The Margarodidae (illegitimately as Margodidae) or ground pearls are a family of scale insects within the superfamily Coccoidea. Members of the family include the Polish cochineal and Armenian cochineal (genus Porphyrophora) and the original ground pearl genus, Margarodes. Beginning in 1880, a number of distinct subfamilies were recognized, with the giant coccids (the Monophlebidae) being the first.[4] Although Maskell proposed a new family, many continued to regard the monophlebids as a mere subfamily for many years,[5] and the Margarodidae classification[1][6] continued to be polyphyletic through the 20th Century.[5] Since then, taking the advice of Koteja[7] several subfamilies and tribes have been elevated into their own families such as Matsucoccidae and Xylococcidae.[2] The pared-down family of Margarodidae (Margarodidae sensu stricto or Margarodidae s. s.) is monophyletic.[2][8]

Female "Porphyrophora hamelii"
Female Porphyrophora hamelii
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
Superfamily: Coccoidea
Family: Margarodidae
Morrison, 1928[1][2]

See text

  • Termitococcidae Jakubski, 1965[2][3]

List of generaEdit

Former generaEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Morrison, Harold (1928). A classification of the higher groups and genera of the coccid family Margarodidae. USDA Technical Bulletin, 52. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture.
  2. ^ a b c d Foldi, Imre (2005). "Ground pearls: a generic revision of the Margarodidae sensu stricto (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea)" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. New Series. 41 (1): 81–125. doi:10.1080/00379271.2005.10697442. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 May 2012.
  3. ^ Vahedi, Hassan‐Ali & Hodgson, C. J. (2007). "Some species of the hypogeal scale insect Porphyrophora Brandt (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Margarodidae) from Europe, the Middle East and North Africa". Systematics and Biodiversity. 5 (1): 23–122. doi:10.1017/S1477200006002039.
  4. ^ Maskell recognized the Monophlebidae as a separate family that year, Maskell, W. M. (1880). "Further notes on New Zealand Coccidae". Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 12: 291–301.
  5. ^ a b Gullan, P. J. & Sjaarda, A. W. (2001). "Trans‐Tasman Platycoelostoma Morrison (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Margarodidae) on endemic Cupressaceae, and the phylogenetic history of margarodids". Systematic Entomology. 26 (3): 257–278. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3113.2001.00145.x.
  6. ^ Jakubski, Antoni Władysław (1965). A Critical Revision of the Families Margarodidae and Termitococcidae (Hemiptera, Coccidoidea). London: Trustees of the British Museum, Natural History.
  7. ^ Koteja, J. (1974). "On the phylogeny and classification of the scale insects (Homoptera, Coccinea) (discussion based on the morphology of the mouthparts)". Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. 19: 267–325.
  8. ^ Hodgson, Chris J. & Hardy, Nate B. (2013). "The phylogeny of the superfamily Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) based on the morphology of extant and extinct macropterous males". Systematic Entomology. 38 (4): 794–804. doi:10.1111/syen.12030.

External linksEdit