42,531 2023 34,314 2021 31,600 2021
Oman * Asia 42,188 2023 37,676 2021 34,300 2021
Greenland * Americas 41,800 2015
Romania * Europe 41,634 2023 35,870 2021 30,800 2021
Slovakia * Europe 41,515 2023 33,010 2021 31,900 2021
Turkey * Asia 41,412 2023 30,737 2021 31,500 2021
Latvia * Europe 40,256 2023 34,444 2021 32,100 2021
Panama * Americas 40,177 2023 31,901 2021 29,000 2021
Faroe Islands * Europe 40,000 2014
Seychelles * Africa 39,662 2023 31,596 2021 28,800 2021
Greece * Europe 39,478 2023 31,364 2021 29,500 2021
U.S. Virgin Islands * Americas 37,000 2016
Malaysia * Asia 36,847 2023 28,930 2021 26,300 2021
Maldives * Asia 36,358 2023 20,615 2021 18,800 2021
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) * Americas 35,973 2018 35,300 2018
Guam * Oceania 35,600 2016
Russia * Europe 34,837 2023 32,863 2021 28,000 2021
British Virgin Islands * Americas 34,200 2017
Montserrat * Americas 34,000 2011
Kazakhstan * Asia 32,688 2023 28,685 2021 26,100 2021
Trinidad and Tobago * Americas 32,054 2023 25,309 2021 23,000 2021
Bulgaria * Europe 32,006 2023 27,926 2021 24,400 2020
New Caledonia * Oceania 31,100 2015
Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas 29,662 2023 29,097 2021 26,500 2021
Chile * Americas 29,613 2023 28,685 2021 25,400 2021
Mauritius * Africa 29,164 2023 23,035 2021 21,000 2021
Uruguay * Americas 28,740 2023 25,049 2021 22,800 2021
Montenegro * Europe 27,761 2023 23,285 2021 20,600 2021
Argentina * Americas 27,261 2023 23,650 2021 21,500 2021
Costa Rica * Americas 26,422 2023 23,320 2021 21,200 2021
Dominican Republic * Americas 25,896 2023 20,463 2021 18,600 2021
Serbia * Europe 25,432 2023 21,504 2021 19,800 2021
Libya * Africa 24,599 2023 24,131 2021 22,000 2021
Northern Mariana Islands * Oceania 24,500 2016
Antigua and Barbuda * Americas 24,012 2023 21,010 2021 19,100 2021
Mexico * Americas 23,820 2023 20,277 2021 19,100 2021
Belarus * Europe 23,447 2023 21,699 2021 19,800 2021
China * Asia 23,382 [n 3]2023 19,338 [n 4]2021 17,600 [n 3]2021
Curaçao * Americas 22,832 2021 20,800 2021
Thailand * Asia 22,675 2023 18,761 2021 17,100 2021
World 22,226 [i]2023 18,604 2021 17,500 2017
Georgia * Asia 21,922 [n 5]2023 17,014 [n 5]2021 15,500 [n 5]2021
North Macedonia * Europe 21,111 2023 18,222 2021 16,500 2021
Turks and Caicos Islands * Americas 20,338 2021 18,500 2021
Grenada * Americas 20,075 2023 15,038 2021 13,700 2021
Turkmenistan * Asia 19,974 2023 15,625 2019 15,000 2019
Bosnia and Herzegovina * Europe 19,604 2023 17,377 2021 15,700 2021
Iran * Asia 19,548 2023 16,484 2021 12,400 2020
Armenia * Asia 19,489 2023 15,593 2021 14,200 2021
Colombia * Americas 19,460 2023 16,819 2021 14,600 2021
Botswana * Africa 19,398 2023 16,304 2021 14,800 2021
Saint Martin (French part) * Americas 19,300 2005
Gabon * Africa 19,197 2023 15,176 2021 13,800 2021
Albania * Europe 19,029 2023 15,709 2021 14,500 2021
Barbados * Americas 18,858 2023 15,111 2021 13,800 2021
Brazil * Americas 18,686 2023 16,031 2021 14,100 2020
Azerbaijan * Asia 18,669 2023 15,855 2021 14,400 2021
Equatorial Guinea * Africa 18,510 2023 16,080 2021 14,600 2021
Saint Lucia * Americas 18,435 2023 14,332 2021 13,000 2021
Suriname * Americas 18,427 2023 16,223 2021 14,800 2021
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Americas 17,793 2023 15,045 2021 13,700 2021
French Polynesia * Oceania 17,000 2015
Egypt * Africa 16,979 2023 12,706 2021 11,600 2021
Moldova * Europe 16,840 [n 6]2023 15,391 [n 6]2021 14,000 [n 6]2021
Cook Islands * Oceania 16,700 2016
Palau * Oceania 16,394 2023 15,145 2021 13,800 2021
Peru * Americas 16,132 2023 13,749 2021 12,500 2021
South Africa * Africa 16,091 2023 14,624 2021 13,300 2021
Indonesia * Asia 15,855 2023 13,027 2021 11,900 2021
Fiji * Oceania 15,727 2023 11,381 2021 10,400 2021
Kosovo * Europe 15,620 2023 13,056 2021 11,900 2021
Paraguay * Americas 15,578 2023 15,037 2021 13,700 2021
Mongolia * Asia 14,939 2023 12,819 2021 11,700 2021
Vietnam * Asia 14,458 2023 11,676 2021 10,600 2021
Sri Lanka * Asia 14,223 2023 14,707 2021 13,400 2021
Bhutan * Asia 14,170 2023 11,983 2021 10,900 2021
Dominica * Americas 14,161 2023 11,951 2021 10,900 2021
Ukraine * Europe 13,901 [n 7]2023 14,220 [n 7]2021 12,900 [n 7]2021
Ecuador * Americas 13,513 2023 11,721 2021 10,700 2021
Algeria * Africa 13,507 2023 12,128 2021 11,000 2021
Tunisia * Africa 13,270 2023 11,283 2021 10,400 2021
Iraq * Asia 12,927 2023 9,846 2021 9,000 2021
Jordan * Asia 12,893 2023 10,133 2021 9,200 2021
Jamaica * Americas 12,887 2023 10,543 2021 9,600 2021
Cuba * Americas 12,300 2016
Anguilla * Americas 12,200 2008
El Salvador * Americas 11,647 2023 9,982 2021 9,100 2021
Eswatini * Africa 11,492 2023 9,730 2021 8,900 2021
Namibia * Africa 11,440 2023 10,039 2021 9,100 2021
Philippines * Asia 11,420 2023 8,893 2021 8,100 2021
Lebanon * Asia 11,377 2020 14,257 2021 13,000 2021
Nauru * Oceania 11,342 2023 13,125 2021 11,900 2021
American Samoa * Oceania 11,200 2016
Belize * Americas 10,939 2023 9,627 2021 8,800 2021
Guatemala * Americas 10,546 2023 9,807 2021 8,900 2021
Morocco * Africa 10,460 2023 8,853 2021 8,100 [n 8]2021
Bolivia * Americas 10,327 2023 8,846 2021 8,100 2021
Uzbekistan * Asia 10,308 2023 8,497 2021 7,700 2021
Laos * Asia 9,801 2023 8,621 2021 7,800 2021
Cape Verde * Africa 9,661 [n 9]2023 6,717 [n 9]2021 6,100 [n 9]2021
India * Asia 9,073 2023 7,242 2021 6,600 2021
Bangladesh * Asia 8,663 2023 6,494 2021 5,900 2021
Venezuela * Americas 8,028 2023 17,402 2011 7,704 2018
Saint Helena, Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha
Africa 7,800 2010
Nicaragua * Americas 7,601 2023 6,195 2021 5,600 2021
Mauritania * Africa 7,437 2023 5,831 2021 5,300 2021
Honduras * Americas 7,228 2023 6,122 2021 5,600 2021
Angola * Africa 7,222 2023 6,491 2021 5,900 2021
Tonga * Oceania 7,125 2023 6,749 2021 6,100 2021
Ivory Coast * Africa 7,011 2023 5,850 2021 5,300 2021
Ghana * Africa 6,974 2023 5,971 2021 5,400 2021
Djibouti * Africa 6,894 2023 5,398 2021 4,900 2021
Pakistan * Asia 6,836 2023 5,748 2021 5,200 2021
Palestine * Asia 6,688 [n 10]2023 6,200 [n 10]2021 5,600 [n 11]2021
Kenya * Africa 6,569 2023 5,211 2021 4,700 2021
Samoa * Oceania 6,324 2023 6,080 2021 5,500 2021
Kyrgyzstan * Asia 6,250 2023 5,290 2021 4,800 2021
Nigeria * Africa 6,178 2023 5,408 2021 4,900 2021
Cambodia * Asia 6,092 2023 4,784 2021 4,400 2021
Tokelau * Oceania 6,004 2017
Niue * Oceania 5,800 2003
Tuvalu * Oceania 5,797 2023 5,410 2021 4,900 2021
Tajikistan * Asia 5,293 2023 4,288 2021 3,900 2021
Congo * Africa 5,155 2023 3,553 2021 3,200 2021
Myanmar * Asia 5,132 2023 4,430 2021 4,400 [n 12]2021
Nepal * Asia 5,101 2023 4,210 2021 3,800 2021
São Tomé and Príncipe * Africa 4,874 2023 4,452 2021 4,100 2020
Marshall Islands * Oceania 4,669 2023 6,550 2021 6,000 2021
Cameroon * Africa 4,665 2023 4,065 2021 3,700 2021
Papua New Guinea * Oceania 4,516 2023 4,040 2021 3,700 2022
Senegal * Africa 4,515 2023 3,840 2021 3,500 2021
Sudan * Africa 4,471 2023 4,066 2021 3,700 2021
Benin * Africa 4,300 2023 3,649 2021 3,300 2021
Zambia * Africa 4,041 2023 3,556 2021 3,200 2021
Micronesia * Oceania 3,931 2023 3,642 2021 3,300 2021
Wallis and Futuna * Oceania 3,800 2004
Ethiopia * Africa 3,724 2023 2,548 2021 2,300 2021
East Timor * Asia 3,637 2023 5,529 2021 5,000 2021
Tanzania * Africa 3,600 2023 2,836 2021 2,600 2021
Comoros * Africa 3,463 2023 3,547 2021 3,200 2021
Lesotho * Africa 3,251 2023 2,522 2021 2,300 2021
Haiti * Americas 3,248 2023 3,153 2021 2,900 2021
Uganda * Africa 3,224 2023 2,468 2021 2,200 2021
Guinea * Africa 3,218 2023 2,901 2021 2,600 2021
Rwanda * Africa 3,090 2023 2,460 2021 2,200 2021
Guinea-Bissau * Africa 3,072 2023 2,012 2021 1,800 2021
Vanuatu * Oceania 3,001 2023 3,057 2021 2,800 2021
Syria * Asia 6,374 [11]2010 2,900 2015
Gambia Africa 2,804 2023 2,281 2021 2,100 2021
Togo * Africa 2,754 2023 2,334 2021 2,100 2021
Burkina Faso * Africa 2,726 2023 2,395 2021 2,200 2021
Mali * Africa 2,656 2023 2,330 2021 2,100 2021
Zimbabwe * Africa 2,627 2023 2,324 2021 2,100 2021
Afghanistan * Asia 2,456 2020 1,666 2021 1,500 2021
Solomon Islands * Oceania 2,414 2023 2,649 2021 2,400 2021
Kiribati * Oceania 2,381 2023 2,128 2021 1,900 2021
Eritrea * Africa 2,188 2023 1,629 2011 1,600 2017
Sierra Leone * Africa 2,082 2023 1,774 2021 1,600 2021
Yemen * Asia 2,042 2023 3,437 2013 2,500 2017
Madagascar * Africa 1,916 2023 1,608 2021 1,500 2021
Liberia * Africa 1,788 2023 1,564 2021 1,400 2021
Chad * Africa 1,787 2023 1,566 2021 1,400 2021
North Korea * Asia 1,700 2015
Malawi * Africa 1,682 2023 1,638 2021 1,500 2021
Niger * Africa 1,600 2023 1,304 2021 1,200 2021
Mozambique * Africa 1,556 2023 1,348 2021 1,200 2021
DR Congo * Africa 1,474 2023 1,180 2021 1,100 2021
Somalia * Africa 1,374 2023 1,249 2021 1,100 2021
Central African Republic * Africa 1,127 2023 920 2021 800 2021
Burundi * Africa 891 2023 775 2021 700 2021
South Sudan * Africa 516 2023 1,182 2015 1,600 2017

### Footnotes

1. ^ There is no explicit "GDP (PPP) per capita" World estimate provided by the IMF. For this figure, the GDP (PPP) world value[6] has been divided by the global population acc to the IMF.[12]
1. ^ The EU is included because it is much more than a free-trade association like ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. -- See: "The World Factbook". CIA. 2014. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2022. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. -- However, because the EU is an organization and not a sovereign state, it does not receive a ranking in this list.
2. ^ a b c Data is for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
3. ^ a b IMF and CIA figures exclude Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
4. ^ World Bank figures exclude the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
5. ^ a b c Excludes data for Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
6. ^ a b c Excludes data for Transnistria.
7. ^ a b c Figures exclude the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
8. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
9. ^ a b c Referred to as "Cabo Verde".
10. ^ a b Referred to as "West Bank and Gaza" in the IMF and World Bank reports.
11. ^ CIA registers 2 separate entries for Palestine: "West Bank" and "Gaza Strip". Figures for West Bank include the Gaza Strip -- see "The World Factbook - West Bank". CIA.gov. 15 November 2022.
12. ^ Referred to as "Burma".

## Expanding the coverage of illegal economic activities in euro area national accounts

The share of the shadow economy is significant in many European countries, ranging from less than 10 to over 40 percent of GDP.[13] Since 2014, EU member states have been encouraged by Eurostat, the official statistics body, to include some illegal activities.[14][15][16]

## Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[17] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[18] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global foreign direct investment flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[19]

A stunning \$12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world's investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[19]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[20]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[21]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[22][23]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6   Norway Oil & Gas
7   Kuwait Oil & Gas
8   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10   San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11   United States 59,495
12   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13   Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14   Iceland 52,150
15   Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8   Norway Oil & Gas
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9   United States 57,467
10   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11   Iceland 51,399
12   Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13   Austria 50,078
14   Denmark 49,496
15   Sweden 49,175

## Notes

1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimates for world average by the IMF. For calculating 2019 data, the total GDP estimate by IMF[1] has been divided by the total population estimate by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

## References

1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
3. ^
4. ^
5. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2023". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 April 2023. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
6. ^ a b "WEO Database, April 2023. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: World, EU". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 April 2023. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
7. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
8. ^ Real GDP per capita, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 19 October 2022.
9. ^ "The World Factbook - European Union". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
10. ^ "The World Factbook - World". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
11. ^ "WEO Database, April 2023. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Syria". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 April 2023. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
12. ^ "IMF DataMapper / Datasets / World Economic Outlook (April 2023) / Population". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 April 2023. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
13. ^ "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options". International Monetary Fund. November 2019.
14. ^ "Sizing Up Black Markets and Red-Light Districts for G.D.P." The New York Times. 9 July 2014.
15. ^ "GDP to include illegal activity". Financier Worldwide Magazine. August 2014.
16. ^
17. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
18. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R. Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
19. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
20. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
21. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
22. ^ "PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
23. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.