China (Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It has a population exceeding 1.4 billion. China spans the equivalent of five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world. With an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and largest financial center is Shanghai.

Modern China traces its origins to a cradle of civilization in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. The mythical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors marks the beginning of a shared identity. The semi-legendary Xia dynasty in the 21st century BCE and the Shang and Zhou dynasties developed a political system to serve hereditary monarchies. Written script was developed and inscription of Bronze and engraving of Oracle bone became common. Classic literature, and the Hundred Schools of Thought emerged during this period and influenced the region and beyond for centuries to come. In the third century BCE, the Qin dynasty ended the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period when Qin Shi Huangdi assumed the self-invented title of Huangdi (Emperor of China). Fractured by the uprising peasants, the Qin was replaced by Liu Bang's Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE). Together they laid the foundation for a political tradition of nearly two millennia in which the Chinese empire was one of the world's foremost economic powers. The empire expanded, fractured, and reunified; absorbed foreign religions and ideas; and made world-leading scientific advances, such as the Four Great Inventions: gunpowder, paper, the compass, and printing. After centuries of disunity following the fall of the Han, the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) dynasties reunified the empire. The Tang welcomed foreign trade and culture over the Silk Road and adapted Buddhism to their needs. The early modern Song dynasty (960–1279) became urban and commercial while the civilian scholar-officials or literati adopted the examination system and the doctrines of Neo-Confucianism to replace the military aristocrats of earlier dynasties. The Mongol established the Yuan dynasty in 1279 before the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) re-established Han Chinese control. The Manchu-led Qing dynasty affirmed its control further and established the basis for the modern Chinese nation, although subsequently suffered significant losses to European imperialism in the 19th century.

China is a unitary one-party socialist republic led by the CCP. It is one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council and a founding member of several multilateral and regional organizations such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund, the New Development Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and the RCEP. It is also a member of the BRICS, the G8+5, the G20, the APEC, and the East Asia Summit. China ranks poorly in measures of democracy, transparency, press freedom, religious freedom, and ethnic equality. The Chinese authorities are often criticized for human rights abuses. Making up around one-fifth of the world economy, China is the world's largest economy by GDP at purchasing power parity, the second-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the second-wealthiest country. The country is one of the fastest-growing major economies and is the world's largest manufacturer and exporter, as well as the second-largest importer. China is a nuclear-weapon state with the world's largest standing army by military personnel and the second-largest defense budget. (Full article...)

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The opening of the short-lived Woosung Road, the first railway in China, between Shanghai and Wusong in 1876.

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In the news

28 May 2023 –
The Comac C919, China's first domestically-built passenger jet, completes its first commercial flight from Shanghai to Beijing by China Eastern Airlines. (AP)
18 May 2023 –
Eleven people are killed in Guangxi, China, when a vehicle carrying 14 passengers falls off a cliff into a pool of water. (Al Arabiya)
17 May 2023 – Lu Peng Yuan Yu sinking
The Chinese government reports that the fishing vessel Lu Peng Yuan Yu 028 capsized in the central Indian Ocean on Tuesday. China and other countries are conducting search operations for 39 sailors, including Chinese, Indonesian, and Filipino nationals. (AP via NBC News) (DW)
17 May 2023 – Censorship of TikTok, Restrictions on TikTok in the United States
Montana Governor Greg Gianforte signs a bill banning TikTok, making Montana the first U.S. state to ban the Chinese-owned social media app. (Reuters)
15 May 2023 – China–United States relations
China convicts and sentences American citizen John Shing-Wan Leung to life in prison for espionage. (AP)
9 May 2023 – Canada–China relations
The Government of Canada expels Chinese diplomat Zhao Wei following allegations that Zhao targeted Canadian politician Michael Chong. China has denied the allegations and stated that the action would undermine bilateral relations. (CNN)

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China's Politics

Emblem of the Communist Party of China
Xi Jinping

The General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, officially General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, is head of the Chinese Communist Party and the highest-ranking official within China, a standing member of the Politburo and head of the Secretariat. The officeholder is usually considered the paramount leader of China.

According to the Constitution, the General Secretary serves as an ex officio member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body. Since the early 1990s, the holder of the post has been, except for transitional periods, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making the holder the Commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army.

The current General Secretary is Xi Jinping (picture), who took the office at the 18th National Congress on 15 November 2012.

National Emblem of the Republic of China
Tsai Ing-wen

The President of the Republic of China is the head of state of the Republic of China (ROC).

The Constitution names the president as head of state and commander-in-chief of the Republic of China Armed Forces (formerly known as the National Revolutionary Army). The president is responsible for conducting foreign relations, such as concluding treaties, declaring war, and making peace. The president must promulgate all laws and has no right to veto. Other powers of the president include granting amnesty, pardon or clemency, declaring martial law, and conferring honors and decorations.

The current President is Tsai Ing-wen (picture), since May 20, 2016. The first woman to be elected to the office, Tsai is the seventh president of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution and the second president from the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP).

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Wikipedias in languages found in China

粵語 / 广东话 (Cantonese)           古文 / 文言文 (Classical Chinese)           赣语 (Gan)           Hak-kâ-fa (Hakka)           قازاق تىلى (Kazakh)           中文 / 普通话 (Mandarin) (Now unable to access in
China Mainland because of the GFW)          
闽东语 (Min Dong)           闽南语 (Min-nan)           བོད་ཡིག (Tibetan)           ئۇيغۇرچە (Uyghur)           吴语 (Wu)           Sawcuengh (Zhuang)

Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Xiang (湘语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Pu-Xian Min (莆仙话) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Min Bei (闽北语)
Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator lahu (拉祜族,拉祜语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Nuosu (彝族,彝语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator hmong (苗族,苗语)
Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Bouyei (布依族,布依语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator manchu (满族,满语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Xong (苗族,湘西苗语)
Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Daw (苗族,白苗苗语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator xibo (锡伯族,锡伯语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator salar (撒拉族,撒拉语)
Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator цзинпо (景颇族,景颇语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Tai Nüa (傣族,德宏傣语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Amis (阿美族,阿美語)
Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator Western Yugur (裕固族,西部裕固语) Incubator-logo.svg wiki incubator northern tujia (土家族,北部土家语)

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