Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (listen ; Persian: دودمان قاجار Dudmân-e Qâjâr, Azerbaijani: Qacarlar قاجارلار)[a] was an Iranian[1] royal dynasty of Turkic origin,[2][3][4][5] specifically from the Qajar tribe, ruling over Iran from 1789 to 1925.[6][7] The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease,[8] putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects.[9] In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas[10] to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia.[11]

Qajar dynasty
Imperial Emblem of the Qajar Dynasty (Lion and Sun).svg
Parent houseQoyunlu line of Qajars tribe
CountrySublime State of Persia
FounderAgha Mohammad Shah (1789–1797)
Final rulerAhmad Shah (1909–1925)
TitlesShah of Iran
Cadet branchesBahmani family

Iran’s international trade developed speedily during the Qajar dynasty. From 1800 and 1914, the total value of imports and exports was estimated to have grown from some 2.5 million to 20 million pounds sterling (at 2015 rates).[12]

Qajar Shahs of Iran, 1789–1925Edit

Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office
1 Mohammad Khan Qajar   Khan[13]
1742–1797 1789[14] 17 June 1797
2 Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar   Shahanshah[13]
1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834
3 Mohammad Shah Qajar   Khaqan son of Khaqan[13] 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848
4 Naser al-Din Shah Qajar   Zell'ollah (Shadow of God [on earth])[13]
Qebleh-ye 'ālam (Pivot of the Universe)[13]
Islampanah (Refuge of Islam)[13]
1831–1896 5 September 1848 1 May 1896
5 Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar   1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907
6 Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar   1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909
7 Ahmad Shah Qajar   1898–1930 16 July 1909 31 October 1925

Qajar imperial familyEdit

The Qajar Imperial Family in exile is currently headed by the eldest descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah, Sultan Mohammad Ali Mirza Qajar, while the Heir Presumptive to the Qajar throne is Mohammad Hassan Mirza II, the grandson of Mohammad Hassan Mirza, Sultan Ahmad Shah's brother and heir. Mohammad Hassan Mirza died in England in 1943, having proclaimed himself shah in exile in 1930 after the death of his brother in France.

Today, the descendants of the Qajars often identify themselves as such and hold reunions to stay socially acquainted through the Kadjar (Qajar) Family Association,[15] often coinciding with the annual conferences and meetings of the International Qajar Studies Association (IQSA). The Kadjar (Qajar) Family Association was founded for a third time in 2000. Two earlier family associations were stopped because of political pressure. The offices and archives of IQSA are housed at the International Museum for Family History in Eijsden.

Titles and stylesEdit

The shah and his consort were styled Imperial Majesty. Their children were addressed as Imperial Highness, while male-line grandchildren were entitled to the lower style of Highness; all of them bore the title of Shahzadeh or Shahzadeh Khanoum.[16]

Qajar dynasty since 1925Edit

Heads of the Qajar Imperial Family

The headship of the Imperial Family is inherited by the eldest male descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah.

Heirs Presumptive of the Qajar dynasty

The Heir Presumptive is the Qajar heir to the Persian throne.

Notable membersEdit

Social work


Women's rights
  • Princess Mohtaram Eskandari, intellectual and pioneering figures in Iranian women's movement.[17]
  • Dr. Iran Teymourtash (Légion d'honneur) (1914–1991), journalist, editor and publisher of the newspaper Rastakhiz, founder of an association for helping destitute women. Daughter of court minister Abdolhossein Teymourtash and through both her maternal grandparents a Qajar.[18]

Family treeEdit

Mothers of Qajar ShahsEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Also romanized as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.


  1. ^ Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3
  2. ^ Cyrus Ghani. Iran and the Rise of the Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power, I. B. Tauris, 2000, ISBN 1-86064-629-8, p. 1
  3. ^ William Bayne Fisher. Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 344, ISBN 0-521-20094-6
  4. ^ Dr Parviz Kambin, A History of the Iranian Plateau: Rise and Fall of an Empire, Universe, 2011, p. 36, online edition.
  5. ^ Jamie Stokes and Anthony Gorman, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, 2010, p. 707, Online Edition: "The Safavid and Qajar dynasties, rulers in Iran from 1501 to 1722 and from 1795 to 1925 respectively, were Turkic in origin."
  6. ^ Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3; "In the 126 years between the fall of the Safavid state in 1722 and the accession of Nasir al-Din Shah, the Qajars evolved from a shepherd-warrior tribe with strongholds in northern Iran into a Persian dynasty."
  7. ^ Choueiri, Youssef M., A companion to the history of the Middle East, (Blackwell Ltd., 2005), 231,516.
  8. ^ H. Scheel; Jaschke, Gerhard; H. Braun; Spuler, Bertold; T Koszinowski; Bagley, Frank (1981). Muslim World. Brill Archive. pp. 65, 370. ISBN 978-90-04-06196-5. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  9. ^ Michael Axworthy. Iran: Empire of the Mind: A History from Zoroaster to the Present Day, Penguin UK, 6 November 2008. ISBN 0141903414
  10. ^ Fisher et al. 1991, p. 330.
  11. ^ Timothy C. Dowling. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond, pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 December 2014 ISBN 1598849484
  12. ^ Gilbar, Gad G. (2015). "Qajar Dynasty viii. "Big Merchants" in the Late Qajar Period". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Archived from the original on 8 December 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2023. Between 1800 and 1914, total visible trade (combined figures for imports and exports) is likely to have risen from some 2.5 million to 20 million pounds sterling (in current prices).
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Amanat, Abbas (1997), Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896, Comparative studies on Muslim societies, I. B. Tauris, p. 10, ISBN 9781860640971
  14. ^ Perry, J. R. (1984). "ĀḠĀ MOḤAMMAD KHAN QĀJĀR". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. I/6. pp. 602–605. in Ramażān, 1210/ March, 1796, he was officially crowned shah of Iran.
  15. ^ "Qajar People". Qajars. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  16. ^ "Qajar (Kadjar) Titles and Appellations". Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  17. ^ Paidar 1997, p. 95.
  18. ^ L. A. Ferydoun Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn (Khosrovani) (ed.), "Qajar Studies". Journal of the International Qaja Studies Association, vol. X–XI, Rotterdam, Gronsveld, Santa Barbara and Tehran 2011, p. 220.
  19. ^ Caton 1988.


External linksEdit

Royal house
Qajar dynasty
Preceded by Ruling house of Iran
Succeeded by