Sayyid[a] (UK: /sɪd, ˈsjɪd/, US: /ˈsɑːjɪd/;[6][7][8] Arabic: سيد [ˈsæjjɪd]; Persian: [sejˈjed]; meaning 'sir', 'Lord', 'Master';[9] Arabic plural: سادة sādah; feminine: سيدة sayyidah; Persian: [sejˈjede]) is an honorific surname of Muslims recognized as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali,[10]: 31  sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatima and his cousin and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).[11]: 149 

Sayyid
سيد
Hazrat Ishaan.jpg
Portrait of the Grand Sayyid Hazrat Ishaan. In the Mughal and Ottoman Empire, Muhammad's descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green clothes (shawls, turbans and mantles).
Regions with significant populations
Islamic countries
Religions
Islam
Languages
Arabic, Persian,Somali,Urdu and others[1][2][3][4][5]
Related ethnic groups
Mirza, Alids (mainly Hasanids and Husaynids)
Portrait of Sayyid Abdul Qadir Gilani who is venerated by Sunnis as the highest Sayyid (Persian: Mir-e-Miran) with the title Ghaus-e-Azam.

Origin of the TitleEdit

The foundation of the title Sayyid is unclear. In fact the title Sayyid as a unified reference for descendants of Muhammad did not exist according to Monimoto until the Mongol conquests.[12] This can be substantiated by historic records about Abdul Qadir Gilani and Bahauddin Naqshband, who did not refer to themselves with any title, despite their lineages to Muhammad. This gives reasons to think that this title is founded later on. Monimoto refers to Mominov, who describes that the emergence of a community leader during the Mongol era (Ilkhanate) gave rise to the prominence of the title Sayyid.[13] This leader is most probably the Sunni Shafiite scholar Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, who lived in this time, being known as a saint credited with the honorific titles "Amir-e-Kabir"(English: Grand Prince) and "Ali-e-Saani" (English: Second Ali).[14] Hamadani´s religious legacy in Kashmir as well as his headquarter (Persian: Khanqah) the Khanqa-e-Mola became under the control of the Grand Sayyid Hazrat Ishaan. Hazrat Ishaan´s descendants are buried in Hamadani´s headquarter, on which occasion it is known as the Ziyarat Naqshband Sahab today.[15][16][17]

Shia IslamEdit

In Shia Islam, with the advent of the Safavids a male person with a non-Sayyid father and a Sayyida mother claims the title of Mirza. Shiites only demand a patrilineal lineage to Ali ibn Abi Talib according to Khamenei, regarding Sayyid solely as a patrilineal tribalistic title by birth. The highest Sayyid is the Imam or the representative in light of the Khomeinist Wilayat-e-Faqih-doctrine in Shia doctrine, that would be Khamenei today.[18][19][20]

Sunni IslamEdit

However in Sunni Islam as practiced in the Ottoman and Mughal Empire, a person descending from Muhammad (either maternally or paternally) can only claim the title of Sayyid meritocratically by passing audits, whereupon exclusive rights, like paying lesser taxes, will be granted. These are mostly based on the claimant's demonstrated knowledge of the Quran and piousness (Arabic: Taqwa) under the assessment of a Naqib al-Ashraf, also known as a Mir in Persian-speaking countries.[21][22][23] Notable examples of such a Naqib (plural: "Nuqaba") or Mirs (plural: "Miran"), were Hazrat Ishaan in the Mughal Empire and his descendant Sayyid Mir Fazlullah Agha in Royal Afghanistan.[21]

EtymologyEdit

A few Arabic language experts state that it has its roots in the word al-asad الأسد, meaning "lion", probably because of the qualities of valour and leadership.[24]: 158 [25]: 265  The word is derived from the verb sāda, meaning to rule. The surname seyyid/sayyid existed before Islam, however not in light of a specific descent, but as a meritocratic sign of respect.[26]

Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic defines seyyid as a translation for master, chief, sovereign, or lord.[27] It also denotes someone respected and of high status.

In the Arab world, sayyid is the equivalent of the English word "liege lord" or "master" when referring to a descendant of Muhammad, as for example in Sayyid Ali Sultan.[28] [29]

StatisticsEdit

Although reliable statistics are unavailable, conservative estimates put the number of Sayyids in the tens of millions.[30]

TraditionsEdit

Traditionally, Islam has had a rich history of the veneration of relics, especially of those attributed to Muhammad.[31] The most genuine prophetic relics are believed to be those housed in the Hirkai Serif Odasi (Chamber of the Holy Mantle) in Istanbul's Topkapı Palace.[32][33][34]

Indication of descentEdit

The indication of descendants of Muhammad through the Twelve Imams via surnames in Arabic, Persian and Urdu include the following:[35]

Ancestor Arabic style Arabic last name Persian last name Urdu last name
Ali ibn Abi Talib al-Alawi العلوی او الهاشمی al-Alawi العلوی

al-Hashimi الهاشمي

Alavii, Alavi, or Alawi Alawi or Hashimi or Awan or Hashemi
Hasan ibn Ali al-Hasani الحسني او الهاشمي al-Hasani الحسني al-Bolkiah البلقية al-Alawi العلوی

al-Hashimi الهاشمي

Hashemi هاشمی

Hassani حسنى

Hashmi ہاشمی or

Hassani حسنی

Husayn ibn Ali al-Hussaini1 الحُسيني al-Hussaini الحسيني Hussaini حسيني Hussaini حسيني
Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin al-Abidi العابدي al-Abidi العابدي Abedi عابدى Abidi or Abdi عابدی
Muhammad al-Baqir al-Baqiri الباقري al-Baqiri الباقري Baqiri باقری Baqri باقری
Ja'far al-Sadiq al-Ja'fari الجعفري al-Ja'fari or al-Sadiq/Sadegh الصدق او الجعفري Jafari or Sadeghi جعفرى/ صادقی Jafri or Jafry جعفری or Jaffery shamsi جعفری‌شمسی
Zayd ibn Ali az-Zaidi الزيدي al-Zaydi الزيدي Zaydi زیدی Zaidi زیدی
Musa al-Kadhim al-Moussawi الموسوي او الكاظمي al-Moussawi or al-Kadhimi الموسوي او الكاظمي Moosavi or Kazemi موسوى / کاظمى Kazmi کاظمی
Ali al-Ridha ar-Radawi الرضوي al-Ridawi or al-Radawi الرضوي Razavi or Rezavi رضوى Rizvi or Rizavi رضوی
Muhammad at-Taqi at-Taqawi التقوي al-Taqawi التقوي Taqavi تقوى Taqvi تقوی
Ali al-Hadi an-Naqawi النقوي al-Naqawi النقوي or al-Bukhari البخاري or al-Qasimi القاسمی Naghavi نقوى Naqvi نقوی or Bhaakri/Bukhari بھاکری/بخاری
Hasan al-Askari[36][37][38] al-Askari العسکري al-Askari العسکري Sadat سادات Dakik دقيق or Hazrat Ishaan حضرت ایشان Dakik دقيق or Hazrat Ishaan حضرت ایشان

Note: (For non-Arabic speakers) When transliterating Arabic words into English there are two approaches.

  • 1. The user may transliterate the word letter for letter (e.g., "الزيدي" becomes "a-l-z-ai-d-i").
  • 2. The user may transcribe the pronunciation of the word (e.g., "الزيدي" becomes "a-zz-ai-d-i"); in Arabic grammar, some consonants (n, r, s, sh, t and z) cancel the l (ل) from the word "the" al (ال) (see sun and moon letters). When the user sees the prefixes an, ar, as, ash, at, az, etc... this means the word is the transcription of the pronunciation.
  • An i, wi (Arabic), or i, vi (Persian) ending could perhaps be translated by the English suffixes -ite or -ian. The suffix transforms a personal name or place name into the name of a group of people connected by lineage or place of birth. Hence Ahmad al-Hassani could be translated as Ahmad, the descendant of Hassan, and Ahmad al-Manami as Ahmad from the city of Manama. For further explanation, see Arabic names.

1Also, El-Husseini, Al-Husseini, Husseini, and Hussaini.

2Those who use the term Sayyid for all descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib regard Allawis or Alavis as Sayyids. However, Allawis are not descendants of Muhammad, as they are descended from the children of Ali and the women he married after the death of Fatima, such as Umm ul-Banin (Fatima bint Hizam). Those who limit the term Sayyid to descendants of Muhammad through Fatima, Allawis/Alavis are the same how Sayyids.

Some Sayyids are Najeeb Al Tarfayn, meaning "Noble on both sides", which indicates that both of their parents are Sayyid.

Existence of descendants of Hasan al-AskariEdit

The existence of any descendant of Hasan al Askari is disputed by many people. Some genealogies of Middle Eastern and Central Asian families (mostly from Persia), East Africa (mostly in Somaliland and Ethiopia), Khorasan, Samarqand, and Bukhara show that Hasan al-Askari had a second son called Sayyid Ali Akbar, which indicates that al-Askari had children and substantiates the existence of Muhammad al Mahdi. Whether in fact al-Askari did have children is still disputed, perhaps because of the political conflicts between the followers of the Imamah and the leadership of the Abbasids and Ghulat Shiites who do not believe in Hasan al-Askari's Imamah.[39] Another group of historians studying the pedigrees of some Central Asian saints' shejere (genealogy trees) believe that the Twelfth Imam was not the only son of Hasan al-Askari, and that the Eleventh Imam had two sons: Sayyid Muhammad (i.e., the Shia Mahdi) and Sayyid Ali Akbar.[38][40][37][41] According to the earliest reports as from official family tree documents and records , Imam Hasan al-Askari fathered seven children and was survived by six. The names of his biological children were: Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi, Musa, Ja’far, Ibrahim, Fatima, Ayesha, and ‘Ali, sometimes referred to as Akbar, Asghar or Abdullah.[37][42][41]

 
Sultan Saodat Complex. Mausoleum of the descendants of Hasan al Askari

Sayyid ‘Ali Akbar bin Imam Hasan al-Askari is Sultan Saadat (Sodot) who died in Termez. His burial place is located in the main mausoleum Sultan Saodat memorial complex in Termez.[43][44][45][46][47] According to other old genealogical sources Sayyid Ali was the second son of Sayyid Imam Muhammad al Askari who is considered the elder brother of imam Hasan al-Askari[48][49][50][51][52]

These Central Asian notable sayyid families have historical genealogical manuscripts that are confirmed with seals by many Naqibs, Muftis, Imams, Kadi Kuzzats, A’lams, Khans, and Emirs of those times. One descendant of Sayyid Ali Akbar was Saint Ishan (Eshon) Imlo of Bukhara. Ishan Imlo[53] is called "saint of the last time" in Bukhara,[54] as it is believed that after him there were no more saints – Asian Muslims generally revere him as the last of the saints. According to the source, Ishan Imlo died in 1162 AH (1748–1749); his mausoleum (mazar) is in a cemetery in Bukhara.[54] Notable descendants of Sayyid Ali Akbar are Sufi saints like Bahauddin Naqshband,[55][56][57] descendant after eleven generations;[36] Khwaja Khawand Mahmud known as Hazrat Ishaan, descendant after eighteen generations; the two brothers Sayyid ul Sadaat Sayyid Mir Jan and Sayyid ul Sadaat Mir Sayyid Mahmud Agha, maternal descendants of Hasan al Askari;[36] qadi Qozi Sayyid Bahodirxon;[58][59] and Sufi saints Tajuddin Muhammad Badruddin and Pir Baba.

In her book Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India, Dr. Annemarie Schimmel writes:

Khwaja Mir Dard's family, like many nobles, from Bukhara; led their pedigree back to Baha'uddin Naqshband, after whom the Naqshbandi order is named, and who was a descendant, in the 11th generation of the 11th Shia imam al-Hasan al-Askari.[60]

Although Shiite historians generally reject the claim that Hasan al-Askari fathered children other than Muhammad al-Mahdi, Bab Mawlid Abi Muhammad al-Hasan writes, in the Shiite hadith book Usul al-Kafi:

When the caliph got news of Hasan 'Askari's illness, he instructed his agents to keep a constant watch over the house of the Imam...he sent some of these midwives to examine the slave girls of the Imam to determine if they were pregnant. If a woman was found pregnant she was detained and imprisoned....[36][61][62][63][64][65]

Middle EastEdit

Men belonging to the Sayyid families or tribes in the Arab world used to wear white or ivory coloured daggers like jambiyas, khanjars or shibriyas to demarcate their nobility amongst other Arab men, although this custom has been restricted due to the local laws of the variously divided Arab countries.

IraqEdit

 
Tomb of Abdul Qadir Gilani, regarded as the highest Sayyid with the title Ghause Azam
 
Miniatur on the story of Sayyid Abdul Qadir Gilani

The Sayyid families in Iraq are so numerous that there are books written especially to list the families and connect their trees. Some of these families are: the Alyassiri, Al Aqeeqi, Al-Nasrullah, Al-Wahab, Al-Hashimi,Al-Barznji, Al-Quraishi, Al-Marashi, Al-Witry, Al-Obaidi, Al-Samarai, Al-Zaidi, Al-A'araji, Al-Baka, Al-Hasani, Al-Hussaini, Al-Shahristani, Al-Qazwini Al-Qadri, Tabatabaei, Al- Alawi, Al-Ghawalib (Al-Ghalibi), Al-Musawi, Al-Awadi (not to be confused with the Al-Awadhi Huwala family), Al-Gharawi, Al-Sabzewari, Al-Shubber, Al-Hayali, Al-Kamaludeen, Al-Asadi and many others.[66][67][68]

IranEdit

 
Mausoleum of Imam Reza
 
Mausoleum of Imamzadeh Sayyid Hamza bin Musa al Kazim

Sayyids (in Persian: سید Seyyed) are found in vast numbers in Iran. The Chief of "National Organization for Civil Registration" of Iran declared that more than 1 million of Iranians are Sayyid.[69] The majority of Sayyids migrated to Iran from Arab lands predominantly in the 15th to 17th centuries during the Safavid era. The Safavids transformed the religious landscape of Iran by imposing Twelver Shiism on the populace. Since most of the population embraced Sunni Islam, and an educated version of Shiism was scarce in Iran at the time, Ismail imported a new group of Shia Ulama who predominantly were Sayyids from traditional Shiite centers of the Arabic-speaking lands, such as Jabal Amel (of southern Lebanon), Syria, Bahrain, and southern Iraq in order to create a state clergy. The Safavids offered them land and money in return for loyalty.[70][71][72][73][74] These scholars taught Twelver Shiism, made it accessible to the population, and energetically encouraged conversion to Shiism.[71][72][73][74][75]

During the reign of Shah Abbas the Great, the Safavids also imported to Iran more Arab Shias, predominantly Sayyids, built religious institutions for them, including many Madrasas (religious schools), and successfully persuaded them to participate in the government, which they had shunned in the past (following the Hidden imam doctrine).[76][self-published source?]

Common Sayyid family surnames in Iran are Husseini, Mousavi, Kazemi, Razavi, Eshtehardian, Tabatabaei, Hashemi, Hassani, Jafari, Emami, Ahmadi, Zaidi, Imamzadeh, Sherazi, Kermani (kirmani), Shahidi, and Mahdavi.[citation needed]

BahrainEdit

In Bahrain Sayyids are used to refer to great-grandchildren of Muhammed. Sayyids are found every where and in vast populations although number contradict. Sayyids started living in Bahrain since the beginning of the 8th century. The Bahrainis supported, Imam Ali in his wars in the Camel, Siffin and Nahrawan, and several Bahraini men emerged from the leaders of the Commander of the Faithful including the companion Zayd ibn Suhan al-Abdi who was killed in the Battle of the Camel when he was fighting alongside the Commander of Imam Ali. And the companion Sa'sa'a bin Sohan Al Abdi who was the ambassador of the Commander of the Faithful to Mu`awiyah, and he and Mu`awiyah have many stories that historians have transmitted to us. Historians have called them this title because they agreed on a Thursday that they would die for the sake of the Commander of the Faithful. The tomb of Zayd ibn Suhan is still visited in Bahrain and is called by Bahrainis as Prince Zaid, as well as the tomb of the great companion Sa'sa'a bin Sohan Al Abdi who is buried in Bahrain.[citation needed]

OmanEdit

In Oman, Sayyid is not used for descendants of Muhammad, but by members of the Al Said ruling royal family, who have no connection to Muhammad.[77] The absolute ruler of the country retains the title Sultan with members of the royal family eligible for succession to the throne given the title Sheikh, these may also use the title Sayyid should they wish to, although as Sheikh supersedes this, it is not a widely used practice.[78] Members of the extended family or members by marriage carry the title Sayyid or Sayyida for a female. Such titles in Oman are hereditary through paternal lineage or in some exceptional circumstances, such as an honorary title given by royal decree. Members of the Al Said family use the term Sayyid solely as a title and not as a means of indicating descent, as the Al Said royal family does not descend from Banu Hashim or from Imam Ali and instead descends from the Qahtanite Zahran tribe.[79]

YemenEdit

In Yemen the Sayyids are more generally known as sadah; they are also referred to as Hashemites. In terms of religious practice they are Sunni, Shia, and Sufi. Sayyid families in Yemen include the Rassids, the Qasimids, the Mutawakkilites, the Hamideddins, some Al-Zaidi of Ma'rib, Sana'a, and Sa'dah, the Ba 'Alawi sadah families in Hadhramaut, Mufadhal of Sana'a, Al-Shammam of Sa'dah, the Sufyan of Juban, and the Al-Jaylani of Juban.[80][81][82]

South AsiaEdit

 
Portrait of leading Sayyids who promoted Islam in The Indian subcontinent
 
Portrait of the Initiator of Islam in India, Sayyid Moinuddin Chishti

In South Asia Sunni Sayyids are mostly credited for preaching and consolidating the religion of Islam. They are predominantly descendants of leading saints of Sunni faith that migrated from Persia to preach Islam of which the Persian Sayyid Moinuddin Chishti has set the cornerstone. Thus Moinuddin Chishti is regarded as Sultan-i-Hindustan in Islamic Theology.[83][84] The following saints and their descendants are most well known:

Southeast AsiaEdit

Most of the Alawi Sayyids who moved to Southeast Asia were descendants of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, especially of Ba 'Alawi sada, many of which were descendants of migrants from Hadhramaut. Even though they are alleged descendants of Husayn, it is uncommon for the female Sayyids to be called Sayyidah; they are more commonly called Sharifah. Most of them live in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Moro Province in Philippines, Pattani and Cambodia. Many of the royal families of this region such as the previous royal families of the Philippines (Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao, Confederation of Sultanates of Ranao), Singapore (Sultanate of Singapore), Malaysia (Sultanates of Johor and Perlis), Indonesia (Sultanates of Siak, Pontianak, Gowa, some Javanese Sultanates), and the existing royal family of Brunei (House of Bolkiah) are also Sayyids, especially of Ba'Alawi.[85][86][87][88]

Some common surnames of these Sayyids are al-Saqqaf, Shihab (or Shahab), al-Aidaroos, al-Habsyi (or al-Habshi), al-Kaff, al-Aththos, al-Haddad, al-Jufri (or al-Jifri), al-Muhdhar, al-Shaikh Abubakar, al-Qadri, al-Munawwar.[89]

TesayyudEdit

In the Ottoman Empire, tax breaks for "the People of the House" encouraged many people to buy certificates of descent or forge genealogies; the phenomenon of teseyyüd – falsely claiming noble ancestry – spread across ethnic, class, and religious boundaries. In the 17th century, an Ottoman bureaucrat estimated that there were 300,000 impostors. In 18th-century Anatolia, nearly all upper-class urban people claimed descent from Muhammad.[90][91]

Royal Descendants of MuhammadEdit

Descendants of Muhammad are present in many royal families today and are predominantly of Sunni faith.

Afghan Royal FamilyEdit

 
Sayyid Sultan Masood Dakik and his oldest son Prince Sayyid Raphael Dakik in a meeting with Nangolo Mbumba Vice President of Namibia

Within the Afghan Royal family Her Royal Highness Princess Sayyida Rahima Dakik (d.2006) a member of Sayyid Mir Jan´s powerful Sayyid ul Sadaat Clan that claims hereditary succession to Prophet Muhammad, married the UN Ambassador and Minister HRH Prince Abdul Khaliq from the Telai Cadet Branch of the Muhammadzai Dynasty, making both their descendants the only multilinieal cognatic Sayyids within the Afghan Royal family.[92] Dakik Family fled from Afghanistan on the occasion of the Saur Revolution and are the only Sunni Royal Sayyids that are venerated as Saints and spiritual successors of their ancestor Prophet Muhammad.[93][94][95][96]

Iranian Royal FamilyEdit

QajarEdit

Within the Qajar Dynasty, the Nizari-Ismaili Imam Agha Khan I married with the daughter of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, bestowing confirmed royalty upon their descendants. Until today Prince Karim Aga Khan and his descendants bear the title Prince, in virtue of his lineage to Fath Ali Shah Qajar.[97][98] However many Sunni Historians deny the descent of the First Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah al Mahdi-billah to Prophet Muhammad. They thus polemically call them Ubaydids instead of Fatimids.[99][100][101][102]

PahlaviEdit

Within the Pahlavi Dynasty, the former Empress of Iran Farah Diba Pahlavi, also claims descent from Muhammad through her paternal grandfather Mehdi Diba.[103][104]

GCC Royal familiesEdit

 
Moe Al Thani from the House of Thani and Qasimi. The first descendant of Muhammad to climb up Mt. Everest.

UAEEdit

The Al Qasimi Ruling family that rules over Sharjah and Ras al Khaimah trace their lineage back to Muhammad in the line of the 10th Imam Ali al Hadi.[105][106]

QatarEdit

Within the Qatari Ruling Family, descendants of Muhammad are present within the descendants of the Emir Sheikh Ali ibn Abdullah al Thani on the occasion of intermarriages with the Al Qasimi Dynasty. A UAE Princess from the al Qasimi ruling family, called Sheikha Sheikha bint Muhammad al Qasimi married with Muhammad bin Ali bin Abdullah Al Thani. Together they issued a son who is a Qatari-Sharjan Aviation Statesman called Sheikh Abdullah bin Mohamed. His son is the first descendant of Muhammad to climb Mt. Everest. Another UAE Princess called Sheikha Hind bint Faisal Al Qasimi married Sheikh Abdullah bin Saud al Thani, issuing only one son.[107]

Libyan Royal FamilyEdit

The Sayyids in Libya are Sunni, including the former royal family, which is originally Zaidi-Moroccan (also known as the Senussi family).[108] The El-Barassa Family are Ashraf as claimed by the sons of Abdulsalam ben Meshish, a descendant of Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib.

Sherifs of MeccaEdit

JordanEdit

The Hashemite Royal family of Jordan also claims descent from Muhammad in the line of the Sherifs of Mecca, vassals that were set by the Fatimids and recognized by the Ottomans, tracing their lineage back to Imam Hasan ibn Ali.[109] The Hashemite Royal Family under Sharif Hussein ibn Ali was crucial in ending Ottoman rule in the Arabian Peninsula, on the occasion of the spread of Pan-Turkism in the Arabian Peninsula.[110]

BruneiEdit

The House of Bolkiah claims descent from Imam Hasan ibn Ali through Sharif Ali, the 3rd Sultan of Brunei, who succeeded his father in law as Sultan in virtue of his descent from Muhammad. Sharif Ali formerly served as Emir of Makkah and belonged to the Sherifians, migrating to Brunei for missionary purposes.[111]

Moroccan Royal familyEdit

The Alaouite Royal family of Morocco also claims descent from Muhammad in the line of Imam Hasan ibn Ali. Their pratriarch was Sharif ibn Ali, who founded the dynasty.[112]

Eligibility for the title SayyidEdit

 
The Graves of the three Miran (Grand Sayyids) from left to right: Hazrat Ishaan, Sayyid Mir Jan and Sayyid Mahmud Agha
 
Portrait in Ottoman empire, which allow Sayyid wears green turban to show their identity

Shia versus Sunni OpinionEdit

Shia OpinionEdit

According to Shiites, influenced by the Safavid heritage, the status of being a Sayyid is tribalistic and can only be attributed through patrilineal lineage to Abu Talib.[113][114]

Sunni OpinionEdit

However Sunnis emphacize that only cognatic descent to Muhammad himself, independant if paternally or maternally is acceptable for Sayyidship. Damrel highlights for instance that in the works Maqamat-e-Mahmudiyya of Sayyid Moinuddin Hadi Naqshband, Sayyid Moinuddin predominantly refers to the maternal and cognatic paternal ancestors of his family descending from Muhammad.[115][116] Morimoto also mentions that Ottoman courts made no difference between a descendant of Muhammad through one´s father or mother, accepting both as registered Sayyids with exclusive rights, like f.e. to wear green turbans and to enjoy tax exemptions. Ottoman courts scrutinize the merit and piousness (Taqwa) of a particular descendant of Muhammad in audits, whereupon they receive these legally defined exclusive rights.[117]: 131 [117]: 130 

Non-assimilation of Sunni female SayyidasEdit

In patriarchal societies, women usually have to assimilate themselves into their husband's status. However, this does not affect female descendants of Muhammad as it is seen as a sacred blood relation and superior to any tribal afilliations or dynasties.[117] Even the Zaynabids, the descendants of Lady Zainab, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib can also be titled Sayyid or Sharif, according to the Egyptian Al-Suyuti.[118] In Tajikistan matrilineal descendants are honoured.[119]

Exemplary Sunni Audit of Hazrat IshaanEdit

It is to be added that the supervision over the family of Bahauddin Naqshband and his descendants have defined special auditory requirements for Sayyids based on meritocracy. These rules are derived from Surah Al-Imran Verse 39 of the Quran where God calls John the Baptist (Yahya) a Sayyid for his ascetic lifestyle (Zuhd) and a hadith of Muhammad in which he declares that a hypocrite (Munafiq) or non-Muslim must not be addressed as a "Sayyid" as otherwise God´s wrath will occur.[120][121] Hence it is problematic for orthodox Sunnis in a judicial point of view to call a patrilineal descendant of Ali Ibn Abi Talib a Sayyid, when he does not meet the following criteria defined by Hazrat Ishaan, like piousness (Arabic: Taqwa).[120] As a Grand Sayyid, the Sunni scholar Hazrat Ishaan defined the following rules of eligibility:[21]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also spelt sayid, said,[6] saiyed, seyit, seyd, syed, sayed, sayyed, saiyid, seyed and seyyed.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "What are the top 200 most spoken languages?". Ethnologue. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  3. ^ Al-Jallad, Ahmad (30 May 2011). "Polygenesis in the Arabic Dialects". Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics.
  4. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld – 2010 Report on International Religious Freedom – China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)". Refworld. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  5. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), SIL Ethnologue
  6. ^ a b "Sayyid". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  7. ^ "sayyid" Archived 28 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine (US) and "sayyid". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020.
  8. ^ "sayyid". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  9. ^ Van Arendonk & Graham 1960–2007.
  10. ^ Parwej, Mohammad Khalid (2015). 365 days with Sahabah. Goodword Books. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  11. ^ Ho, Engseng (2006). The graves of Tarim genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93869-4. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  12. ^ Morimoto in Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Societies , introduction;
  13. ^ Morimoto in Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Societies , introduction, p. 7
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SourcesEdit

  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sayad". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

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