Panjnad River

The Panjnad River (Punjabi and Urdu: پنجند) is a river at the extreme end of Bahawalpur district in Punjab, Pakistan. The name Panjnad means "five rivers", from Sanskrit pancha ("five") and nadī́ ("river").The Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence or merger of the five rivers of the Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.[1][2][3][4]

Panjnad River
Path of the Panjnad [1]
Native nameپنجند (Punjabi)
Physical characteristics
MouthIndus River
 • location
 • coordinates
28°56′59.99″N 70°29′59.99″E / 28.9499972°N 70.4999972°E / 28.9499972; 70.4999972
Length71 km (44 mi)
Basin size395,000 km2 (153,000 sq mi)
 • locationMithankot (near mouth)
 • average2,500 m3/s (88,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
 • leftChenab
 • rightSutlej

Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab, Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad, 10 miles north of Uch Sharif in Muzaffar Garh district. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 44 miles and joins the Indus River at Mithankot. The Indus Rver continues and then drains into the Arabian Sea. A barrage on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sindh provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers.[1]

Beyond the confluence of the Indus and Panjnad rivers, the Indus River was known as Satnad (Sat = seven) carrying the waters of seven rivers including the Indus River, the five Punjab rivers, and the Kabul River.


  1. ^ a b Panjnad River on Encyclopædia Britannica website Retrieved 16 January 2021
  2. ^ Topography and Drainage of Pakistan on website Retrieved 16 January 2021
  3. ^ Panjnad River with major tributaries of Indus River
  4. ^ "Trimmu and Panjnad Barrages Improvement Project: Rehabilitation and Upgrading of Panjnad Barrage - Asian Development Bank Project Document Page No. 25".

See alsoEdit