A world war is an international conflict which involves most or all of the world's major powers. Conventionally, the term is reserved for two major international conflicts that occurred during the first half of the 20th century, World War I (1914–1918) and World War II (1939–1945), although historians have also described other global conflicts as world wars, such as the Nine Years' War, the War of the Spanish Succession, the Seven Years' War, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the Cold War, and the War on Terror.
The Oxford English Dictionary cited the first known usage in the English language to a Scottish newspaper, The People's Journal, in 1848: "A war among the great powers is now necessarily a world-war." The term "world war" is used by Karl Marx and his associate, Friedrich Engels, in a series of articles published around 1850 called The Class Struggles in France. Rasmus B. Anderson in 1889 described an episode in Teutonic mythology as a "world war" (Swedish: världskrig), justifying this description by a line in an Old Norse epic poem, "Völuspá: folcvig fyrst I heimi" ("The first great war in the world".) German writer August Wilhelm Otto Niemann had used the term "world war" in the title of his anti-British novel, Der Weltkrieg: Deutsche Träume (The World War: German Dreams) in 1904, published in English as The Coming Conquest of England.
The term "first world war" was first used in September 1914 by German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who claimed that "there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared 'European War' ... will become the first world war in the full sense of the word", citing a wire service report in The Indianapolis Star on 20 September 1914. In English, the term "First World War" had been used by Lt-Col. Charles à Court Repington, as a title for his memoirs (published in 1920); he had noted his discussion on the matter with a Major Johnstone of Harvard University in his diary entry of September 10, 1918.
The term "World War I" was coined by Time magazine on page 28b of its June 12, 1939 issue. In the same article, on page 32, the term "World War II" was first used speculatively to describe the upcoming war. The first use for the actual war came in its issue of September 11, 1939. One week earlier, on September 4, the day after France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany, the Danish newspaper Kristeligt Dagblad used the term on its front page, saying "The Second World War broke out yesterday at 11 a.m."
Speculative fiction authors had been noting the concept of a Second World War in 1919 and 1920, when Milo Hastings wrote his dystopian novel, City of Endless Night.
Other languages have also adopted the "world war" terminology, for example; in French: "world war" is translated as guerre mondiale, in German: Weltkrieg (which, prior to the war, had been used in the more abstract meaning of a global conflict), in Italian: guerra mondiale, in Spanish and Portuguese: guerra mundial, in Danish and Norwegian: verdenskrig, in Russian: мировая война (mirovaya voyna), and in Finnish: maailmansota.
First World WarEdit
World War I occurred from 1914 to 1918. In terms of human technological history, the scale of World War I was enabled by the technological advances of the second industrial revolution and the resulting globalization that allowed global power projection and mass production of military hardware. It had been recognized that the complex system of opposing military alliances (the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires against the British, Russian, and French Empires) was likely, if war broke out, to lead to a worldwide conflict. That caused a very minute conflict between two countries to have the potential to set off a domino effect of alliances, triggering a world war. The fact that the powers involved had large overseas empires virtually guaranteed that such a war would be worldwide, as the colonies' resources would be a crucial strategic factor. The same strategic considerations also ensured that the combatants would strike at each other's colonies, thus spreading the wars far more widely than those of pre-Columbian times.[further explanation needed]
War crimes were perpetrated in World War I. Chemical weapons were used in the war despite the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 having outlawed the use of such weapons in warfare. The Ottoman Empire was responsible for the Armenian genocide, during the First World War, as well as other war crimes.
Second World WarEdit
The Second World War occurred from 1939 to 1945 and is the only conflict in which nuclear weapons have been used; both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the Japanese Empire, were devastated by atomic bombs dropped by the United States. Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, was responsible for genocides, most notably the Holocaust, the killing of about 6,000,000 Jews and the killing of 11,000,000 others who were persecuted by the Nazis, including Romani people and homosexuals. The United States, the Soviet Union, and Canada deported and interned minority groups within their own borders and, largely because of the conflict, many ethnic Germans were later expelled from Eastern Europe. Japan was responsible for attacking neutral nations without a declaration of war, such as the attack on Pearl Harbor. It is also known for its brutal treatment and killing of Allied prisoners of war and the inhabitants of Asia. It also used Asians as forced laborers and was responsible for the Nanjing Massacre in which 250,000 civilians were brutally murdered by Japanese troops. Noncombatants suffered at least as badly as or worse than combatants, and the distinction between combatants and noncombatants was often blurred by the belligerents of total war in both conflicts.
The outcome of the war had a profound effect on the course of world history. The old European empires collapsed or they were dismantled as a direct result of the crushing costs of the war and in some cases, their fall was caused by the defeat of imperial powers. The United States became firmly established as the dominant global superpower, along with its close competitor and ideological foe, the Soviet Union. The two superpowers exerted political influence over most of the world's nation-states for decades after the end of the Second World War. The modern international security, economic, and diplomatic system was created in the aftermath of the war.
Institutions such as the United Nations were established to collectivize international affairs, with the explicit goal of preventing another outbreak of general war. The wars had also greatly changed the course of daily life. Technologies developed during wartime had a profound effect on peacetime life as well, such as by advances in jet aircraft, penicillin, nuclear energy, and electronic computers.
Potential Third World WarEdit
Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the Second World War, there has been a widespread and prolonged fear of a potential third World War between nuclear-armed powers. It is often suggested that it would become a nuclear war, and be more devastating and violent than both the First and Second World Wars. Albert Einstein is often quoted as having said in 1947 that "I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones." It has been anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities, and it has also been explored in fiction in many countries. Scenarios have ranged from conventional warfare to limited or total nuclear warfare.
Various former government officials, politicians, authors, and military leaders (including James Woolsey, Alexandre de Marenches, Eliot Cohen, and Subcomandante Marcos) have attempted to apply the labels of the "Third World War" and the "Fourth World War" to various past and present global wars since the end of the Second World War, such as the Cold War and the War on Terror respectively. However, none of the wars have commonly been deemed world wars.
During the early 21st century, the war in Afghanistan (2001–2021), the Arab Spring (2010–2012), the Syrian civil war (2011–present), the war in Iraq (2013–2017), the Russo-Ukrainian War (2014–present), the Yemeni Civil War (2014–present), the 2022 Kazakh unrest, and their worldwide spillovers are sometimes described as proxy wars waged by the United States and Russia, which led some commentators[who?] to characterize the situation as a "proto-world war" with many countries embroiled in overlapping conflicts.
Other global conflictsEdit
The Late Bronze Age collapse has been described as "World War Zero" by some historians.
Some historians consider the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) to have been a world war. Historians Richard F. Hamilton and Holger H. Herwig include it among a list of eight world wars, including the two generally agreed upon world wars plus these six others: the Nine Years' War (1689–1697), the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), the Seven Years' War, the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802), and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). British historian John Robert Seeley dubbed all of those wars between France and Great Britain (later the UK) between 1689 and 1815 (including the American Revolutionary War from 1775–1783) as the Second Hundred Years' War, echoing an earlier period of conflict between France and England known as the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453). Although that period included the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720) in which France and Great Britain were on the same side. Some writers have referred to the American Revolutionary War alone as a world war.
Other historians suggest even earlier conflicts to be world wars. For example, the Russian ethnologist L. N. Gumilyov called the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 as "the World War of the 7th century", as it evolved in a war between the fourfold alliance of the Chinese Empire, the Western Turkic Khaganate, the Khazars, and Byzantine Empire against a triple union of Sasanian Empire, the Avars, and the Eastern Turkic Kaganates, with proxy conflicts in Afro-Eurasia (like the Aksumite–Persian wars) and across the Old World. Others consider that the Ottoman–Portuguese confrontations and Ottoman–Habsburg wars can be considered as world conflicts, prototypes of the "Great Game" in Eurasia and the Scramble for Africa, but between two main power-projecting and religious blocs, that being the Ottomans, as holders of the Muslim Caliph title, and the Habsburgs, as emperors of Christendom.
However, the Americas and Oceania were not involved in those conflicts, in which case, other historians consider the Thirty Years' War and Eighty Years' War as the first global conflict, pitting the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire against the French colonial empire, Dutch Empire, British Empire, and their allies (mostly Protestants) across the 5 continents.
Another possible example is the Second Congo War (1998–2003) even though it was only waged on one continent. It involved nine nations and led to ongoing low-intensity warfare despite an official peace and the first democratic elections in 2006. It has frequently been referred to as "Africa's World War".
- ^ Webster, Merriam-. "World War". Merriam-Webster.com. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- ^ Engels, Frederick. "Introduction to Borkheim". Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. Retrieved 2015-03-01.
- ^ Rasmus Björn Anderson (translator: Viktor Rydberg), Teutonic Mythology, vol. 1, p. 139 Archived 2020-01-26 at the Wayback Machine, London: S. Sonnenschein & Co., 1889 OCLC 626839.
- ^ Shapiro & Epstein 2006, p. 329.
- ^ Proffitt, Michael (2014-06-13). "Chief Editor's notes June 2014". Oxford English Dictionary's blog. Archived from the original on 2022-04-15. Retrieved 2022-04-25.
- ^ "The First World War". Quite Interesting. Archived from the original on 2014-01-03. Also aired on QI Series I Episode 2, 16 September 2011, BBC Two.
- ^ "Grey Friday: TIME Reports on World War II Beginning". TIME. September 11, 1939. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
World War II began last week at 5:20 a. m. (Polish time) Friday, September 1, when a German bombing plane dropped a projectile on Puck, fishing village and airbase in the armpit of the Hel Peninsula.
- ^ "Den anden Verdenskrig udbrød i Gaar Middags Kl. 11", Kristeligt Dagblad, September 4, 1939, Extra edition.
- ^ "Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution". encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Archived from the original on 2020-02-20. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
- ^ a b c "World War". Archived from the original on 11 November 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- ^ Biggs, Lindy and Hansen, James (editors), 2004, Readings in Technology and Civilisation, ISBN 0-7593-3869-8.
- ^ Worland, Rick, 2006, The Horror Film: An Introduction, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1-4051-3902-1.
- ^ Calaprice, Alice (2005). The new quotable Einstein. Princeton University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-691-12075-1.
- ^ "The culture of Einstein". NBC News. 2005-04-19. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- ^ "24 Jun 1948, Page 4 - The Berkshire Eagle at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on 2022-04-22. Retrieved 2022-04-22.
- ^ "Did Albert Einstein Say World War IV Will be Fought 'With Sticks and Stones'?". Snopes.com. Archived from the original on 2022-04-22. Retrieved 2022-04-22.
- ^ "World War IV". 2002. Archived from the original on 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2010-02-04.Woolsey claims victory in WWIII, start of WWIV
- ^ Andelman, Professor David; Marenches, Comte Alexandre de; Marenches, Count De; Andelman, David (1992). The Fourth World War: Diplomacy and Espionage ... ISBN 0688092187.Book regarding alleged WWIV
- ^ "World War IV: Let's call this conflict what it is". 2001. Archived from the original on 2010-03-27. Retrieved 2010-02-04.Why war on terrorism should be called WWIV
- ^ Subcomandante Marcos (2001). "The Fourth World War Has Begun". Nepantla: Views from South. 2 (3): 559–572. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- ^ Anne Barnard and Karen Shoumali (12 October 2015). "U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria Into Proxy War With Russia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- ^ Martin Pengelly (4 October 2015). "John McCain says US is engaged in proxy war with Russia in Syria". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- ^ Holly Yan and Mark Morgenstein (13 October 2015). "U.S., Russia escalate involvement in Syria". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- ^ Taub, Amanda (1 October 2015). ""The Russians have made a serious mistake": how Putin's Syria gambit will backfire". Vox. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- ^ "Untangling the Overlapping Conflicts in the Syrian War". The New York Times. 18 October 2015. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- ^ "World War Zero brought down mystery civilisation of 'sea people'". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 2018-04-21. Retrieved 2018-04-21.
- ^ "Why the first world war wasn't really". The Economist. 2014-07-01. Archived from the original on 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Hamilton, Richard F.; Herwig, Holger H. (24 February 2003). "Chapter 1: World Wars: Definition and Causes". In Richard F. Hamilton; Holger H. Herwig (eds.). The Origins of World War I. Cambridge University Press. pp. 4–9. ISBN 978-1-107-39386-8. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
- ^ a b c David K. Allison; Larrie D. Ferreiro, eds. (6 November 2018). The American Revolution: A World War. Smithsonian Institution. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-58834-659-9. OCLC 1061862132. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
- ^ Gumilyov L. N. Ancient Turks. Chapter XV. World War VII. - M. : Iris-Press, 2009. - 560 p. — (Library of history and culture). ISBN 978-5-8112-3742-5
- ^ Crowley, Roger Empires of the Sea: The siege of Malta, the battle of Lepanto and the contest for the center of the world, Random House, 2008
- ^ "The Ottoman 'Discovery' of the Indian Ocean in the Sixteenth Century: The Age of Exploration from an Islamic Perspective | History Cooperative". 2021-08-22. Retrieved 2023-05-04.
- ^ "Trettioåriga kriget". Historiska Media (in Swedish). Retrieved 2023-03-27.
- ^ Written by Felix Velazquez Lopez. With the collaboration of several academics from universities in Spain. Produced by Premium Cinema. (2010). «The History of the Greatest Empire Ever Known: Chapter 5, Felipe III (Los Austrias)».
- ^ Pike, John (2023-01-16). The Thirty Years War, 1618 - 1648: The First Global War and the End of Habsburg Supremacy. Pen & Sword Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-5267-7575-7.
- ^ "Globalizing the Thirty Years War: Early German Newspapers and their Geopolitical Perspective on the Atlantic World". academic.oup.com. Retrieved 2023-04-04.
- ^ Prunier, Gerard (2014). Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 9780195374209. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- ^ John Charles Roger Childs; John Childs (1991). The Nine Years' War and the British Army, 1688–1697: The Operations in the Low Countries. Manchester University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7190-3461-9. OCLC 1166971747. Archived from the original on 2022-01-21. Retrieved 2022-01-21.
- ^ a b Eliot A. Cohen (13 November 2012). Conquered Into Liberty: Two Centuries of Battles Along the Great Warpath that Made the American Way of War. Simon and Schuster. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-4516-2411-3. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
- ^ Alexander Gillespie (14 January 2021). The Causes of War: Volume IV: 1650 – 1800. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 452. ISBN 978-1-5099-1218-6. OCLC 1232140043. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
- ^ Urlanis, Boris Cezarevič (1971). Wars and Population. Progress Publishing. p. 187.
- ^ Levy, Jack (2014). War in the Modern Great Power System: 1495 to 1975. University of Kentucky. p. 90. ISBN 978-0813163659.
- ^ John A. Lynn (19 December 2013). The Wars of Louis XIV 1667–1714. Routledge. p. 261. ISBN 978-1-317-89951-8. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
- ^ a b "WW1: Was it really the first world war?". BBC News. 28 June 2014. Archived from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- ^ Hodgson, Quentin E (2001). "The First Global War". SAIS Review. 21 (1): 291–294. doi:10.1353/sais.2001.0016. ISSN 1945-4724. S2CID 154584277. Archived from the original on 2018-06-01. Retrieved 2022-01-20.
- ^ White, Matthew (2012). The Great Big Book of Horrible Things: The Definitive Chronicle of History's 100 Worst Atrocities. W. W. Norton. pp. 529–530. ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3.
- ^ "1812: The First World War". Age of Revolution. Archived from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- ^ Charles Esdaile "Napoleon's Wars: An International History".
- ^ Willmott 2003, p. 307
- ^ "Emerging Infectious Diseases journal – CDC". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2017-09-18.
- ^ Wallechinsky, David (1996-09-01). David Wallechinskys 20th Century: History With the Boring Parts Left Out. Little Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-92056-8.
- ^ Fink, George: Stress of War, Conflict and Disaster
- ^ a b "Human costs of war: Direct war death in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan October 2001 – February 2013" (PDF). Costs of War. February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- ^ "Update on Iraqi Casualty Data" Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine by Opinion Research Business. January 2008.
- ^ "Revised Casualty Analysis. New Analysis 'Confirms' 1 Million+ Iraq Casualties" Archived 2009-02-19 at the Wayback Machine. January 28, 2008. Opinion Research Business. Word Viewer for.doc files "Unknown". Retrieved June 14, 2022.[dead link].
- Shapiro, Fred R.; Epstein, Joseph (2006). The Yale Book of Quotations. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10798-2.
- Willmott, H.P. (2003). World War I. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7894-9627-0. OCLC 52541937.
- This is the Fourth World War, an interview with philosopher Jean Baudrillard